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Masao Morita, Yuichi Kobayashi
The stereoselective synthesis of resolvin D4 (RvD4) was achieved using the Wittig reaction of the C1-C10 dienal with the known C11-C22 phosphonium salt. The (S,E)-enantiomer (S)-10, corresponding to the C1-C8 part, was synthesized in 95% ee by the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation reaction of the corresponding acetylenic ketone followed by Red-Al reduction. Sharpless epoxidation of this alcohol using Ti(O-i-Pr)4/L-(+)-DIPT as a catalyst produced anti epoxy alcohol with >99% ee as the sole product in 82% yield...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Emmanuel E Psykarakis, Elli Chatzopoulou, Thanasis Gimisis
A number of environmental pollutants and endogenous oxidation agents form 1-(2-deoxy-β-d-ribofuranosyl)-5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantoin (HydT), an important DNA lesion resulting from thymidine oxidation. In this paper, two intermediates, postulated in the formation of HydT, have been characterised for the first time. The first, N1 -formyl-N3 -pyruvoylurea intermediate, was produced by the ozonolysis reaction of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetylribo-, 3',5'-di-O-TBS- and N3 ,O3' ,O5 -tribenzyl-protected thymidines and was shown to produce, upon decomposition and depending on the protecting group and the conditions, HydT alone, or together with protected-β-d-ribofuranosyl-N1 -formylurea and formamide products...
March 14, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Kwi Young Kang, In Je Kim, Sung-Hwan Park, Yeon Sik Hong
Objectives: To compare trabecular bone scores (TBS) between axial SpA (axSpA) patients with and without vertebral fractures and investigate associations between TBS and vertebral fractures. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-five patients fulfilling the imaging arm of the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society axSpA criteria were enrolled. TBS and BMD were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Vertebral fracture of the thoracic and lumbar spine was defined according to the Genant criteria...
March 9, 2018: Rheumatology
Patrick Martineau, William D Leslie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a texture index derived from the lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry which can assess skeletal quality and provide information about fracture risk independent of bone mineral density (BMD). TBS is useful in assessing osteoporotic fracture risk, with lower TBS values associated with increased fracture risk. In this article, we review the current state of TBS, including its utility and limitations in the assessment and management of osteoporosis, with particular emphasis on the recent literature...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Jesper D Nielsen, Kristoffer H Madsen, Oula Puonti, Hartwig R Siebner, Christian Bauer, Camilla Gøbel Madsen, Guilherme B Saturnino, Axel Thielscher
Anatomically realistic volume conductor models of the human head are important for accurate forward modeling of the electric field during transcranial brain stimulation (TBS), electro- (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In particular, the skull compartment exerts a strong influence on the field distribution due to its low conductivity, suggesting the need to represent its geometry accurately. However, automatic skull reconstruction from structural magnetic resonance (MR) images is difficult, as compact bone has a very low signal in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Xanthippi Chatzistavrou, Anna Lefkelidou, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Eleni Pavlidou, Konstantinos M Paraskevopoulos, J Christopher Fenno, Susan Flannagan, Carlos González-Cabezas, Nikos Kotsanos, Petros Papagerakis
Aim: Antimicrobial and bioactive restorative materials are needed to develop a bacteria free environment and tight bond with the surrounding tissue, preventing the spread of secondary caries and thus extending the lifetime of dental restorations. The characteristic properties of new dental bioactive and antibacterial composites are presented in this work. The new composites have been microstructurally characterized and both long and short term properties have been studied. Methods: The Ag-doped sol-gel derived bioactive glass (Ag-BG) was incorporated into resin composite in concentrations 5, 10, and 15 wt...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Gianluca Neglia, Massimo Capuano, Anna Balestrieri, Roberta Cimmino, Francesco Iannaccone, Francesco Palumbo, Giorgio A Presicce, Giuseppe Campanile
The combined effect of six consecutive timed artificial inseminations (TAIs) on pregnancy rates, following two different synchronization protocols on buffalo heifers, over a period of seven months typically characterized by low breeding performances, were investigated in this study. A total of 2189 TAIs were performed on 1463 buffalo heifers within a large buffalo farm in the south of Italy. Individual animals were allowed to undergo synchronization protocol (either a slightly modified Ovsynch or Progesterone treatment) and TAI until establishment of pregnancy or else for not more than six consecutive times...
February 8, 2018: Theriogenology
Salum Mohammed, Joan J E Munissi, Stephen S Nyandoro
A total of 61 samples comprising sunflower seeds (40) and unrefined sunflower oils (21) samples collected randomly from Singida, Tanzania were analysed by RP-HPLC. 15% (6/40) of the seed samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 ranging from LOD to 218 ng g-1 with three of them exceeding the EC/EU and TBS/TFDA maximum limits of 2 ng g-1 for AFB1 in oilseeds. The levels of total aflatoxins (AFT) in seeds ranged from LOD to 243 ng g-1 . Other aflatoxins, except AFG2 , were also detected. For the unrefined sunflower oils, the levels of AFB1 ranged from LOD to 2...
February 28, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Chunlin Chen, Hongping Li, Takehito Seki, Deqiang Yin, Gabriel Sanchez-Santolino, Kazutoshi Inoue, Naoya Shibata, Yuichi Ikuhara
Clarifying how the atomic structure of interfaces/boundaries in materials affects the magnetic coupling nature across them is of significant academic value and will facilitate the development of state-of-the-art magnetic devices. Here, by combining atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomistic spin-polarized first-principles calculations, and differential phase contrast imaging, we conduct a systematic investigation of the atomic and electronic structures of individual Fe3 O4 twin boundaries (TBs) and determine their concomitant magnetic couplings...
February 26, 2018: ACS Nano
Satoyo Hosono, Teruhiko Terasawa, Takafumi Katayama, Seiju Sasaki, Keika Hoshi, Chisato Hamashima
The Bethesda system (TBS) has been used for cervical cytological diagnosis in Japan since 2008. Evaluation of specimen adequacy is the most important aspect of quality assurance and for precise diagnosis in TBS. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the unsatisfactory specimen rate in the primary cervical cancer screening setting in Japan. Ovid MEDLINE and Ichushi-Web were searched from inception through May 2017. Prospective and retrospective studies that reported the proportion of unsatisfactory specimens in healthy asymptomatic Japanese women in a cervical cancer screening program were eligible for inclusion; 17 studies were included in the meta-analysis...
February 25, 2018: Cancer Science
Kwi Young Kang, Hye Yeon Goo, Sung-Hwan Park, Yeon Sik Hong
Objectives: To compare the trabecular bone score (TBS) between patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and matched normal controls and identify risk factors associated with a low TBS. Methods: TBS and BMD were assessed in the two groups (axSpA and control) using DXA. Osteoporosis risk factors and inflammatory markers were also assessed. Disease activity and radiographic progression in the sacroiliac joint and spine were evaluated in the axSpA group. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with TBS...
March 1, 2018: Rheumatology
Junko Tamaki, Masayuki Iki, Yuho Sato, Renaud Winzenrieth, Etsuko Kajita, Sadanobu Kagamimori
This study examined whether bone microarchitecture determined by Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) is associated with the risk of major osteoporotic fractures independent of FRAX® in Japanese women. Participants included 1541 women aged ≥ 40 at baseline. Major osteoporotic fractures during a 10-year follow-up period were documented by the Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis Cohort Study. TBS and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were calculated for the same spinal regions at baseline. To compare the predictive ability of FRAX® model when used alone versus in combination with TBS, Akaike information criterion (AIC), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Angelo A Licata, Neil Binkley, Steven M Petak, Pauline M Camacho
OBJECTIVE: High-quality dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are necessary for accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis and monitoring of therapy; however, DXA scan reports may contain errors that cause confusion about diagnosis and treatment. This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology consensus statement was generated to draw attention to many common technical problems affecting DXA report conclusions and provide guidance on how to address them to ensure that patients receive appropriate osteoporosis care...
February 2018: Endocrine Practice
N Binkley, D Krueger, A E de Papp
INTRODUCTION: Case reports of women sustaining multiple vertebral fractures (VF) soon afterdenosumab discontinuation are accumulating. METHODS: We report a woman with five new vertebral fractures in ~8 months following discontinuation of long-term odanacatib (ODN), an experimental cathepsin K inhibitor. RESULTS: DXA examination demonstrated an ~12% decline in bone mineral density (BMD) and ~9% decline in trabecular bone score (TBS) since ODN discontinuation...
February 18, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Federico G Hawkins-Carranza, María T Muñoz-Calvo, Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Gonzalo Allo-Miguel, Luis Del Río, Jesús Pozo, Julie A Chowen, Luis A Pérez-Jurado, Jesús Argente
AIM: Our objective was to determine changes in bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular bone score (TBS), and body composition after 2 years of therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) in 2 prepubertal children with a complete lack of circulating PAPP-A2 due to a homozygous mutation in PAPP-A2 (p.D643fs25*) resulting in a premature stop codon. METHODS: Body composition, BMD, and bone structure were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 1 and 2 years of rhIGF-1 treatment...
February 16, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Samuel Jimenez, Laura Mordillo-Mateos, Michele Dileone, Michela Campolo, Carmen Carrasco-Lopez, Fabricia Moitinho-Ferreira, Tomas Gallego-Izquierdo, Hartwig R Siebner, Josep Valls-Solé, Juan Aguilar, Antonio Oliviero
Spinal plasticity is thought to contribute to sensorimotor recovery of limb function in several neurological disorders and can be experimentally induced in animals and humans using different stimulation protocols. In healthy individuals, electrical continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) of the median nerve has been shown to change spinal motoneuron excitability in the cervical spinal cord as indexed by a change in mean H-reflex amplitude in the flexor carpi radialis muscle. It is unknown whether continuous TBS of a peripheral nerve can also shift motoneuron excitability in the lower limb...
2018: PloS One
M Locquet, C Beaudart, O Bruyère, J A Kanis, L Delandsheere, J-Y Reginster
This study investigated the relationship between muscle and bone status in elderly individuals. Our results suggested links between sarcopenia and osteoporosis; impairment in muscle status (i.e., muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance) is associated with deterioration in bone mass and texture subsequently leading to an increased risk of fracture. INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence has shown associations between sarcopenia and osteoporosis, but existing studies face inconsistencies in the clinical definition of both conditions...
February 14, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Bianca M Marin, Stephen A VanHaerents, Joel L Voss, Donna J Bridge
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to organize items in working memory and this organizational role may also influence long-term memory. To causally test this hypothesized role of DLPFC in long-term memory formation, we used θ-burst noninvasive stimulation (TBS) to modulate DLPFC involvement in a memory task that assessed the influence of active short-term retrieval on later memory. Human subjects viewed three objects on a grid and then either actively retrieved or passively restudied one object's location after a brief delay...
January 2018: ENeuro
Piao Zhou, Jianqiu Zhou, Yongwei Zhu, E Jiang, Zikun Wang
A theoretical model to explore the effect on crack initiation of nanotwinned materials was proposed based on the accumulation of dislocations at twin boundaries. First, a critical cracking initiation condition was established considering the number of dislocations pill-up at TBs, grain size and twin layer thickness, and a semi-quantitative relationship between the crystallographic orientation and the stacking fault energy was built. In addition, the number of dislocations pill-up was described by introducing the theory of strain gradient...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Paulo Vinicius F da Costa, Rejane Maria P da Silva, Hugo B Suffredini, Wendel A Alves
This work describes the electro polymerization of a poly-L-arginine film onto boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces. The morphological and electrochemical properties of the modified electrodes were studied by atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods, and their potential for terbutaline sulfate (TBS) detection was determined by voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. Our results demonstrate that the electrochemical surface area of both uncoated-bare electrodes (GCE e BDD) did not have significant differences in performance...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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