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Xu Ma, Yongmei Cheng, Shuai Hao
Automatic classification of terrain surfaces from an aerial image is essential for an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing at an unprepared site by using vision. Diverse terrain surfaces may show similar spectral properties due to the illumination and noise that easily cause poor classification performance. To address this issue, a multi-stage classification algorithm based on low-rank recovery and multi-feature fusion sparse representation is proposed. First, color moments and Gabor texture feature are extracted from training data and stacked as column vectors of a dictionary...
December 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Magnus Andersson, Jonas Lantz, Tino Ebbers, Matts Karlsson
Wall shear stress (WSS) disturbances are commonly expressed at sites of abnormal flow obstructions and may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases. In laminar flows these disturbances have recently been assessed by the transverse wall shear stress (transWSS), which accounts for the WSS multidirectionality. Site-specific estimations of WSS disturbances in pulsatile transitional and turbulent type of flows are more challenging due to continuous and unpredictable changes in WSS behavior...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Huile Xu, Jinyi Liu, Haibo Hu, Yi Zhang
Wearable sensors-based human activity recognition introduces many useful applications and services in health care, rehabilitation training, elderly monitoring and many other areas of human interaction. Existing works in this field mainly focus on recognizing activities by using traditional features extracted from Fourier transform (FT) or wavelet transform (WT). However, these signal processing approaches are suitable for a linear signal but not for a nonlinear signal. In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for dealing with activity data with properties such as nonlinearity and non-stationarity...
December 2, 2016: Sensors
Can Wang, Jianxin Peng, Lijuan Song, Xiaowen Zhang
Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a serious respiratory disorder. Snoring is the most intuitively characteristic symptom of OSAHS. Recently, many studies have attempted to develop snore analysis technology for diagnosing OSAHS. The preliminary and essential step in such diagnosis is to automatically segment snoring sounds from original sleep sounds. This study presents an automatic snoring detection algorithm that detects potential snoring episodes using an adaptive effective-value threshold method, linear and nonlinear feature extraction using maximum power ratio, sum of positive/negative amplitudes, 500 Hz power ratio, spectral entropy (SE) and sample entropy (SampEn), and automatic snore/nonsnore classification using a support vector machine...
December 1, 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Nicol S Harper, Oliver Schoppe, Ben D B Willmore, Zhanfeng Cui, Jan W H Schnupp, Andrew J King
Cortical sensory neurons are commonly characterized using the receptive field, the linear dependence of their response on the stimulus. In primary auditory cortex neurons can be characterized by their spectrotemporal receptive fields, the spectral and temporal features of a sound that linearly drive a neuron. However, receptive fields do not capture the fact that the response of a cortical neuron results from the complex nonlinear network in which it is embedded. By fitting a nonlinear feedforward network model (a network receptive field) to cortical responses to natural sounds, we reveal that primary auditory cortical neurons are sensitive over a substantially larger spectrotemporal domain than is seen in their standard spectrotemporal receptive fields...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Xiaoxu He, Heye Zhang, Mark Landis, Manas Sharma, James Warrington, Shuo Li
As a common disease in the elderly, neural foramina stenosis (NFS) brings a significantly negative impact on the quality of life due to its symptoms including pain, disability, fall risk and depression. Accurate boundary delineation is essential to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of NFS. However, existing clinical routine is extremely tedious and inefficient due to the requirement of physicians' intensively manual delineation. Automated delineation is highly needed but faces big challenges from the complexity and variability in neural foramina images...
October 29, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Jiefeng Jiang, Christopher Summerfield, Tobias Egner
: Visual cognition is thought to rely heavily on contextual expectations. Accordingly, previous studies have revealed distinct neural signatures for expected versus unexpected stimuli in visual cortex. However, it is presently unknown how the brain combines multiple concurrent stimulus expectations such as those we have for different features of a familiar object. To understand how an unexpected object feature affects the simultaneous processing of other expected feature(s), we combined human fMRI with a task that independently manipulated expectations for color and motion features of moving-dot stimuli...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Paola Lecca, Angela Re
A long-standing paradigm in drug discovery has been the concept of designing maximally selective drugs to act on individual targets considered to underlie a disease of interest. Nonetheless, although some drugs have proven to be successful, many more potential drugs identified by the "one gene, one drug, one disease" approach have been found to be less effective than expected or to cause notable side effects. Advances in systems biology and high-throughput in-depth genomic profiling technologies along with an analysis of the successful and failed drugs uncovered that the prominent factor to determine drug sensitivity is the intrinsic robustness of the response of biological systems in the face of perturbations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kun Qian, Christoph Janott, Vedhas Pandit, Zixing Zhang, Clemens Heiser, Winfried Hohenhorst, Michael Herzog, Werner Hemmert, Bjoern Schuller
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a serious chronic disease and a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Snoring is a typical symptom of OSA patients. Knowledge of the origin of obstruction and vibration within the upper airways is essential for a targeted surgical approach. Aim of this paper is to systematically compare different acoustic features, and classifiers for their performance in the classification of the excitation location of snore sounds. METHODS: Snore sounds from 40 male patients have been recorded during Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy, and categorized by ENT experts...
October 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Yelong Shen, NhatHai Phan, Xiao Xiao, Ruoming Jin, Junfeng Sun, Brigitte Piniewski, David Kil, Dejing Dou
Modeling and predicting human behaviors, such as the level and intensity of physical activity, is a key to preventing the cascade of obesity and helping spread healthy behaviors in a social network. In our conference paper, we have developed a social influence model, named Socialized Gaussian Process (SGP), for socialized human behavior modeling. Instead of explicitly modeling social influence as individuals' behaviors influenced by their friends' previous behaviors, SGP models the dynamic social correlation as the result of social influence...
November 2016: Knowledge and Information Systems
Qiongmin Zhang, Qizhu Wu, Junran Zhang, Ling He, Jiangtao Huang, Jiang Zhang, Hua Huang, Qiyong Gong
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is by nature a multi-modality technique that provides complementary information about different aspects of diseases. So far no attempts have been reported to assess the potential of multi-modal MRI in discriminating individuals with and without migraine, so in this study, we proposed a classification approach to examine whether or not the integration of multiple MRI features could improve the classification performance between migraine patients without aura (MWoA) and healthy controls...
2016: PloS One
Zehui Zhan, Lei Zhang, Hu Mei, Patrick S W Fong
The detection of university online learners' reading ability is generally problematic and time-consuming. Thus the eye-tracking sensors have been employed in this study, to record temporal and spatial human eye movements. Learners' pupils, blinks, fixation, saccade, and regression are recognized as primary indicators for detecting reading abilities. A computational model is established according to the empirical eye-tracking data, and applying the multi-feature regularization machine learning mechanism based on a Low-rank Constraint...
September 10, 2016: Sensors
Jian Zhang, Bo Gao, Haiting Chai, Zhiqiang Ma, Guifu Yang
BACKGROUND: DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) play fundamental roles in many biological processes. Therefore, the developing of effective computational tools for identifying DBPs is becoming highly desirable. RESULTS: In this study, we proposed an accurate method for the prediction of DBPs. Firstly, we focused on the challenge of improving DBP prediction accuracy with information solely from the sequence. Secondly, we used multiple informative features to encode the protein...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Paniz Tavakoli, Kenneth Campbell
OBJECTIVE: A rarely occurring and highly relevant auditory stimulus occurring outside of the current focus of attention can cause a switching of attention. Such attention capture is often studied in oddball paradigms consisting of a frequently occurring "standard" stimulus which is changed at odd times to form a "deviant". The deviant may result in the capturing of attention. An auditory ERP, the P3a, is often associated with this process. To collect a sufficient amount of data is however very time-consuming...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Xiaopeng Yang, Tao Mei, Yong Dong Zhang, Jie Liu, Shin'ichi Satoh
In image search re-ranking, besides the well known semantic gap, intent gap, which is the gap between the representation of users' query/demand and the real intent of the users, is becoming a major problem restricting the development of image retrieval. To reduce human effects, in this paper, we use image click-through data, which can be viewed as the "implicit feedback" from users, to help overcome the intention gap, and further improve the image search performance. Generally, the hypothesis visually similar images should be close in a ranking list and the strategy images with higher relevance should be ranked higher than others are widely accepted...
July 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Samantha J Broyd, Patricia T Michie, Jason Bruggemann, Hendrika H van Hell, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Rodney J Croft, Juanita Todd, Rhoshel Lenroot, Nadia Solowij
Schizophrenia may be conceptualised using a dimensional approach to examine trait-like expression such as schizotypy within non-clinical populations to better understand pathophysiology. A candidate psychosis-risk marker, the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is thought to index the functionality of glutamatergic NMDA receptor mediated neurotransmission. Although the MMN is robustly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, the association between MMN and schizotypy in the general population is under-investigated...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Yue Deng, Steven J Altschuler, Lani F Wu
MOTIVATION: Quantification of cellular changes to perturbations can provide a powerful approach to infer crosstalk among molecular components in biological networks. Existing crosstalk inference methods conduct network-structure learning based on a single phenotypic feature (e.g. abundance) of a biomarker. These approaches are insufficient for analyzing perturbation data that can contain information about multiple features (e.g. abundance, activity or localization) of each biomarker. RESULTS: We propose a computational framework for inferring phenotypic crosstalk (PHOCOS) that is suitable for high-content microscopy or other modalities that capture multiple phenotypes per biomarker...
June 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
Chiara Cantiani, Valentina Riva, Caterina Piazza, Roberta Bettoni, Massimo Molteni, Naseem Choudhury, Cecilia Marino, April A Benasich
Infants' ability to discriminate between auditory stimuli presented in rapid succession and differing in fundamental frequency (Rapid Auditory Processing [RAP] abilities) has been shown to be anomalous in infants at familial risk for Language Learning Impairment (LLI) and to predict later language outcomes. This study represents the first attempt to investigate RAP in Italian infants at risk for LLI (FH+), examining two critical acoustic features: frequency and duration, both embedded in a rapidly-presented acoustic environment...
August 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
P Kaukinen, J Podlipská, A Guermazi, J Niinimäki, P Lehenkari, F W Roemer, M T Nieminen, J M Koski, J P A Arokoski, S Saarakkala
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between multi-feature structural pathology assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the presence of knee pain, and to determine the associations between the locations of structural changes and different knee pain patterns. METHOD: Eighty symptomatic subjects with knee pain and suspicion or diagnosis of knee OA and 63 asymptomatic subjects underwent knee MRI. Severity of structural changes was graded by MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) in separate knee locations...
September 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Bin Li, QingLin Chen, Guangming Peng, Yuanxing Guo, Kan Chen, LianFang Tian, Shanxing Ou, Lifei Wang
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nodules in computerized tomography (CT) images are potential manifestations of lung cancer. Segmentation of potential nodule objects is the first necessary and crucial step in computer-aided detection system of pulmonary nodules. The segmentation of various types of nodules, especially for ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules and juxta-vascular nodules, present various challenges. The nodule with GGO characteristic possesses typical intensity inhomogeneity and weak edges, which is difficult to define the boundary; the juxta-vascular nodule is connected to a vessel, and they have very similar intensities...
May 5, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
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