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M Berenguer, K Agarwal, P Burra, M Manns, D Samuel
Antiviral therapy to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection improves outcomes in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) for advanced chronic HCV with or without hepatocellular carcinoma. Traditionally, antiviral therapy focused on the use of interferon (IFN)-based regimens, with antiviral treatment initiated in the post-transplant period once recurrent HCV disease with fibrosis in the allograft was identified. The use of IFN-based therapy was limited in pre-transplant patients with advanced liver disease...
June 23, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Yasuo Okumura, Ikuo Fukuda, Mashio Nakamura, Norikazu Yamada, Morimasa Takayama, Hideaki Maeda, Takeshi Yamashita, Takanori Ikeda, Makoto Mo, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Atsushi Hirayama
INTRODUCTION: Rivaroxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor used as a direct oral anticoagulant, is beneficial over warfarin in terms of food-drug interactions and the need for therapeutic monitoring in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Because there is little data regarding VTE treatment in Japan, a real-world survey of Japanese patients being treated with rivaroxaban for VTE is needed. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Japanese Registry of Rivaroxaban Effectiveness & Safety for the Prevention of Recurrence in Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism has been established to investigate the clinical outcomes of rivaroxaban for the initial treatment and prevention of symptomatic recurrent VTE in Japanese patients with acute symptomatic/asymptomatic VTE...
June 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Hayato Kawachi, Daichi Fujimoto, Takeshi Morimoto, Munehiro Ito, Shunsuke Teraoka, Yuki Sato, Kazuma Nagata, Atsushi Nakagawa, Kojiro Otsuka, Keisuke Tomii
BACKGROUND: Most patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are ineligible for clinical trials. However, few studies have reported on the profiles and treatment outcomes for these patients. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics, outcomes, and survival of patients with advanced NSCLC who were ineligible for clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data from a retrospective cohort of 786 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of advanced NSCLC...
May 26, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Barbra H B Timmer, Louise Hickson, Stefan Launer
To obtain real-world insights into the hearing difficulties of individuals, the field of hearing research has recently started to adopt ecological momentary assessment. Using this approach, study participants describe their experiences in real time, in their own natural environment. This paper describes the use of ecological momentary assessment in hearing research to date. Several studies have shown the approach is feasible and has good construct validity for use with adults with hearing impairment and/or tinnitus...
June 19, 2018: Hearing Research
Nuno Silva, Vaibhav Shah, João Soares, Helena Rodrigues
Anomalies on road pavement cause discomfort to drivers and passengers, and may cause mechanical failure or even accidents. Governments spend millions of Euros every year on road maintenance, often causing traffic jams and congestion on urban roads on a daily basis. This paper analyses the difference between the deployment of a road anomalies detection and identification system in a “conditioned” and a real world setup, where the system performed worse compared to the “conditioned” setup...
June 21, 2018: Sensors
Takahisa Kawamura, Hidefumi Kasai, Valentina Fermanelli, Toshiaki Takahashi, Yukinori Sakata, Toshiyuki Matsuoka, Mika Ishii, Yusuke Tanigawara
Post-marketing surveillance is useful to collect safety data in real-world clinical settings. In this study, we firstly applied the post-marketing real-world data on a mechanistic model analysis for neutropenic profiles of eribulin in patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (RBC/MBC). Demographic and safety data were collected using an active surveillance method from eribulin-treated RBC/MBC patients. Changes in neutrophil counts over time were analyzed using a mechanistic pharmacodynamic model...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Science
A V Prasolov, A S Kolbin, Yulia E Balykina
OBJECTIVES: To propose an algorithm that relates the effectiveness of drugs for a wide range of diseases with the financial capabilities of patients. METHODS: Estimates of the volume of pharmaceuticals that are consumed in the Russian Federation by all segments of the population regardless of household income were considered. These were calculated using statistically valid probabilities of the appearance of various diseases, official state data on the structure of expenditures of various strata of the population, and the optimal choice of the most effective medicines with income restrictions taken into account...
June 19, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Jianyu Lin, Neil T Clancy, Ji Qi, Yang Hu, Taran Tatla, Danail Stoyanov, Lena Maier-Hein, Daniel S Elson
Surgical guidance and decision making could be improved with accurate and real-time measurement of intra-operative data including shape and spectral information of the tissue surface. In this work, a dual-modality endoscopic system has been proposed to enable tissue surface shape reconstruction and hyperspectral imaging (HSI). This system centers around a probe comprised of an incoherent fiber bundle, whose fiber arrangement is different at the two ends, and miniature imaging optics. For 3D reconstruction with structured light (SL), a light pattern formed of randomly distributed spots with different colors is projected onto the tissue surface, creating artificial texture...
June 15, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Kenneth T Moore, Peggy Wong, Liping Zhang, Guohua Pan, JoAnne Foody
OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation, peripheral and coronary artery disease and venous thromboembolism are major risk factors for stroke, disability, and death in the rapidly growing older (≥ 65 years.) population. In the absence of clear guidelines on the appropriate use of the newer non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in this population, we specifically review the available literature for rivaroxaban and the impact of age that may affect the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of this anticoagulant...
June 22, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Jakub Radocha, Vladimír Maisnar, Luděk Pour, Ivan Špička, Jiři Minařík, Lenka Szeligová, Petr Pavlíček, Alexandra Jungová, Marta Krejčí, Tomáš Pika, Jan Straub, Lucie Brožová, Lukáš Stejskal, Adriana Heindorfer, Pavel Jindra, Petr Kessler, Peter Mikula, Michal Sýkora, Marek Wróbel, Jiří Jarkovský, Roman Hájek
This study used data from the Czech Myeloma Group Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies to validate the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) and revised International Staging System (R-ISS) indices for risk stratification in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) in clinical practice. Patients were included if they had symptomatic MM, complete data allowing R-ISS and IMWG staging (including cytogenetic information regarding t(4;14), t(14;16), and del(17p)), and key parameters for treatment evaluation. Median overall survival (OS) in included patients (n = 550) was 47...
June 21, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Mette L K Schmidt, Peter Østergren, Prue Cormie, Anne-Mette Ragle, Jens Sønksen, Julie Midtgaard
PURPOSE: Regular exercise is recommended to mitigate the adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of transition to unsupervised, community-based exercise among men who had participated in a hospital-based supervised exercise programme in order to propose components that supported transition to unsupervised exercise. METHODS: Participants were selected by means of purposive, criteria-based sampling...
June 21, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Sean P Mikles, Jennifer L Wiltz, Lori Reed-Fourquet, Ian S Painter, William B Lober
Context: Obesity is a significant health issue in the United States that both clinical and public health systems struggle to address. Electronic health record data could help support multi-sectoral interventions to address obesity. Standards have been identified and created to support the electronic exchange of weight-related data across many stakeholder groups. Case Description: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated a public-private partnership including government, industry, and academic technology partners to develop workflow scenarios and supporting systems to exchange weight-related data through standard transactions...
December 6, 2017: EGEMS
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Silvia S Martins, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: There is just one study comparing the effectiveness of cytisine and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation. In the Russian Federation, both products are widely available as over-the-counter medications. Data on the real-world use of these medications among the general population would be informative. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from a nationally representative household survey of adults aged ≥ 15 years from the Russian Federation (part of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data)...
June 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Isabela Maia Diniz, Augusto Afonso Guerra, Livia Lovato Pires de Lemos, Kathiaja M Souza, Brian Godman, Marion Bennie, Björn Wettermark, Francisco de Assis Acurcio, Juliana Alvares, Eli Iola Gurgel Andrade, Mariangela Leal Cherchiglia, Vânia Eloisa de Araújo
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease that appreciably impacts on the quality of life of patients and is associated with high expenditure. MS is a chronic multifactorial disease, characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss. The Brazilian public health system provides pharmacological treatment as well as hospital and outpatient care for patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. However, we are not aware of any previous publications assessing total direct medical costs in patients with a long follow-up within the Brazilian healthcare system...
2018: PloS One
John E Kiat, Dianna Long, Robert F Belli
Attention and memory are highly integrated processes. Building on prior behavioral investigations, this study assesses the link between individual differences in low-level neural attentional responding and false memory susceptibility on the misinformation effect, a paradigm in which false event memories are induced via misleading post-event information. Twenty-four subjects completed the misinformation effect paradigm after which high-density (256-channel) EEG data was collected as they engaged in an auditory oddball task...
June 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Lei Huang, Lina Jansen, Yesilda Balavarca, Lydia van der Geest, Valery Lemmens, Liesbet Van Eycken, Harlinde De Schutter, Tom B Johannesen, Maja Primic-Žakelj, Vesna Zadnik, Margit Mägi, Dianne Pulte, Petra Schrotz-King, Hermann Brenner
The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer (PaC) has been well-established, while radiation plays ambiguous roles. This international large-scale population-based study aimed to investigate the real-world application of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for resected and unresected PaC in Europe and USA. Population-based data from multiple European national cancer registries and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18 database during 2003-2014 were analyzed. Temporal trends and geographical variations in the application rates of chemotherapy and radiotherapy were quantified using age standardization...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Gallwitz Baptist
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with numerous comorbidities that significantly reduce quality of life, increase mortality and complicate treatment decisions. In a recent cardiovascular outcomes trial, Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin was shown to reduce cardiovascular (CV) mortality and heart failure in high-risk patients with T2D with a previous CV event or with established CV disease (CVD)...
April 2018: European Endocrinology
Adisa Kuršumović, Stefan A Rath
Purpose: Increased focus has been put on the use of "'real-world" data to support randomized clinical trial (RCT) evidence for clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of an annular closure device (ACD) after stratifying a consecutive series of "real-world" patients by the screening criteria of an ongoing RCT. Materials and methods: This was a single-center registry analysis of 164 subjects who underwent limited discectomy combined with ACD for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Laura B Balzer, Wenjing Zheng, Mark J van der Laan, Maya L Petersen
We often seek to estimate the impact of an exposure naturally occurring or randomly assigned at the cluster-level. For example, the literature on neighborhood determinants of health continues to grow. Likewise, community randomized trials are applied to learn about real-world implementation, sustainability, and population effects of interventions with proven individual-level efficacy. In these settings, individual-level outcomes are correlated due to shared cluster-level factors, including the exposure, as well as social or biological interactions between individuals...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Inna Tzoran, Ron Hoffman, Manuel Monreal
There is a growing proportion of the elderly population in the Western world, and these individuals require special considerations regarding a broad variety of aspects, including treatment approaches to illnesses that affect all age groups. The hemostatic system in individuals changes considerably with aging. Specifically, changes in levels of procoagulant and natural anticoagulant factors along with thrombopathy simultaneously create a hypercoagulable state and hemostatic difficulties. Underlying morbidities, such as congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer, increase the risk for venous and arterial thrombosis...
June 19, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
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