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Lauren A Jevons, Franchesca D Houghton, Rahul S Tare
The rise in the incidence of musculoskeletal diseases is attributed to an increasing ageing population. The debilitating effects of musculoskeletal diseases, coupled with a lack of effective therapies, contribute to huge financial strains on healthcare systems. The focus of regenerative medicine has shifted to pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), namely, human embryonic stem cells and human-induced PSCs, due to the limited success of adult stem cell-based interventions. PSCs constitute a valuable cell source for musculoskeletal regeneration due to their capacity for unlimited self-renewal, ability to differentiate into all cell lineages of the three germ layers and perceived immunoprivileged characteristics...
March 20, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Hyeran Cho, Aeri Lee, Kyobum Kim
Background: Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most essential supplement in culture media for cellular proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation. However, due to a limited supply and subsequently rising prices, a series of studies have investigated a biological feasibility of replaceable serums to substitute FBS. Along with the increasing interests to manufacture stem cell-based cellular products, optimizing the composition of culture media including serums and exogenous growth factors (GFs) is of importance...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Ping-Er Wang, Lei Zhang, Jun Ying, Xing Jin, Cheng Luo, Shibing Xu, Rui Dong, Luwei Xiao, Peijian Tong, Hongting Jin
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage degeneration plays a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Bushenhuoxue formula (BSHXF) has been widely used in the treatment of OA in clinics. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the chondroprotective effect of BSHXF remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of BSHXF on OA mice model. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of BSHXF on destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)-induced chondrocyte degradation in OA mice model...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Patrick Prager, Manuela Kunz, Regina Ebert, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Jakob Sieker, Thomas Barthel, Franz Jakob, Christian Konrads, Andre Steinert
Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) share multiple characteristics of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), allowing their use for regenerative therapies. Injuries to the ACL can affect people of all ages. This study assesses whether the regenerative potential of ACL-derived MSCs (ACL-MSCs) from old donors is as high as the potential of ACL-MSCs from young donors. Materials and Methods: ACL-MSCs were isolated from ACL tissues obtained from young and old donors at the time of ACL reconstruction or arthroplasty...
March 19, 2018: Knee Surgery & related Research
Jinling Jia, Jingyu Wang, Junlei Zhang, Mingxing Cui, Xiaohui Sun, Qingjiang Li, Bin Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chondrocyte apoptosis is largely responsible for cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in chondrogenesis and cartilage remodeling. This study explored the effect of miR-125b on inflammatory injury in chondrogenic cells. METHODS: LPS was used to simulate inflammatory injury in murine chondrogenic ATDC5 cell lines. Targeting effect of miR-125b on MIP-1α 3'UTR was assessed by dual luciferase activity assay...
March 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Francesca Salamanna, Simona Cepollaro, Deyanira Contartese, Gianluca Giavaresi, Giovanni Barbanti Brodano, Cristiana Griffoni, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Milena Fini
STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory study. OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from whole bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and MSCs derived from density-gradient centrifugation were isolated from vertebral bodies and cultured under either hypoxic or normoxic conditions to evaluate their biological characteristics and HOX and TALE signature able to improve spinal surgery procedures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The use of spinal fusion procedures has increased over the last decades; however, failed fusion still remains an important problem...
March 15, 2018: Spine
Virginia Piombo, Katja Jochmann, Daniel Hoffmann, Manuela Wuelling, Andrea Vortkamp
Multiple osteochondromas (MO) syndrome is a dominant autosomal bone disorder characterized by the formation of cartilage-capped bony outgrowths that develop at the juxtaposition of the growth plate of endochondral bones. MO has been linked to mutations in either EXT1 or EXT2, two glycosyltransferases required for the synthesis of heparan sulfate (HS). The establishment of mouse mutants demonstrated that a clonal, homozygous loss of Ext1 in a wild type background leads to the development of osteochondromas. Here we investigate mechanisms that might contribute to the variation in the severity of the disease observed in human patients...
March 12, 2018: Bone
Sopita Wongin, Saranatra Waikakul, Pojchong Chotiyarnwong, Wanwipa Siriwatwechakul, Masahiro Kino-Oka, Mee-Hae Kim, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat
BACKGROUND: Dedifferentiation of chondrocytes during cell expansion is one of the barriers in tissue construction for cartilage repair. To understand chondrocyte behavior and improve cell expansion in monolayer culture, this study investigated the effects of morphological changes and cellular aggregation on the maintenance of chondrogenic capacity by observing the expression patterns of chondrogenic (collagen type II and aggrecan) and dedifferentiation (collagen type I) markers. Primary human chondrocytes were cultured on either a polystyrene surface (PS) or a polyamidoamine dendrimer surface with a fifth-generation (G5) dendron structure to create a one-step process of cell expansion and the maintenance of chondrogenic activities prior to the construction of cell sheets...
March 14, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Jaime L Bernstein, Benjamin P Cohen, Alexandra Lin, Alice Harper, Lawrence J Bonassar, Jason A Spector
PURPOSE: The significant shortcomings associated with current autologous reconstructive options for auricular deformities have inspired great interest in a tissue engineering solution. A major obstacle in the engineering of human auricular cartilage is the availability of sufficient autologous human chondrocytes. A clinically obtainable amount of auricular cartilage tissue (ie, 1 g) only yields approximately 10 million cells, where 25 times this amount is needed for the fabrication of a full-scale pediatric ear...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Sara Žigon-Branc, Ariana Barlič, Miomir Knežević, Matjaž Jeras, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Inflammation plays a major role in progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a disease treated with antagonists of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß). New in vitro testing systems are needed to evaluate efficacies of new anti-inflammatory biological drugs, ideally in a patient-specific manner. To address this need, we studied microspheroids containing 10,000 human osteoarthritic primary chondrocytes (OACs) or chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), obtained from three donors...
March 14, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Yeri Alice Rim, Yoojun Nam, Narae Park, Hyerin Jung, Yeonsue Jang, Jennifer Lee, Ji Hyeon Ju
Scientists have tried to reprogram various origins of primary cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Every somatic cell can theoretically become a hiPSC and give rise to targeted cells of the human body. However, there have been debates on the controversy about the differentiation propensity according to the origin of primary cells. We reprogrammed hiPSCs from four different types of primary cells such as dermal fibroblasts (DF, n = 3), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n = 3), cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC, n = 3), and osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (OAFLS, n = 3)...
2018: Stem Cells International
Melissa Lo Monaco, Greet Merckx, Jessica Ratajczak, Pascal Gervois, Petra Hilkens, Peter Clegg, Annelies Bronckaers, Jean-Michel Vandeweerd, Ivo Lambrichts
Due to the restricted intrinsic capacity of resident chondrocytes to regenerate the lost cartilage postinjury, stem cell-based therapies have been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach for cartilage repair. Moreover, stem cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used successfully in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these promising reports, the exact mechanisms underlying stem cell-mediated cartilage repair remain uncertain. Stem cells can contribute to cartilage repair via chondrogenic differentiation, via immunomodulation, or by the production of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles...
2018: Stem Cells International
Shuping Peng, Lihua Cao, Shiwei He, Yancheng Zhong, Haotian Ma, Yanru Zhang, Cijun Shuai
Bone regeneration is very important for the recovery of some diseases including osteoporosis and bone fracture trauma. It is a multiple-step- and multiple-gene-involved complex process, including the matrix secretion and calcium mineralization by osteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the absorption of calcium and phosphorus by osteoclasts differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a family of transcripts longer than 200 nt without or with very low protein-coding potential...
2018: Stem Cells International
Anne Bernhardt, Birgit Paul, Michael Gelinsky
BACKGROUND: Collagens of marine origin are applied increasingly as alternatives to mammalian collagens in tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to develop a biphasic scaffold from exclusively marine collagens supporting both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and to find a suitable setup for in vitro chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stroma cells (hMSC). METHODS: Biphasic scaffolds from biomimetically mineralized salmon collagen and fibrillized jellyfish collagen were fabricated by joint freeze-drying and crosslinking...
March 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Ruijun He, Baichuan Wang, Min Cui, Zekang Xiong, Hui Lin, Lei Zhao, Zhiliang Li, Zhe Wang, Shaun Peggrem, Zhidao Xia, Zengwu Shao
Background: Link protein N-terminal peptide (LPP) in extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage could induce synthesis of proteoglycans and collagen type II in cartilaginous cells. Cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs), the endogenous stem cells in cartilage, are important in cartilage degeneration and regeneration. We hypothesized that LPP could be a stimulator for stem cell-based cartilage regeneration by affecting biological behaviors of CSPC. Methods: CSPCs were isolated from rat knee cartilage...
2018: Stem Cells International
C C Ude, W T Seet, S Sharen Aini, B S Aminuddin, B H I Ruszymah
The study objectives include, enhancing the proliferations of aged bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose stem cells (ADSCs); and evaluating the shelf lives of clinical grade chondrogenically induced cells from both samples. ADSCs and BMSCs from 56 patients (76 ± 8 yrs) were proliferated using basal medium (FD) and at (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25) ng/ml of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). They were induced to chondrogenic lineage and stored for more than 120 hrs in FD, serum, Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) and saline at 4 °C...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu Bin Lee, Eun Mi Kim, Hayeon Byun, Hyung-Kwan Chang, Kwanghee Jeong, Zachary M Aman, Yu Suk Choi, Jungyul Park, Heungsoo Shin
Numerous methods have been reported for the fabrication of 3D multi-cellular spheroids and their use in stem cell culture. Current methods typically relying on the self-assembly of trypsinized, suspended stem cells, however, show limitations with respect to cell viability, throughput, and accurate recapitulation of the natural microenvironment. In this study, we developed a new system for engineering cell spheroids by self-assembly of micro-scale monolayer of stem cells. We prepared synthetic hydrogels with the surface of chemically formed micropatterns (squares/circles with width/diameter of 200 μm) on which mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human nasal turbinate tissue (hTMSCs) were selectively attached and formed a monolayer...
March 1, 2018: Biomaterials
Yuji Kohno, Mitsuru Mizuno, Nobutake Ozeki, Hisako Katano, Koji Otabe, Hideyuki Koga, Mikio Matsumoto, Haruka Kaneko, Yuji Takazawa, Ichiro Sekiya
BACKGROUND: Mobilization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the synovium was revealed using a "suspended synovium culture model" of osteoarthritis (OA). The pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) differs from that of OA. We investigated whether mobilization of MSCs from the synovium also occurred in RA, and we compared the properties of synovial MSCs collected from suspended synovium culture models of RA and OA. METHODS: Human synovium was harvested during total knee arthroplasty from the knee joints of patients with RA (n = 8) and OA (n = 6)...
March 9, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Mohammad-Hossein Beigi, Atefeh Atefi, Hamid-Reza Ghanaei, Sheyda Labbaf, Fatemeh Ejeian, Mohammad-Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
In the current study the effect of superimposing platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on different culture mediums in a three-dimensional (3D) alginate scaffold encapsulated with adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) for cartilage tissue repair is reported. The 3D alginate scaffolds with co-administration of PRP and/or chondrogenic supplements had a significant effect on the differentiation of ADSCs into mature cartilage, as assessed by evaluation of the expression of cartilage related markers of Sox9, Collagen II, Aggrecan and collagen and glycosaminoglycan assays...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Anne Leferink, Diogo Santos, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Lorenzo Moroni
When tissue engineering strategies rely on the combination of three-dimensional (3D) polymeric or ceramic scaffolds with cells to culture implantable tissue construct in vitro, it is desirable to monitor tissue growth and cell fate to be able to more rationally predict the quality and success of the construct upon implantation. Such a 3D construct is often referred to as a 'black-box' since the properties of the scaffolds material limit the applicability of most imaging modalities to assess important construct parameters...
March 8, 2018: Biomedical Materials
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