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Yohei Miyanoiri, Atsushi Hijikata, Yuuki Nishino, Mizuki Gohara, Yasuhiro Onoue, Seiji Kojima, Chojiro Kojima, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Masatsune Kainosho, Michio Homma
The flagellar motor protein complex consists of rotor and stator proteins. Their interaction generates torque of flagellum, which rotates bidirectionally, clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise. FliG, one of the rotor proteins, consists of three domains: N-terminal (FliGN), middle (FliGM), and C-terminal (FliGC). We have identified point mutations in FliGC from Vibrio alginolyticus, which affect the flagellar motility. To understand the molecular mechanisms, we explored the structural and dynamic properties of FliGC from both wild-type and motility-defective mutants...
September 6, 2017: Structure
Bhupesh Pathik, Jonathan M Kalman, Tomos Walters, Pawel Kuklik, Jichao Zhao, Andrew Madry, Prashanthan Sanders, Peter M Kistler, Geoffrey Lee
BACKGROUND: Current phase mapping systems for atrial fibrillation(AF) create two-dimensional(2D) maps. This process may affect the accurate detection of rotors. We developed a three-dimensional(3D) phase mapping technique that utilizes the 3D locations of basket electrodes to project phase onto patient-specific left atrial(LA) 3D surface anatomy. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether rotors detected in 2D phase maps were present at corresponding time segments and anatomical locations on 3D phase maps...
September 13, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Alexey Tsyganov, Erik Wissner, Andreas Metzner, Sergey Mironovich, Maria Chaykovskaya, Vitaly Kalinin, Mikhail Chmelevsky, Christine Lemes, Karl-Heinz Kuck
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the use of a novel noninvasive epicardial and endocardial electrophysiology system (NEEES) for mapping of ventricular arrhythmias. METHODS: Eight patients (2 females, mean age 50±17 years) with ischemic (n=3) and nonischemic (n=5) cardiomyopathy and inducible ventricular arrhythmias during electrophysiology study were enrolled. Noninvasive mapping of ventricular arrhythmias was performed using the NEEES based on body-surface electrocardiograms and computed tomography imaging data...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
Sureshbabu Nagarajan, Lisa Jill Lapidus
The aggregation of intrinsically disordered and misfolded proteins in the form of oligomers and fibrils plays a crucial role in a number of neuro and non-neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, most probes and biophysical techniques that detect and characterize fibrils to high resolution fail to show sensitivity and binding for oligomers. Here we show 9-(dicyano-vinyl) julolidine (DCVJ), a class of molecular rotor, binds Aβ early aggregates and reports on the kinetics as well as packing of oligomer formation...
September 11, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Konstantinos N Aronis, Ronald D Berger, Hiroshi Ashikaga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Miguel Rodrigo, Andreu M Climent, Alejandro Liberos, Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Omer Berenfeld, Felipe Atienza, Maria S Guillem
BACKGROUND: Phase mapping has become a broadly used technique to identify atrial reentrant circuits for ablative therapy guidance. This work studies the phase mapping process and how the signal nature and its filtering affect the reentrant pattern characterization in electrogram (EGM), body surface potential mapping, and electrocardiographic imaging signals. METHODS AND RESULTS: EGM, body surface potential mapping, and electrocardiographic imaging phase maps were obtained from 17 simulations of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and focal atrial tachycardia...
September 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Haibao Hu, Jun Wen, Luyao Bao, Laibing Jia, Dong Song, Baowei Song, Guang Pan, Michele Scaraggi, Daniele Dini, Qunji Xue, Feng Zhou
Superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to reduce the viscous drag of liquids by significantly decreasing friction at a solid-liquid interface due to the formation of air layers between solid walls and interacting liquids. However, the trapped air usually becomes unstable due to the finite nature of the domain over which it forms. We demonstrate for the first time that a large surface energy barrier can be formed to strongly pin the three-phase contact line of air/water/solid by covering the inner rotor of a Taylor-Couette flow apparatus with alternating superhydrophobic and hydrophilic circumferential strips...
September 2017: Science Advances
Hiroki Nagashima, Julien Trébosc, Olivier Lafon, Frédérique Pourpoint, Piotr Paluch, Marek J Potrzebowski, Jean-Paul Amoureux
We investigate using nutation experiments the spatial distribution of radiofrequency (rf) field, sample, temperature and cross-polarization transfer efficiency in 1.3 mm rotor. First, two-dimensional (2D) (1)H nutation experiments on silicone thin cylinders in the presence of B0 field gradient generated by shim coils are used to image the spatial distribution of rf field inside the rotor. These experiments show that the rf field is asymmetrical with respect to the center of the rotor. Moreover, they show the large inhomogeneity that still remains across the sample when using spacers, and that even in this case, the rf-field close to the drive cap is decreased to ca...
August 12, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Behram P Mody, Anoshia Raza, Jason Jacobson, Sei Iwai, Daniel Frenkel, Rhadames Rojas, Wilbert S Aronow
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly encountered arrhythmia in the clinical setting affecting nearly 6 million people in United States and the numbers are only expected to rise as the population continues to age. Broadly it is classified into paroxysmal, persistent and longstanding persistent AF. Electrical, structural and autonomic remodeling are some of the diverse pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the persistence of AF. Our review article emphasizes particularly on long standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPAF) aspect of the disease which poses a great challenge for electrophysiologists...
August 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
Lichen He, Weimin Yang, Changfeng Guan, Hua Yan, Pengcheng Fu
Industrial-scale microalgal cultivation for food, feedstocks and biofuel production is limited by several engineering factors, such as cultivation systems. As a closed microalgal growth system, tubular photobioreactors are the most preferred ones in the mass algae production. In this work, microalgal cultivation and hydrodynamic characterization using a novel tubular photobioreactor equipped with helical blade rotors (HBRs) were investigated, with the aid of computational fluid dynamics and cultivation experiments to evaluate the effect of HBRs on the performance of tubular photobioreactor and growth of the Chlorella sp...
August 29, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Kui Xiang, Wen Wang, Rongbo Qiu, Deqing Mei, Zichen Chen
The precision spindle is a core component of high-precision machine tools, and the accurate measurement of its error motions is important for improving its rotation accuracy as well as the work performance of the machine. This paper presents a T-type capacitive sensor (T-type CS) with an integrated structure. The proposed sensor can measure the 5-degree-of-freedom (5-DOF) error motions of a spindle in-situ and simultaneously by integrating electrode groups in the cylindrical bore of the stator and the outer end face of its flange, respectively...
August 28, 2017: Sensors
Rajib Ghosh, Archana Kushwaha, Dipanwita Das
Fluorescent molecular rotors find widespread application in sensing and imaging of microscopic viscosity in complex chemical and biological media. Development of viscosity sensitive ultrafast molecular rotor (UMR) relies upon the understanding of the excited state dynamics and their implications to viscosity dependent fluorescence signaling. Unraveling structure-property relationship of UMR behavior is of significance towards development of ultrasensitive fluorescence microviscosity sensor. Herein we show that the ground state equilibrium conformation has important role in the ultrafast twisting dynamics of UMRs and consequent viscosity sensing efficiency...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Guy M Bernard, Atul Goyal, Mark Miskolzie, Ryan McKay, Qichao Wu, Roderick E Wasylishen, Vladimir K Michaelis
A new solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) thermometry sample is proposed. The (207)Pb NMR chemical shift of a lead halide perovskite, methylammonium lead chloride (MAPbCl3) is very sensitive to temperature, 0.905±0.010ppmK(-1). The response to temperature is linear over a wide temperature range, from its tetragonal to cubic phase transition at 178K to >410K, making it an ideal standard for temperature calibrations in this range. Because the (207)Pb NMR lineshape for MAPbCl3 appears symmetric, the sample is ideal for calibration of variable temperature NMR data acquired for spinning or non-spinning samples...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Seiga Yanagisawa, Wayne D Frasch
The two opposed rotary molecular motors of the FOF1 ATP synthase work together to provide the majority of ATP in most biological organisms. Rotation occurs in 120° power strokes separated by dwells when F1 synthesizes or hydrolyzes ATP. FO and F1 complexes connect via a central rotor stalk and a peripheral stator stalk. A major unresolved question is the mechanism in which the interaction between subunit a and rotating subunit c-ring in the FO motor uses the flux of H(+) across the membrane to induce clockwise rotation against the force of counterclockwise rotation driven by the F1-ATPase...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sumit Kumar Patra, Sanjoy Kumar Sheet, Bhaskar Sen, Kripamoy Aguan, Debesh Ranjan Roy, Snehadrinarayan Khatua
A 4-methylbenzothiazole linked maleimide based single molecular bifunctional probe 1 has been synthesized for the colorimetric and fluorometric detection of highly competitive H2S and cyanide ion in aqueous DMSO media. The probe 1 selectively detected CN- under the UV-vis spectroscopy through the rapid appearance of deep pink color. The bright pink color developed due to ICT in the moderately stable cyano substituted enolate intermediate. The absorbance titration of 1 with CN- revealed a new band at 540 nm and the non-linear curve fitting analysis showed good fit with 1:1 model...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Kazuya Iwai, Satoshi Yamamoto, Mitsutaka Yoshida, Kiyotaka Shiba
This chapter describes a method for isolating human salivary extracellular vesicles (EVs) using density gradient ultracentrifugation. Standard protocols established for isolation of EVs from blood or a conditioned medium of cultured cells do not work for whole saliva, due to its viscosity. Therefore, procedures including a pretreatment step and utilizing iodixanol as a gradient material enable EVs to be concentrated to a 1.1 g/ml density. This protocol is compatible with both swing and angle rotors. By employing an angle rotor, which enables high g-force, the centrifugation time was reduced to 4 h from the 17 h required when using a swing rotor...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jun-Seop Song, Jin Wi, Hye-Jeong Lee, Minki Hwang, Byounghyun Lim, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jae-Sun Uhm, Boyoung Joung, Moon-Hyoung Lee, Jeong-Wook Seo, Hui-Nam Pak
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atrial anatomy and thickness may affect the electrical wave-dynamics of atrial fibrillation (AF). We explored the relationship between left atrial (LA) wall thickness (LAWT) or LA geometry and AF wave-dynamics. METHODS: We included 15 patients with persistent AF (age, 62.3 ± 11.9 years) who underwent AF catheter ablation. We measured the LAWT, LA endocardial curvature, and SD-curvature (surface bumpiness) from preprocedural computed tomography images...
2017: PloS One
Pierre L Bhoorasingh, Belinda L Slakman, Fariba Seyedzadeh Khanshan, Jason Y Cain, Richard Henry West
A scarcity of known chemical kinetic parameters leads to the use of many reaction rate estimates, which are not always sufficiently accurate, in the construction of detailed kinetic models. To reduce the reliance on these estimates and improve the accuracy of predictive kinetic models, we have developed a high-throughput, fully automated, reaction rate calculation method, AutoTST. The algorithm integrates automated saddle-point geometry search methods and a canonical transition state theory kinetics calculator...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Jie Shao, Zhiquan Deng, Yu Gu
This paper proposes a new sensorless control approach for switched reluctance motor (SRM) in the single pulse control mode in high speed operation. The sensorless method uses the cross point position of transformer electromotive force (EMF) and motional back electromotive force (BEMF) to estimate the rotor position. The cross point position can be derived from the inductance model of SRM, and it is regarded as reference position. The rotor position can be calculated by detecting the special position for each electrical cycle...
August 9, 2017: ISA Transactions
F Daniel Ramirez, David H Birnie, Girish M Nair, Agnieszka Szczotka, Calum J Redpath, Mouhannad M Sadek, Pablo B Nery
INTRODUCTION: Targeting localized drivers (electrical rotors or focal impulses) during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been proposed as a strategy to improve procedural success. However, the strength and quality of the evidence to support this approach is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical studies reporting efficacy or safety outcomes of driver-guided ablation for AF were identified in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Pubmed, and conference abstracts from major scientific meetings...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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