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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230893/the-effect-of-body-mass-on-outdoor-adult-human-decomposition
#1
Lindsey G Roberts, Jessica R Spencer, Gretchen R Dabbs
Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218267/dislocation-mechanisms-and-3d-twin-architectures-generate-exceptional-strength-ductility-toughness-combination-in-crconi-medium-entropy-alloy
#2
Zijiao Zhang, Hongwei Sheng, Zhangjie Wang, Bernd Gludovatz, Ze Zhang, Easo P George, Qian Yu, Scott X Mao, Robert O Ritchie
Combinations of high strength and ductility are hard to attain in metals. Exceptions include materials exhibiting twinning-induced plasticity. To understand how the strength-ductility trade-off can be defeated, we apply in situ, and aberration-corrected scanning, transmission electron microscopy to examine deformation mechanisms in the medium-entropy alloy CrCoNi that exhibits one of the highest combinations of strength, ductility and toughness on record. Ab initio modelling suggests that it has negative stacking-fault energy at 0K and high propensity for twinning...
February 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216124/the-pattern-and-degree-of-capsular-fibrous-sheaths-surrounding-cochlear-electrode-arrays
#3
Reuven Ishai, Barbara S Herrmann, Joseph B Nadol, Alicia M Quesnel
An inflammatory tissue reaction around the electrode array of a cochlear implant (CI) is common, in particular at the electrode insertion region (cochleostomy) where mechanical trauma often occurs. However, the factors determining the amount and causes of fibrous reaction surrounding the stimulating electrode, especially medially near the perimodiolar location, are unclear. Temporal bone (TB) specimens from patients who had undergone cochlear implantation during life with either Advanced Bionics (AB) Clarion (TM) or HiRes90K(TM) (Sylmar, CA, USA) devices that have a half-band and a pre-curved electrode, or Cochlear (TM) Nucleus (Sydney, Australia) device that have a full-band and a straight electrode were evaluated...
February 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204831/tachycardia-bradycardia-syndrome-electrophysiological-mechanisms-and-future-therapeutic-approaches-review
#4
Gary Tse, Tong Liu, Ka Hou Christien Li, Victoria Laxton, Andy On-Tik Wong, Yin Wah Fiona Chan, Wendy Keung, Camie W Y Chan, Ronald A Li
Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) encompasses a group of disorders whereby the heart is unable to perform its pacemaker function, due to genetic and acquired causes. Tachycardia‑bradycardia syndrome (TBS) is a complication of SSS characterized by alternating tachycardia and bradycardia. Techniques such as genetic screening and molecular diagnostics together with the use of pre-clinical models have elucidated the electrophysiological mechanisms of this condition. Dysfunction of ion channels responsible for initiation or conduction of cardiac action potentials may underlie both bradycardia and tachycardia; bradycardia can also increase the risk of tachycardia, and vice versa...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197382/s100a8-stroma-cells-predict-a-good-prognosis-and-inhibit-aggressiveness-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#5
Si Li, Fangying Xu, Hui Li, Jing Zhang, Anjing Zhong, Bin Huang, Maode Lai
Gene microarray and bioinformatic analysis showed that S100A8 was more abundant in the stroma surrounding tumor buddings (TBs) than in the stroma surrounding primary tumor cells in colorectal carcinomas. Here, S100A8(+) cells in 419 colorectal carcinoma samples were stained by immunohistochemistry and counted using Image-pro plus 6.0. TBs were also counted and biomarkers associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the association between S100A8(+) cells and clinico-pathological variables as well as survival...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185802/infection-in-burn-patients-in-a-referral-center-in-colombia
#6
Carlos Enrique Ramirez-Blanco, Carlos Enrique Ramirez-Rivero, Luis Alfonso Diaz-Martinez, Luis Miguel Sosa-Avila
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, burns are responsible for more than 300,000 deaths annually; infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Early identification and treatment of infection improves outcome. Toward this end it's necessary to identify the institutions flora and organisms that most frequently produces infection. OBJECTIVES: To characterize infections developed by burn patients hospitalized at the University Hospital of Santander (HUS)...
February 6, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175978/skeletal-effects-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-among-patients-with-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#7
J H Lee, J H Kim, A R Hong, S W Kim, C S Shin
: Little is known about the association between vitamin D deficiency and the skeletal phenotypes in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. A low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was associated with a low bone mineral density and deteriorated hip geometry in women with PHPT in an Asian population where vitamin D deficiency is prevalent. INTRODUCTION: Few studies have examined the effect of vitamin D deficiency on the bone health of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients...
February 7, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171711/useful-of-temporal-bone-prototype-for-drilling-training%C3%A2-a-prospective-study
#8
C Aussedat, F Venail, Y Nguyen, E Lescanne, M Marx, D Bakhos
OBJECTIVES: Dissection of cadaveric temporal bones (TBs) is considered the gold standard for surgical training in otology. For many reasons, access to the anatomic lab and cadaveric TBs is difficult for some facilities. The aim of this prospective and comparative study was to evaluate the usefulness of a physical TB prototype for drilling training in residency. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-four residents were included...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166941/keeping-it-regular-development-of-thermoregulation-in-four-tropical-seabird-species
#9
Lorinda A Hart, Colleen T Downs, Mark Brown
The thermoregulatory capacity of a species can determine which climatic niche it occupies. Its development in avian chicks is influenced by numerous factors. Furthermore, it is suggested that altricial chicks develop their thermoregulatory capacity post-hatching, while precocial chicks develop aspects of this in the egg. We investigated the development of thermoregulation of four co-occurring seabird species in the Seychelles; namely white, ground-nesting white-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon lepturus) and tree-nesting fairy terns (Gygis alba); and dark plumaged, tree-nesting lesser noddies (Anous tenuirostris) and ground- and tree-nesting brown noddies (A...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165653/novel-biparametric-mri-and-targeted-biopsy-improves-risk-stratification-in-men-with-a-clinical-suspicion-of-prostate-cancer-improd-trial
#10
Ivan Jambor, Peter J Boström, Pekka Taimen, Kari Syvänen, Esa Kähkönen, Markku Kallajoki, Ileana Montoya Perez, Tommi Kauko, Jaakko Matomäki, Otto Ettala, Harri Merisaari, Aida Kiviniemi, Peter B Dean, Hannu J Aronen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of a 3T biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bpMRI), T2 -weighted imaging, and three separate diffusion-weighted imaging acquisitions combined with targeted biopsy (TB) for improving risk stratification of men with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2013 and February 2015, 175 men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa) were offered bpMRI (NCT01864135) based on a suspicion of PCa (two repeated PSA measurements in the range 2...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161997/patterns-of-dna-methylation-across-the-leptin-core-promoter-in-four-diverse-asian-and-north-american-populations
#11
M J Mosher, P E Melton, P Stapleton, M S Schanfield, M H Crawford
DNA methylation is the most widely studied of epigenetic mechanisms, with environmental effects recorded through patterned attachments of methyl groups along the DNA that are capable of modifying gene expression without altering the DNA sequencing. The degree to which these patterns of DNA methylation are heritable, the expected range of normality across populations, and the phenotypic relevance of pattern variation remain unclear. Genes regulating metabolic pathways appear to be vulnerable to ongoing nutritional programming over the life course, as dietary nutrients are significant environmental determinants of DNA methylation, supplying both the methyl groups and energy to generate the methylation process...
April 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159710/trabecular-bone-score-tbs-method-and-applications
#12
P Martineau, W D Leslie
Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a texture index derived from standard lumbar spine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images and provides information about the underlying bone independent of the bone mineral density (BMD). Several salient observations have emerged. Numerous studies have examined the relationship between TBS and fracture risk and have shown that lower TBS values are associated with increased risk for major osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women and older men, with this result being independent of BMD values and other clinical risk factors...
February 1, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158089/nonuniformity-correction-based-on-focal-plane-array-temperature-in-uncooled-long-wave-infrared-cameras-without-a-shutter
#13
Kun Liang, Cailan Yang, Li Peng, Bo Zhou
In uncooled long-wave IR camera systems, the temperature of a focal plane array (FPA) is variable along with the environmental temperature as well as the operating time. The spatial nonuniformity of the FPA, which is partly affected by the FPA temperature, obviously changes as well, resulting in reduced image quality. This study presents a real-time nonuniformity correction algorithm based on FPA temperature to compensate for nonuniformity caused by FPA temperature fluctuation. First, gain coefficients are calculated using a two-point correction technique...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131130/trabecular-bone-score-a-new-dxa-derived-measurement-for-fracture-risk-assessment
#14
REVIEW
Barbara C Silva, William D Leslie
Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel method that assesses skeletal texture from spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images. TBS improves fracture-risk prediction beyond that provided by DXA bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical risk factors, and can be incorporated to the Word Health Organization Fracture Risk Assessment tool (FRAX®) to enhance fracture prediction. There is insufficient evidence that TBS can be used to monitor treatment with bisphosphonates. TBS may be particularly helpful to assess fracture risk in diabetes...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127556/trabecular-bone-score-reflects-trabecular-microarchitecture-deterioration-and-fragility-fracture-in-female-adult-patients-receiving-glucocorticoid-therapy-a-pre-post-controlled-study
#15
Mei-Hua Chuang, Tzyy-Ling Chuang, Malcolm Koo, Yuh-Feng Wang
A recently developed diagnostic tool, trabecular bone score (TBS), can provide quality of trabecular microarchitecture based on images obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Since patients receiving glucocorticoid are at a higher risk of developing secondary osteoporosis, assessment of bone microarchitecture may be used to evaluate risk of fragility fractures of osteoporosis. In this pre-post study of female patients, TBS and fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) adjusted with TBS (T-FRAX) were evaluated along with bone mineral density (BMD) and FRAX...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120394/comparing-the-scoring-of-human-decomposition-from-digital-images-to-scoring-using-on-site-observations
#16
Gretchen R Dabbs, Joan A Bytheway, Melissa Connor
When in forensic casework or empirical research in-person assessment of human decomposition is not possible, the sensible substitution is color photographic images. To date, no research has confirmed the utility of color photographic images as a proxy for in situ observation of the level of decomposition. Sixteen observers scored photographs of 13 human cadavers in varying decomposition stages (PMI 2-186 days) using the Total Body Score system (total n = 929 observations). The on-site TBS was compared with recorded observations from digital color images using a paired samples t-test...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118552/decellularized-tooth-bud-scaffolds-for-tooth-regeneration
#17
W Zhang, B Vazquez, D Oreadi, P C Yelick
Whole tooth regeneration approaches currently are limited by our inability to bioengineer full-sized, living replacement teeth. Recently, decellularized organ scaffolds have shown promise for applications in regenerative medicine by providing a natural extracellular matrix environment that promotes cell attachment and tissue-specific differentiation leading to full-sized organ regeneration. We hypothesize that decellularized tooth buds (dTBs) created from unerupted porcine tooth buds (TBs) can be used to guide reseeded dental cell differentiation to form whole bioengineered teeth, thereby providing a potential off-the-shelf scaffold for whole tooth regeneration...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116065/repeatability-and-correlation-of-physiological-traits-do-ectotherms-have-a-thermal-type
#18
Celine T Goulet, Michael B Thompson, David G Chapple
Across a range of taxa, individuals within a species differ in suites of correlated traits. These trait complexes, known as syndromes, can have dramatic evolutionary consequences as they do not evolve independently but rather as a unit. Current research focuses primarily on syndromes relating to aspects of behavior and life history. What is less clear is whether physiological traits also form a syndrome. We measured 10 thermal traits in the delicate skink, Lampropholis delicata, to test this idea. Repeatability was calculated and their across-context correlations evaluated...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107807/continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-may-improve-visuospatial-neglect-via-modulating-the-attention-network-a-randomized-controlled-study
#19
Wei Fu, Lei Cao, Yanming Zhang, Su Huo, JuBao Du, Lin Zhu, Weiqun Song
BACKGROUND: Visuospatial neglect (VSN) is devastating and common after stroke, and is thought to involve functional disturbance of the attention network. Non-invasive theta-burst stimulation (TBS) may help restore the normal function of attention network, therefore facilitating recovery from VSN. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of continuous TBS on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the attention network, and behavioral performances of patients with VSN after stroke...
January 20, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106396/tetrel-bonds-in-infinite-molecular-chains-by-electronic-structure-theory-and-their-role-for-crystal-stabilization
#20
Janine George, Richard Dronskowski
Intermolecular bonds play a crucial role in the rational design of crystal structures, dubbed crystal engineering. The relatively new term tetrel bonds (TBs) describes a long-known type of such interactions presently in the focus of quantum chemical cluster calculations. Here, we energetically explore the strengths and cooperativity of these interactions in infinite chains, a possible arrangement of such tetrel bonds in extended crystals, by periodic density functional theory. In the chains, the TBs are amplified due to cooperativity by up to 60%...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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