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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232616/towards-understanding-sparse-filtering-a-theoretical-perspective
#1
Fabio Massimo Zennaro, Ke Chen
In this paper we present a theoretical analysis to understand sparse filtering, a recent and effective algorithm for unsupervised learning. The aim of this research is not to show whether or how well sparse filtering works, but to understand why and when sparse filtering does work. We provide a thorough theoretical analysis of sparse filtering and its properties, and further offer an experimental validation of the main outcomes of our theoretical analysis. We show that sparse filtering works by explicitly maximizing the entropy of the learned representations through the maximization of the proxy of sparsity, and by implicitly preserving mutual information between original and learned representations through the constraint of preserving a structure of the data...
December 9, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232466/real-world-evidence-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer
#2
E A Eisenhauer
Introduction: 'Real-world evidence (RWE)' refers to information on the utilization and outcome of new therapies and technologies in clinical practice. RWE may include single institution cohort studies, population-based health services studies, or (inter)national data on survival and mortality. This paper reviews RWE on the impact of treatment in ovarian cancer. Materials and methods: A literature review of publications addressing population level survival outcomes of new surgical and systemic treatment interventions in ovarian cancer was undertaken...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231162/evaluation-of-clinical-outcomes-among-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-patients-treated-with-rivaroxaban-or-warfarin-stratified-by-renal%C3%A2-function%C3%A2
#3
Matthew R Weir, Lloyd Haskell, Jeffrey S Berger, Veronica Ashton, François Laliberté, Concetta Crivera, Kip Brown, Patrick Lefebvre, Jeffrey Schein
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction increases the risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult NVAF patients with ≥ 6 months prior to first warfarin or rivaroxaban dispensing were selected from the IMS Health Real-World Data Adjudicated Claims database (05/2011 - 06/2015) with electronic medical records. Ischemic stroke events, thromboembolic events (venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke), and major bleeding events were compared between patients by renal function identified by 1) relevant ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and 2) estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl)...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230546/management-and-predictors-of-outcome-in-unselected-patients-with-cardiogenic-shock-complicating-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-results-from-the-bremen-stemi-registry
#4
Tina Backhaus, Andreas Fach, Johannes Schmucker, Eduard Fiehn, Daniela Garstka, Janina Stehmeier, Rainer Hambrecht, Harm Wienbergen
INTRODUCTION: Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and consecutive cardiogenic shock (CS) represent a challenge in clinical practice. Only few 'real-world' data on therapeutic management and outcome exist. METHODS: The present analysis focuses on changes of clinical management of STEMI-patients with CS and analyzes predictors of outcome using the Bremen-STEMI registry. RESULTS: Out of 7865 patients with STEMI, 981 patients (13%) presented with CS...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230514/-guideline-recommendations-and-quality-indicators-for-invasive-treatment-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-in-germany-the-idomeneo-study-for-quality-improvement-and-research-in-vascular-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Christian-Alexander Behrendt, Henrik Rieß, Martin Härter, Levente Kriston, Hannes Federrath, Ursula Marschall, Eike Sebastian Debus
Due to the paucity of independent trials, practical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) contain several recommendations developed by expert consensus. Furthermore, there is a lack of commonly defined quality indicators and valid data on real world treatment. Therefore, it remains challenging to scrutinize if treatment reality is conforming to guideline recommendations. This article aims to give a short overview on existing guideline recommendations. It further aims to introduce the multistage multimethodological IDOMENEO study, utilizing primary registry data (GermanVasc) and health insurance claims data (BARMER) in PAD treatment...
December 11, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230307/who-parents-skills-training-pst-programme-for-children-with-developmental-disorders-and-delays-delivered-by-family-volunteers-in-rural-pakistan-study-protocol-for-effectiveness-implementation-hybrid-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
S U Hamdani, P Akhtar, Zill-E-Huma, H Nazir, F A Minhas, S Sikander, D Wang, C Servilli, A Rahman
Background: Development disorders and delays are recognised as a public health priority and included in the WHO mental health gap action programme (mhGAP). Parents Skills Training (PST) is recommended as a key intervention for such conditions under the WHO mhGAP intervention guide. However, sustainable and scalable delivery of such evidence based interventions remains a challenge. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and scaled-up implementation of locally adapted WHO PST programme delivered by family volunteers in rural Pakistan...
2017: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230233/whole-genome-sequencing-of-fusarium-fujikuroi-provides-insight-into-the-role-of-secretory-proteins-and-cell-wall-degrading-enzymes-in-causing-bakanae-disease-of-rice
#7
Bishnu M Bashyal, Kirti Rawat, Sapna Sharma, Deepika Kulshreshtha, S Gopala Krishnan, Ashok K Singh, Himanshu Dubey, Amolkumar U Solanke, T R Sharma, Rashmi Aggarwal
Fusarium fujikuroi causing bakanae disease has emerged as one of the major pathogen of rice across the world. The study aims to comparative genomic analysis of Fusarium fujikuroi isolates and identification of the secretary proteins of the fungus involved in rice pathogenesis. In the present study, F. fujikuroi isolate "F250" was sequenced with an assembly size of 42.47 Mb providing coverage of 96.89% on reference IMI58289 genome. A total of 13,603 protein-coding genes were predicted from genome assembly. The average gene density in the F...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229902/mapping-the-ecological-networks-of-microbial-communities
#8
Yandong Xiao, Marco Tulio Angulo, Jonathan Friedman, Matthew K Waldor, Scott T Weiss, Yang-Yu Liu
Mapping the ecological networks of microbial communities is a necessary step toward understanding their assembly rules and predicting their temporal behavior. However, existing methods require assuming a particular population dynamics model, which is not known a priori. Moreover, those methods require fitting longitudinal abundance data, which are often not informative enough for reliable inference. To overcome these limitations, here we develop a new method based on steady-state abundance data. Our method can infer the network topology and inter-taxa interaction types without assuming any particular population dynamics model...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228950/indacaterol-glycopyrronium-is-cost-effective-compared-to-salmeterol-fluticasone-in-copd-flame-based-modelling-in-a-swedish-population
#9
Leif Bjermer, Job F M van Boven, Madlaina Costa-Scharplatz, Dorothy L Keininger, Florian S Gutzwiller, Karin Lisspers, Ronan Mahon, Petter Olsson, Nicolas Roche
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) versus salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with moderate to very severe airflow limitation and ≥1 exacerbation in the preceding year. METHODS: A previously published and validated patient-level simulation model was adapted using clinical data from the FLAME trial and real-world cost data from the ARCTIC study. Costs (total monetary costs comprising drug, maintenance, exacerbation, and pneumonia costs) and health outcomes (life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)) were projected over various time horizons (1, 5, 10 years, and lifetime) from the Swedish payer's perspective and were discounted at 3% annually...
December 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228158/percutaneous-left-atrial-appendage-occlusion-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients-with-a-contraindication-to-oral-anticoagulation-a-focused-review
#10
Marin Nishimura, Shiv Sab, Ryan R Reeves, Jonathan C Hsu
Stroke is the most feared complication of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although oral anticoagulation with non-vitamin K antagonist and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been established to significantly reduce risk of stroke, real-world use of these agents are often suboptimal due to concerns for adverse events including bleeding from both patients and clinicians. Particularly in patients with previous serious bleeding, oral anticoagulation may be contraindicated. Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO), mechanically targeting the source of most of the thrombi in AF, holds an immense potential as an alternative to OAC in management of stroke prophylaxis...
December 8, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227950/transcriptome-sequencing-of-paeonia-suffruticosa-shima-nishiki-to-identify-differentially-expressed-genes-mediating-double-color-formation
#11
Xinpeng Zhang, Lanyong Zhao, Zongda Xu, Xiaoyan Yu
Paeonia suffruticosa 'Shima Nishiki' is one of extremely rare double-color cultivars in the world. It usually shows the two beautiful colors of red and white in the same flower, and this trait undoubtedly makes the flowers more charming for the ornamental market. However, few studies have been done to unravel the molecular mechanisms of double-color formation in P. suffruticosa 'Shima Nishiki'. In this study, we measured the anthocyanin composition and concentration, and sequenced the transcriptomes of the red and white petals...
December 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225254/observational-study-of-infective-endocarditis-at-a-community-based-hospital-dominance-of-elderly-patients-with-comorbidity
#12
Tomoo Nagai, Yoshiyuki Takase, Akira Hamabe, Hirotsugu Tabata
Objective The purpose of this study was to present the recent clinical profiles and the real-world management of infective endocarditis (IE). Methods All medical records of patients with IE were reviewed retrospectively for their clinical data, including clinical presentation, laboratory results, blood cultures, echocardiographic findings, treatments and complications. Using the clinical data collected, we calculated the EuroSCORE II, the European risk score for adult cardiac surgery, the Charlson Comorbidity Index as a surrogate of comordibity, and the Katz Index as a surrogate of frailty...
December 8, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224380/ethics-and-practice-of-trials-within-cohorts-an-emerging-pragmatic-trial-design
#13
Scott Yh Kim, James Flory, Clare Relton
BACKGROUND: With increasing emphasis on pragmatic trials, new randomized clinical trial designs are being proposed to enhance the "real world" nature of the data generated. We describe one such design, appropriate for unmasked pragmatic clinical trials in which the control arm receives usual care, called "Trials within Cohorts" that is increasingly used in various countries because of its efficiency in recruitment, advantages in reducing subject burden, and ability to better mimic real-world consent processes...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223870/validation-of-an-algorithm-to-detect-severe-ms-relapses-in-administrative-health-databases
#14
James John Marriott, Hui Chen, Randall Fransoo, Ruth Ann Marrie
BACKGROUND: Severe relapses that required treatment were important outcomes in the sentinel trials of disease-modifying therapy (DMT). Identifying such relapses in administrative data would allow comparative-effectiveness studies of DMTs to be conducted in real-world clinical settings. METHODS: All relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary-progressive (SPMS) patients living in Manitoba between 1999 and 2015 were identified using a validated case definition and linkage to the Manitoba MS Clinic database...
December 2, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223428/enabling-social-listening-for-cardiac-safety-monitoring-proceedings-from-a-drug-information-association-cardiac-safety-research-consortium-cosponsored-think-tank
#15
REVIEW
Harry A Seifert, Raleigh E Malik, Mondira Bhattacharya, Kevin R Campbell, Sally Okun, Carrie Pierce, Jeffrey Terkowitz, J Rick Turner, Mitchell W Krucoff, Gregory E Powell
This white paper provides a summary of the presentations and discussions from a think tank on "Enabling Social Listening for Cardiac Safety Monitoring" trials that was cosponsored by the Drug Information Association and the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, and held at the White Oak headquarters of the US Food and Drug Administration on June 3, 2016. The meeting's goals were to explore current methods of collecting and evaluating social listening data and to consider their applicability to cardiac safety surveillance...
December 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223371/planning-and-prioritizing-direct-acting-antivirals-treatment-for-hcv-patients-in-countries-with-limited-resources-lessons-from-the-egyptian-experience
#16
Aisha Elsharkawy, Maissa El Raziky, Wafaa El Akel, Kadry El Saeed, Rasha Eletreby, Mohamed Hassany, Manal Hamdy El-Sayed, Khaled Kabil, Sohier A Ismail, Magdy El-Serafy, Ashraf Omar Abdelaziz, Mohamed Kamal Shaker, Ayman Yosry, Wahid Doss, Yehia El Shazly, Gamal Esmat, Imam Waked
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The introduction of direct acting antivirals for HCV in Egypt led to massive treatment uptake to become the largest HCV treatment program worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present the Egyptian experience in planning and prioritizing mass treatment for HCV patients, highlighting the difficulties and limitations of the program as guide to other countries of similar limited resources. METHODS: Baseline data of 337,042 patients who started treatment from October 2014 to March 2016 were grouped into three equal time intervals of 6 months each...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222628/one-year-clinical-effectiveness-comparison-of-prasugrel-with-ticagrelor-results-from-a-retrospective-observational-study-using-an-integrated-claims-database
#17
Mark B Effron, Kavita V Nair, Cliff Molife, Stuart Y Keller, Robert L Page, Jason C Simeone, Brian Murphy, Beth L Nordstrom, Yajun Zhu, Patrick L McCollam, George W Vetrovec
BACKGROUND: No direct comparisons of ticagrelor and prasugrel with 1-year clinical follow-up have been reported. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compare 1-year clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and treated with either ticagrelor or prasugrel in a real-world setting. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients from a payer database who were aged ≥18 years and had ACS managed with PCI with no history of transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222590/technical-accuracy-of-the-integration-of-an-external-ultrasonography-system-into-a-navigation-platform-effects-of-ultrasonography-probe-registration-and-target-detection
#18
Frederic A Wanis, Lars Wessels, Marcus H T Reinges, Eberhard Uhl, Andreas Jödicke
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative navigated ultrasonography has reached clinical acceptance, while published data for the accuracy of some systems are missing. We technically quantified and optimised the accuracy of the integration of an external ultrasonography system into a BrainLab navigation system. METHODS: A high-end ultrasonography system (Elegra; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) was linked to a navigation system (Vector Vision; BrainLab, Munich, Germany). In vitro accuracy and precision was calculated from differences between a real world target (high-precision crosshair phantom) and the ultrasonography image of this target in the navigation coordinate system...
December 8, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222247/when-can-we-stop-anticoagulation-in-patients-with-cancer-associated-thrombosis
#19
REVIEW
Agnes Y Y Lee
The optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy in patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unknown. Without well-designed studies evaluating the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of continuing anticoagulant therapy beyond the acute treatment period of 3 to 6 months, evidence-based recommendations are lacking. Consensus guidelines generally suggest continuing anticoagulation treatment in patients with active cancer or receiving cancer treatment, with periodic reassessment of the risks and benefits...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221591/eradicating-bvd-reviewing-irish-programme-data-and-model-predictions-to-support-prospective-decision-making
#20
H-H Thulke, M Lange, J A Tratalos, T A Clegg, G McGrath, L O'Grady, P O'Sullivan, M L Doherty, D A Graham, S J More
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea is an infectious production disease of major importance in many cattle sectors of the world. The infection is predominantly transmitted by animal contact. Postnatal infections are transient, leading to immunologically protected cattle. However, for a certain window of pregnancy, in utero infection of the foetus results in persistently infected (PI) calves being the major risk of BVD spread, but also an efficient target for controlling the infection. There are two acknowledged strategies to identify PI animals for removal: tissue tag testing (direct; also known as the Swiss model) and serological screening (indirect by interpreting the serological status of the herd; the Scandinavian model)...
November 23, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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