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Yelong Shen, NhatHai Phan, Xiao Xiao, Ruoming Jin, Junfeng Sun, Brigitte Piniewski, David Kil, Dejing Dou
Modeling and predicting human behaviors, such as the level and intensity of physical activity, is a key to preventing the cascade of obesity and helping spread healthy behaviors in a social network. In our conference paper, we have developed a social influence model, named Socialized Gaussian Process (SGP), for socialized human behavior modeling. Instead of explicitly modeling social influence as individuals' behaviors influenced by their friends' previous behaviors, SGP models the dynamic social correlation as the result of social influence...
November 2016: Knowledge and Information Systems
Qiongmin Zhang, Qizhu Wu, Junran Zhang, Ling He, Jiangtao Huang, Jiang Zhang, Hua Huang, Qiyong Gong
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is by nature a multi-modality technique that provides complementary information about different aspects of diseases. So far no attempts have been reported to assess the potential of multi-modal MRI in discriminating individuals with and without migraine, so in this study, we proposed a classification approach to examine whether or not the integration of multiple MRI features could improve the classification performance between migraine patients without aura (MWoA) and healthy controls...
2016: PloS One
Zehui Zhan, Lei Zhang, Hu Mei, Patrick S W Fong
The detection of university online learners' reading ability is generally problematic and time-consuming. Thus the eye-tracking sensors have been employed in this study, to record temporal and spatial human eye movements. Learners' pupils, blinks, fixation, saccade, and regression are recognized as primary indicators for detecting reading abilities. A computational model is established according to the empirical eye-tracking data, and applying the multi-feature regularization machine learning mechanism based on a Low-rank Constraint...
2016: Sensors
Jian Zhang, Bo Gao, Haiting Chai, Zhiqiang Ma, Guifu Yang
BACKGROUND: DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) play fundamental roles in many biological processes. Therefore, the developing of effective computational tools for identifying DBPs is becoming highly desirable. RESULTS: In this study, we proposed an accurate method for the prediction of DBPs. Firstly, we focused on the challenge of improving DBP prediction accuracy with information solely from the sequence. Secondly, we used multiple informative features to encode the protein...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Paniz Tavakoli, Kenneth Campbell
OBJECTIVE: A rarely occurring and highly relevant auditory stimulus occurring outside of the current focus of attention can cause a switching of attention. Such attention capture is often studied in oddball paradigms consisting of a frequently occurring "standard" stimulus which is changed at odd times to form a "deviant". The deviant may result in the capturing of attention. An auditory ERP, the P3a, is often associated with this process. To collect a sufficient amount of data is however very time-consuming...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Xiaopeng Yang, Tao Mei, Yong Dong Zhang, Jie Liu, Shin'ichi Satoh
In image search re-ranking, besides the well known semantic gap, intent gap, which is the gap between the representation of users' query/demand and the real intent of the users, is becoming a major problem restricting the development of image retrieval. To reduce human effects, in this paper, we use image click-through data, which can be viewed as the "implicit feedback" from users, to help overcome the intention gap, and further improve the image search performance. Generally, the hypothesis visually similar images should be close in a ranking list and the strategy images with higher relevance should be ranked higher than others are widely accepted...
July 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Samantha J Broyd, Patricia T Michie, Jason Bruggemann, Hendrika H van Hell, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Rodney J Croft, Juanita Todd, Rhoshel Lenroot, Nadia Solowij
Schizophrenia may be conceptualised using a dimensional approach to examine trait-like expression such as schizotypy within non-clinical populations to better understand pathophysiology. A candidate psychosis-risk marker, the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is thought to index the functionality of glutamatergic NMDA receptor mediated neurotransmission. Although the MMN is robustly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, the association between MMN and schizotypy in the general population is under-investigated...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Yue Deng, Steven J Altschuler, Lani F Wu
MOTIVATION: Quantification of cellular changes to perturbations can provide a powerful approach to infer crosstalk among molecular components in biological networks. Existing crosstalk inference methods conduct network-structure learning based on a single phenotypic feature (e.g. abundance) of a biomarker. These approaches are insufficient for analyzing perturbation data that can contain information about multiple features (e.g. abundance, activity or localization) of each biomarker. RESULTS: We propose a computational framework for inferring phenotypic crosstalk (PHOCOS) that is suitable for high-content microscopy or other modalities that capture multiple phenotypes per biomarker...
June 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
Chiara Cantiani, Valentina Riva, Caterina Piazza, Roberta Bettoni, Massimo Molteni, Naseem Choudhury, Cecilia Marino, April A Benasich
Infants' ability to discriminate between auditory stimuli presented in rapid succession and differing in fundamental frequency (Rapid Auditory Processing [RAP] abilities) has been shown to be anomalous in infants at familial risk for Language Learning Impairment (LLI) and to predict later language outcomes. This study represents the first attempt to investigate RAP in Italian infants at risk for LLI (FH+), examining two critical acoustic features: frequency and duration, both embedded in a rapidly-presented acoustic environment...
August 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
P Kaukinen, J Podlipská, A Guermazi, J Niinimäki, P Lehenkari, F W Roemer, M T Nieminen, J M Koski, J P A Arokoski, S Saarakkala
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between multi-feature structural pathology assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the presence of knee pain, and to determine the associations between the locations of structural changes and different knee pain patterns. METHOD: Eighty symptomatic subjects with knee pain and suspicion or diagnosis of knee OA and 63 asymptomatic subjects underwent knee MRI. Severity of structural changes was graded by MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) in separate knee locations...
September 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Bin Li, QingLin Chen, Guangming Peng, Yuanxing Guo, Kan Chen, LianFang Tian, Shanxing Ou, Lifei Wang
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nodules in computerized tomography (CT) images are potential manifestations of lung cancer. Segmentation of potential nodule objects is the first necessary and crucial step in computer-aided detection system of pulmonary nodules. The segmentation of various types of nodules, especially for ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules and juxta-vascular nodules, present various challenges. The nodule with GGO characteristic possesses typical intensity inhomogeneity and weak edges, which is difficult to define the boundary; the juxta-vascular nodule is connected to a vessel, and they have very similar intensities...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Gabriel Núñez-Vivanco, Alejandro Valdés-Jiménez, Felipe Besoaín, Miguel Reyes-Parada
BACKGROUND: Since the structure of proteins is more conserved than the sequence, the identification of conserved three-dimensional (3D) patterns among a set of proteins, can be important for protein function prediction, protein clustering, drug discovery and the establishment of evolutionary relationships. Thus, several computational applications to identify, describe and compare 3D patterns (or motifs) have been developed. Often, these tools consider a 3D pattern as that described by the residues surrounding co-crystallized/docked ligands available from X-ray crystal structures or homology models...
2016: Journal of Cheminformatics
Caterina Piazza, Chiara Cantiani, Zeynep Akalin-Acar, Makoto Miyakoshi, April A Benasich, Gianluigi Reni, Anna Maria Bianchi, Scott Makeig
The abilities of infants to perceive basic acoustic differences, essential for language development, can be studied using auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). However, scalp-channel averaged ERPs sum volume-conducted contributions from many cortical areas, reducing the functional specificity and interpretability of channel-based ERP measures. This study represents the first attempt to investigate rapid auditory processing in infancy using independent component analysis (ICA), allowing exploration of source-resolved ERP dynamics and identification of ERP cortical generators...
June 2016: NeuroImage
Hagit Magen
Efficient performance in an environment filled with complex objects is often achieved through the temporal maintenance of conjunctions of features from multiple dimensions. The most striking finding in the study of binding in visual short-term memory (VSTM) is equal memory performance for single features and for integrated multi-feature objects, a finding that has been central to several theories of VSTM. Nevertheless, research on binding in VSTM focused almost exclusively on low-level features, and little is known about how items from low- and high-level visual dimensions (e...
February 22, 2016: Psychological Research
Geoffrey Roman-Jimenez, Renaud De Crevoisier, Julie Leseur, Anne Devillers, Juan David Ospina, Antoine Simon, Pierre Terve, Oscar Acosta
Positron emission tomography using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG-PET) is a widely used imaging modality in oncology. It enables significant functional information to be included in analyses of anatomical data provided by other image modalities. Although PET offers high sensitivity in detecting suspected malignant metabolism, (18)F-FDG uptake is not tumor-specific and can also be fixed in surrounding healthy tissue, which may consequently be mistaken as cancerous. PET analyses may be particularly hampered in pelvic-located cancers by the bladder׳s physiological uptake potentially obliterating the tumor uptake...
April 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Peter Vuust, Lari Liikala, Risto Näätänen, Pauli Brattico, Elvira Brattico
OBJECTIVE: Mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) in response to auditory-expectancy violation, is sensitive to central auditory processing deficits associated with several clinical conditions and to auditory skills deriving from musical expertise. This sensitivity is more evident for stimuli integrated in complex sound contexts. This study tested whether increasing magnitudes of deviation (levels) entail increasing MMN amplitude (or decreasing latency), aiming to create a balanced version of the musical multi-feature paradigm towards measurement of extensive auditory discrimination profiles in auditory expertise or deficits...
April 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Zhen Mu, Yi Chang, Jing Xu, Xiaomei Pang, Huimin Zhang, Xiaowei Liu, Ya Zheng, Xuemei Liu, Xiaojing Liu, Yuan Wan
BACKGROUND: Deficits of pre-attentive information processing have been frequently found in patients with major depressive disorder, nevertheless the results are quite inconsistent due to clinical heterogeneity and methodological difference. Cognitive processing of music is a useful tool for investigating human cognition and its underlying brain mechanisms. Although general auditory processing and perception of musical sound are hampered in patients with MDD, whether the deficits in musical processing begin from pre-attentive stage is not well investigated yet...
April 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Shuqiong Fan, Fen Miao, Ruiqing Ma, Ye Li, Xuhui Huang
Abnormal ST segment is an important parameter for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and other heart diseases. As most abnormal ST segments sustain for only a few seconds, it is impractical for the doctors to detect and classify abnormal ones manually on time. Even though many ST segment classification algorithms are proposed to meet the rising demand of automatic myocardial ischemia diagnosis, they are often with lower recognition rate. The aim of this study is to detect abnormal ST segments precisely and classify them into more categories, and thus provide more detailed category information to help the clinicians make decisions...
August 2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Sini Haapala, Elina Niemitalo-Haapola, Antti Raappana, Tiia Kujala, Kalervo Suominen, Eira Jansson-Verkasalo, Teija Kujala
BACKGROUND: A large group of young children are exposed to repetitive middle ear infections but the effects of the fluctuating hearing sensations on immature central auditory system are not fully understood. The present study investigated the consequences of early childhood recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) on involuntary auditory attention switching. METHODS: By utilizing auditory event-related potentials, neural mechanisms of involuntary attention were studied in 22-26 month-old children (N = 18) who had had an early childhood RAOM and healthy controls (N = 19)...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Ndubuisi G Orji, Hiroshi Itoh, Chumei Wang, Ronald G Dixson, Peter S Walecki, Sebastian W Schmidt, Bernd Irmer
In atomic force microscopy (AFM) metrology, the tip is a key source of uncertainty. Images taken with an AFM show a change in feature width and shape that depends on tip geometry. This geometric dilation is more pronounced when measuring features with high aspect ratios, and makes it difficult to obtain absolute dimensions. In order to accurately measure nanoscale features using an AFM, the tip dimensions should be known with a high degree of precision. We evaluate a new AFM tip characterizer, and apply it to critical dimension AFM (CD-AFM) tips used for high aspect ratio features...
March 2016: Ultramicroscopy
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