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Pavel Savitsky, Tobias Krojer, Takao Fujisawa, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Sarah Picaud, Chen-Yi Wang, Erin K Shanle, Krzysztof Krajewski, Hans Friedrichsen, Alexander Kanapin, Colin Goding, Matthieu Schapira, Anastasia Samsonova, Brian D Strahl, Anne-Claude Gingras, Panagis Filippakopoulos
Elucidation of interactions involving DNA and histone post-translational-modifications (PTMs) is essential for providing insights into complex biological functions. Reader assemblies connected by flexible linkages facilitate avidity and increase affinity; however, little is known about the contribution to the recognition process of multiple PTMs because of rigidity in the absence of conformational flexibility. Here, we resolve the crystal structure of the triple reader module (PHD-BRD-PWWP) of ZMYND8, which forms a stable unit capable of simultaneously recognizing multiple histone PTMs while presenting a charged platform for association with DNA...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
Christina Grønberg, Oleg Sitsel, Erik Lindahl, Pontus Gourdon, Magnus Andersson
Cu(+)-specific P-type ATPase membrane protein transporters regulate cellular copper levels. The lack of crystal structures in Cu(+)-binding states has limited our understanding of how ion entry and binding are achieved. Here, we characterize the molecular basis of Cu(+) entry using molecular-dynamics simulations, structural modeling, and in vitro and in vivo functional assays. Protein structural rearrangements resulting in the exposure of positive charges to bulk solvent rather than to lipid phosphates indicate a direct molecular role of the putative docking platform in Cu(+) delivery...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Shouqiang Cheng, Alpay B Seven, Jing Wang, Georgios Skiniotis, Engin Özkan
Synaptic specificity is a defining property of neural networks. In the cerebellum, synapses between parallel fiber neurons and Purkinje cells are specified by the simultaneous interactions of secreted protein cerebellin with pre-synaptic neurexin and post-synaptic delta-type glutamate receptors (GluD). Here, we determined the crystal structures of the trimeric C1q-like domain of rat cerebellin-1, and the first complete ectodomain of a GluD, rat GluD2. Cerebellin binds to the LNS6 domain of α- and β-neurexin-1 through a high-affinity interaction that involves its highly flexible N-terminal domain...
December 6, 2016: Structure
Doeke R Hekstra, K Ian White, Michael A Socolich, Robert W Henning, Vukica Šrajer, Rama Ranganathan
The internal mechanics of proteins-the coordinated motions of amino acids and the pattern of forces constraining these motions-connects protein structure to function. Here we describe a new method combining the application of strong electric field pulses to protein crystals with time-resolved X-ray crystallography to observe conformational changes in spatial and temporal detail. Using a human PDZ domain (LNX2(PDZ2)) as a model system, we show that protein crystals tolerate electric field pulses strong enough to drive concerted motions on the sub-microsecond timescale...
December 7, 2016: Nature
Christine Oswald, Mathieu Rappas, James Kean, Andrew S Doré, James C Errey, Kirstie Bennett, Francesca Deflorian, John A Christopher, Ali Jazayeri, Jonathan S Mason, Miles Congreve, Robert M Cooke, Fiona H Marshall
Chemokines and their G-protein-coupled receptors play a diverse role in immune defence by controlling the migration, activation and survival of immune cells. They are also involved in viral entry, tumour growth and metastasis and hence are important drug targets in a wide range of diseases. Despite very significant efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop drugs, with over 50 small-molecule drugs directed at the family entering clinical development, only two compounds have reached the market: maraviroc (CCR5) for HIV infection and plerixafor (CXCR4) for stem-cell mobilization...
December 7, 2016: Nature
A V Poshakinskiy, A N Poddubny, A Fainstein
We demonstrate that the parity-time symmetry for sound is realized in laser-pumped multiple-quantum-well structures. Breaking of the parity-time symmetry for the phonons with wave vectors corresponding to the Bragg condition makes the structure a highly selective acoustic wave amplifier. Single-mode distributed feedback phonon lasing is predicted for structures with realistic parameters.
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jie Luo, Yuting Yang, Zhongqi Yao, Weixin Lu, Bo Hou, Zhi Hong Hang, C T Chan, Yun Lai
By using pure dielectric photonic crystals, we demonstrate the realization of ultratransparent media, which allow near 100% transmission of light for all incident angles and create aberration-free virtual images. The ultratransparency effect is well explained by spatially dispersive effective medium theory for photonic crystals, and verified by both simulations and proof-of-principle microwave experiments. Designed with shifted elliptical equal frequency contours, such ultratransparent media not only provide a low-loss and feasible platform for transformation optics devices at optical frequencies, but also enable new freedom for phase manipulation beyond the local medium framework...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Rajesh Singh, R Adhikari
The lack of detailed balance in active colloidal suspensions allows dissipation to determine stationary states. Here we show that slow viscous flow produced by polar or apolar active colloids near plane walls mediates attractive hydrodynamic forces that drive crystallization. Hydrodynamically mediated torques tend to destabilize the crystal but stability can be regained through critical amounts of bottom heaviness or chiral activity. Numerical simulations show that crystallization is not nucleational, as in equilibrium, but is preceded by a spinodal-like instability...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Gabriel Kocher, Nana Ofori-Opoku, Nikolas Provatas
A tacit assumption underlying most phase field models of nonequilibrium phase transformations is that of scale separation. Stochastic order parameter field theories utilize noise to separate atomic-scale fluctuations from the slowly varying fields that describe microstructure patterns. The mesoscale distribution of such stochastic variables is generally assumed to follow Gaussian statistics, with their magnitude following fluctuation-dissipation relations. However, there is still much debate about how atomic-scale fluctuations map onto the mesoscale upon coarse graining of microscopic theories...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Katherine E Badior, Kumari Alka, Joseph R Casey
We studied the structural effects of point mutations of a membrane protein that cause genetic disease. SLC4A11 is a membrane transport protein (OH(-) /H(+) /NH3 /H2 O) of basolateral corneal endothelium, whose mutations cause some cases of Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy and Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy. We created a three-dimensional homology model of SLC4A11 membrane domain, using Band 3 (SLC4A1) crystal structure as template. The homology model was assessed in silico and by analysis of mutants designed on the basis of the model...
December 7, 2016: Human Mutation
Crystal Oldman
I was recently invited to Japan to learn more about how nursing care is delivered in the home, and to compare and contrast services in Japan with services in the UK.
December 7, 2016: Nursing Standard
Thaddaus R Huber, Luke F Hartje, Eli C McPherson, Ann E Kowalski, Christopher D Snow
The binding and release of guest fluorescent proteins inside a protein crystal with 13 nm axial pores is controlled. Spatially segregated guest protein loading is achieved via sequential binding and release stages. Additionally, selective stabilization of the crystal exterior results in hollow crystalline shells.
December 7, 2016: Small
Chengwu Yang, Xiaojuan Yu, Stefan Heißler, Alexei Nefedov, Sara Colussi, Jordi Llorca, Alessandro Trovarelli, Yuemin Wang, Christof Wöll
The surface atomic arrangement of metal oxides determines their physical and chemical properties, and the ability to control and optimize structural parameters is of crucial importance for many applications, in particular in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. Whereas the structures of macroscopic single crystals can be determined with established methods, for nanoparticles (NPs), this is a challenging task. Herein, we describe the use of CO as a probe molecule to determine the structure of the surfaces exposed by rod-shaped ceria NPs...
December 7, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Hua Yu, Zhengzhong Yang, Luojun Du, Jing Zhang, Jinan Shi, Wei Chen, Peng Chen, Mengzhou Liao, Jing Zhao, Jianling Meng, Guole Wang, Jianqi Zhu, Rong Yang, Dongxia Shi, Lin Gu, Guangyu Zhang
Control of the precise lattice alignment of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is important for both fundamental and applied studies of this heterostructure but remains elusive. The growth of precisely aligned MoS2 domains on the basal plane of h-BN by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition technique is reported. Only relative rotation angles of 0° or 60° between MoS2 and h-BN basal plane are present. Domains with same orientation stitch and form single-crystal, domains with different orientations stitch and from mirror grain boundaries...
December 7, 2016: Small
Masayuki Nihei, Yuta Yanai, I-Jui Hsu, Yoshihiro Sekine, Hiroki Oshio
Co-crystallization of a cyanide-bridged tetranuclear complex [Co2 Fe2 ] with 4-cyanophenol (CP) gave a hydrogen bonding donor-acceptor system, [Co2 Fe2 (bpy*)4 (CN)6 (tp*)2 ](PF6 )2 ⋅2 CP⋅8 BN (1). 1 exhibited a three-step phase transition between HT, IM1, IM2, and LT phases upon temperature variation. Variable temperature magnetic measurements and structural analyses revealed that the three-step spin transition is caused by electron-transfer-coupled spin transitions (ETCSTs) accompanied with alteration of the hydrogen bonding interactions...
December 7, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Angel Terron, Blas Moreno-Vachiano, Antonio Bauza, Angel Garcia-Raso, Juan J Fiol, Miquel Barcelo-Oliver, Elies Molins, Antonio Frontera
The synthesis of a metalled double-helix containing exclusively silver-mediated C*-C* base pairs is reported herein (C* = N1hexylcytosine). Remarkably, it is the first crystal structure containing infinite and consecutive C*-AgI-C* base pairs that form a double helix. The AgI ion occupies the center between two C* residues with N(3)-Ag bond distances of 2.1 Å and short AgI-AgI distances (3.1 Å) suggesting an interesting argentophilic attraction as a stabilization source of the helical disposition. The solid state structure is further stabilized by metal-mediated base-pairs, hydrogen bonding and π-stacking interactions...
December 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Alexis M Wormington, Jason Coral, Matthew M Alloy, Carmen L Damare, Charles M Mansfield, Stephen J Klaine, Joseph H Bisesi, Aaron P Roberts
Nano-TiO2 is the most widely used form of nanoparticles in commercial industry, and come in two main configurations: rutile and anatase. Rutile TiO2 is used in UV screening applications, while anatase TiO2 crystals have a surface defect that makes them photoreactive. There are numerous reports in the literature of photo-induced toxicity to aquatic organisms following co-exposure to anatase nano-TiO2 and UV. All natural freshwater contains varying amounts of natural organic matter (NOM), which can drive UV attenuation and quench ROS in aquatic ecosystems...
December 7, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Peter Comba, Markus Enders, Michael Großhauser, Markus Hiller, Dennis Müller, Hubert Wadepohl
Reported are the syntheses, structures and magnetic properties, also by NMR spectroscopy in solution, of a series of 13 linear trinuclear 3d-4f compounds with a lanthanide(iii) surrounded by two Ni(II) ions, NiLn(III), where the central Ln(III) is hexacoordinate. For three of the crystal structures, an additional H2O molecule is coordinated to the central Ln(III) ion, leading to a monocapped trigonal prismatic structure. However, NMR spectroscopy indicates that in solution, these complexes also have a hexacoordinate Ln(III) center...
December 7, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Christopher Benndorf, Sebastian Stein, Lukas Heletta, Marcel Kersting, Hellmut Eckert, Rainer Pöttgen
Yttrium-transition metal-magnesium (indium) Heusler phases YPd2Mg, YPd2In, YAg2Mg, YAg2In, YAu2Mg, and YAu2In and their quaternary compounds (solid solutions) Y(Pd0.5Ag0.5)2Mg, Y(Pd0.5Ag0.5)2In, Y(Pd0.5Au0.5)2Mg, Y(Pd0.5Au0.5)2In, Y(Ag0.5Au0.5)2Mg and Y(Ag0.5Au0.5)2In were synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium ampoules in a high-frequency furnace or by arc-melting, respectively. All compounds crystallize with the cubic MnCu2Al type structure (Heusler phase), space group Fm3[combining macron]m. The structure of Y(Ag0...
December 7, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
T Irifune, K Kawakami, T Arimoto, H Ohfuji, T Kunimoto, T Shinmei
Transparent ceramics are important for scientific and industrial applications because of the superior optical and mechanical properties. It has been suggested that optical transparency and mechanical strength are substantially enhanced if transparent ceramics with nano-crystals are available. However, synthesis of the highly transparent nano-crystalline ceramics has been difficult using conventional sintering techniques at relatively low pressures. Here we show direct conversion from bulk glass starting material in mutianvil high-pressure apparatus leads to pore-free nano-polycrystalline silicate garnet at pressures above ∼10 GPa in a limited temperature range around 1,400 °C...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
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