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Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Anurati Saha, Rebecca Rolfe, Simon Carroll, Daniel J Kelly, Paula Murphy
Chondrogenesis in vivo is precisely controlled in time and space. The entire limb skeleton forms from cells at the core of the early limb bud that condense and undergo chondrogenic differentiation. Whether they form stable cartilage at the articular surface of the joint or transient cartilage that progresses to hypertrophy as endochondral bone, replacing the cartilage template of the skeletal rudiment, is spatially controlled over several days in the embryo. Here, we follow the differentiation of cells taken from the early limb bud (embryonic day 11...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Kedong Song, Wenfang Li, Hai Wang, Yu Zhang, Liying Li, Yiwei Wang, Hong Wang, Ling Wang, Tianqing Liu
Biological treatment using engineered osteochondral composites has received growing attention for the repair of cartilage defects. Osteochondral composites combined with a dynamic culture provide great potential for improving the quality of constructs and cartilage regeneration as dynamic conditions mimic the in vivo condition where cells were constantly subjected to mechanical and chemical stimulation. In the present study, biophasic composites were produced in vitro consisting of cell-hydrogel (CH) and cell-cancellous bone (CB) constructs, followed by culturing in a dynamic system in a spinner flask...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Devon E Anderson, Brandon D Markway, Derek Bond, Helen E McCarthy, Brian Johnstone
BACKGROUND: Lowering oxygen from atmospheric level (hyperoxia) to the physiological level (physioxia) of articular cartilage promotes mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis. However, the literature is equivocal regarding the benefits of physioxic culture on preventing hypertrophy of MSC-derived chondrocytes. Articular cartilage progenitors (ACPs) undergo chondrogenic differentiation with reduced hypertrophy marker expression in hyperoxia but have not been studied in physioxia. This study sought to delineate the effects of physioxic culture on both cell types undergoing chondrogenesis...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mercedes Fernández-Moreno, Tamara Hermida-Gómez, M Esther Gallardo, Andrea Dalmao-Fernández, Ignacio Rego-Pérez, Rafael Garesse, Francisco J Blanco
INTRODUCTION: The generation of Rho-0 cells requires the use of an immortalization process, or tumor cell selection, followed by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide (EtBr), incurring the drawbacks its use entails. The purpose of this work was to generate Rho-0 cells using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with reagents having the ability to remove mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) more safely than by using EtBr. METHODOLOGY: Two immortalized hMSC lines (3a6 and KP) were used; 143B...
2016: PloS One
Yuan Yao, Jin Shang, Weilin Song, Qiyue Deng, Huan Liu, Yue Zhou
This article contains relevant data of the research article titled Global profiling of the gene expression and alternative splicing events during the hypoxia-regulated chondrogenic differentiation in human cartilage endplate-derived stem cells (Yao et al., 2016) [1]. The data show global profiling of the DEGs (Differentially expressed genes) and AS (Alternative splicing) events during the hypoxia-regulated chondrogenesis of CESCs (human cartilage endplate-derived stem cells) by using Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Elizabeth M Meier, Bin Wu, Aamir Siddiqui, Donna G Tepper, Michael T Longaker, Mai T Lam
: Efforts have been made to engineer knee meniscus tissue for injury repair, yet most attempts have been unsuccessful. Creating a cell source that resembles the complex, heterogeneous phenotype of the meniscus cell remains difficult. Stem cell differentiation has been investigated, mainly using bone marrow mesenchymal cells and biochemical means for differentiation, resulting in no solution. Mechanical stimulation has been investigated to an extent with no conclusion. Here, we explore the potential for and effectiveness of mechanical stimulation to induce the meniscal phenotype in adipose-derived stromal cells...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
F M Elli, V Boldrin, A Pirelli, A Spada, G Mantovani
All tissues and organs derive from stem cells, which are undifferentiated cells able to differentiate into specialized cells and self-renewal. In mammals, there are embryonic stem cells that generate germ layers, and adult stem cells, which act as a repair system for the body and maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic adult multipotent cells, which reside in virtually all postnatal organs and tissues, and, under appropriate in vitro conditions, are capable to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic lineages...
October 18, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Juan A Montero, Cristina Sanchez-Fernandez, Carlos I Lorda-Diez, Juan A Garcia-Porrero, Juan M Hurle
DNA damage independent of caspase activation accompanies programmed cell death in different vertebrate embryonic organs. We analyzed the significance of DNA damage during the regression of the interdigital tissue, which sculpts the digits in the embryonic limb. Interdigit remodeling involves oxidative stress, massive apoptosis and cell senescence. Phosphorylation of H2AX mediated by ATM precedes caspase dependent apoptosis and cell senescence during interdigit regression. The association of γH2AX with other downstream DNA repair factors, including MDC1, Rad50 and 53BP1 suggests a defensive response of cells against DNA damage...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shao-Yong Xu, Shu-Fen Li, Guo-Xin Ni
BACKGROUND Although tendinopathy is common, its underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible pathogenesis of tendinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, a total of 24 rats were randomly and evenly divided into a control (CON) group and a strenuous treadmill running (STR) group. Animals in the STR group were subjected to a 12-week treadmill running protocol. Subsequently, all Achilles tendons were harvested to perform histological observation or biochemical analyses...
October 15, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
A Burdzinska, B Dybowski, W Zarychta-Wisniewska, A Kulesza, R Zagozdzon, Z Gajewski, L Paczek
Cell therapy is emerging as an alternative treatment of stress urinary incontinence. However, many aspects of the procedure require further optimization. A large animal model is needed to reliably test cell delivery methods. In this study we aim to determine suitability of the goat as an experimental animal for testing intraurethral autologous cell transplantation in terms of urethral anatomy and cell culture parameters. The experiments were performed in 12 mature/aged female goats. Isolated caprine muscle derived cells (MDC) were myogenic in vitro and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) population was able to differentiate into adipo-, osteo- and chondrogenic lineages...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Stefania Pagani, Veronica Borsari, Francesca Veronesi, Andrea Ferrari, Simona Cepollaro, Paola Torricelli, Giuseppe Filardo, Milena Fini
OBJECTIVES: Primarily, to compare the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (hBMSCs) and adipose tissue (hADSCs) in an osteoarthritic (OA) microenvironment; secondly, to investigate the reaction of these cell types in two alternative in vitro culture systems, obtained by using TNFα and/or IL1β as inflammation mediators, or by using synovial fluid harvested by OA patients (OSF) to simulate the complex inflamed knee microenvironment. METHODS: 3D micromass cultures of hBMSCs or hADSCs were grown in chondrogenic medium (CTR), in the presence of TNFα and/or IL1β, or synovial fluid from OA patients...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Tsai-Jung Lu, Fang-Yao Chiu, Hsiao-Ying Chiu, Ming-Chau Chang, Shih-Chieh Hung
Articular cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-repair, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat cartilage defects and osteoarthritis. However, in-depth mechanistic studies regarding their applications are required. Here, we demonstrated the use of chitosan film culture for promoting chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. We found that MSCs formed spheres two days after seeding on dishes coated with chitosan. When MSCs were induced in a chondrogenic induction medium on chitosan films, the size of spheres continuously increased for up to 21 days...
October 12, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Serban San-Marina, Ayushman Sharma, Stephen G Voss, Jeffrey R Janus, Grant S Hamilton
Importance: Nasal reconstruction in patients who are missing a significant amount of structural nasal support remains a difficult challenge. One challenge is the deficiency of cartilage left within the nose as a consequence of rhinectomy or a midline destructive disease. Historically, the standard donor source for large quantities of native cartilage has been costal cartilage. Objective: To enable the development of protocols for new mesenchymal stem cell technologies as alternative procedures with reduced donor site morbidity, risk of infection and extrusion...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Takashi Nishida, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa
Growth-plate chondrocytes undergo proliferation, maturation, hypertrophic differentiation, and calcification; and these processes can be reproduced in vitro in a chondrocyte culture system. Using this system, we have shown that CCN family protein 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) promotes all stages of proliferation, maturation, hypertrophic differentiation, and calcification, thus suggesting that CCN2 is a multifunctional growth factor for chondrocytes and plays important roles in chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Leilei Zhong, Xiaobin Huang, Emilie Dooms Rodrigues, Jeroen Leijten, Theo Verrips, Mohamed El Khattabi, Marcel Karperien, Janine N Post
Hypertrophic differentiation occurs during in vitro chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), decreasing the quality of the cartilage construct. Previously we identified WNT pathway antagonists Dickkopf 1 homolog (DKK1) and frizzled-related protein (FRZB) as key factors in blocking hypertrophic differentiation of hMSCs. In this study, we investigated the role of endogenously expressed DKK1 and FRZB in chondrogenesis of hMSC, chondrocyte redifferentiation and in preventing cell hypertrophy using three relevant human cell based systems, isolated hMSCs, isolated primary human chondrocytes (hChs), and co-cultures of hMSCs with hChs for which we specifically designed neutralizing nano-antibodies...
October 12, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Jezamine Lim, Zainul Rashid Mohamad Razi, Jiaxian Law, Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Ruszymah Binti Haji Idrus, Min Hwei Ng
BACKGROUND AIMS: Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) are possibly the most suitable allogeneic cell source for stromal cell therapy and tissue engineering applications because of their hypo-immunogenic and non-tumorigenic properties, easy availability and minimal ethical concerns. Furthermore, hWJMSCs possess unique properties of both adult mesenchymal stromal cells and embryonic stromal cells. The human umbilical cord (UC) is approximately 50-60 cm long and the existing studies in the literature have not provided information on which segment of the UC was studied...
October 7, 2016: Cytotherapy
Murong You, Juehua Jing, Dasheng Tian, Jun Qian, Guangrong Yu
Dioscin has been shown to play important roles in suppression of osteoclast maturation. It is proposed as a potential natural product for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. We hypothesized in this study that treatment of dioscin on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could increase the osteo-chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs and promote endochondral ossification of BMSCs in bone fracture environment. BMSCs were extracted from femur and tibia of male C57b mice. Stemness of BMSCs was studied by performing proliferation assay and multilineage differentiation...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Vanessa Pérez-Silos, Alberto Camacho-Morales, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera
Research on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) continues to progress rapidly. Nevertheless, the field faces several challenges, such as inherent cell heterogeneity and the absence of unique MSCs markers. Due to MSCs' ability to differentiate into multiple tissues, these cells represent a promising tool for new cell-based therapies. However, for tissue engineering applications, it is critical to start with a well-defined cell population. Additionally, evidence that MSCs subpopulations may also feature distinct characteristics and regeneration potential has arisen...
2016: Stem Cells International
Henrique Almeida, Binulal Nelson Sathy, Ivan Dudurych, Conor Timothy Buckley, Fergal J O'Brien, Daniel John Kelly
Regenerating articular cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue such as the meniscus is still a challenge in orthopedic medicine. While a range of different scaffolds have been developed for joint repair, none have facilitated the development of a tissue that mimics the complexity of soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Furthermore, many of these scaffolds are not designed to function in mechanically challenging joint environments. The overall goal of this study was to develop a porous, biomimetic, shape-memory alginate scaffold for directing cartilage regeneration...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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