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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781519/assessment-of-vertebral-microarchitecture-in-overt-and-mild-cushing-s-syndrome-using-trabecular-bone-score
#1
Helene Vinolas, Virginie Grouthier, Nadia Mehsen-Cetre, Amandine Boisson, Renaud Winzenrieth, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Charles Mesguich, Laurence Bordenave, Antoine Tabarin
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporotic fractures associated with Cushing's syndrome (CS) may occur despite normal bone mineral density (BMD). Few studies have described alterations in vertebral microarchitecture in glucocorticoid-treated patients and during CS. Trabecular bone score (TBS) estimates trabecular microarchitecture from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry acquisitions. Our aim was to compare vertebral BMD and TBS in patients with overt CS and mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACE), and following cure of overt CS...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776736/trabecular-bone-score-at-the-distal-femur-and-proximal-tibia-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Stacey Lobos, Anne Cooke, Gillian Simonett, Chester Ho, Steven K Boyd, W Brent Edwards
Rapid declines in bone mineral density (BMD) at the knee after spinal cord injury (SCI) are associated with an increased risk of fracture. Evaluation of bone quality using the trabecular bone score (TBS) may provide a complimentary measure to BMD assessment to examine bone health and fracture risk after SCI. The purpose of this study was to assess bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS) at the knee in individuals with and without SCI. Nine individuals with complete SCI (mean time since SCI 2...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775762/aortic-vascular-calcification-is-inversely-associated-with-the-trabecular-bone-score-in-patients-receiving-dialysis
#3
Jasna Aleksova, Samantha Kurniawan, Mirna Vucak-Dzumhur, Peter Kerr, Peter R Ebeling, Frances Milat, Grahame J Elder
INTRODUCTION: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) confers a marked increase in risk for vascular calcification, cardiovascular disease, fracture and mortality, with likely contributing factors including dysregulated bone metabolism and mineral homeostasis. In general population studies, increased vascular calcification is directly related to mortality and inversely related to bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In patients with CKD, abnormalities in turnover, mineralization and bone volume, reduce the ability of DXA to predict fracture...
May 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772723/evolution-of-grain-interfaces-in-annealed-duplex-stainless-steel-after-parallel-cross-rolling-and-direct-rolling
#4
Ming Wang, Haoqing Li, Yujing Tian, Hong Guo, Xiaoying Fang, Yuebin Guo
Changes in various grain interfaces, including the grain boundary and phase boundary, are a strong indication of microstructural changes, particularly ultra-fined grains achieved by large strain deformation and subsequent annealing. After direct rolling and cross rolling with the same strain of ε = 2, the distributions of the interfaces in annealed UNS S32304 duplex stainless steel were investigated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in this study. The ferrite experienced continued recovery, and a high density of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) was produced...
May 16, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764629/an-open-randomized-controlled-study-comparing-an-online-text-based-scenario-and-a-serious-game-by-belgian-and-swiss-pharmacy-students
#5
Jérôme Berger, Noura Bawab, Jeremy De Mooij, Denise Sutter Widmer, Nicolas Szilas, Carine De Vriese, Olivier Bugnon
INTRODUCTION: To compare online learning tools, looped, branch serious game (SG) and linear text-based scenario (TBS), among a sample of Belgian and Swiss pharmacy students. METHODS: Open randomized controlled study. The lesson was based on the case of a benign cough in a healthy child. A randomized sample of 117 students: only the Swiss students had attended a previous lecture on coughs. Participation rate, pre- and post-experience Likert scales and students' clinical knowledge were measured...
March 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763711/efficacy-and-acceptability-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-adult-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-sham-controlled-trials
#6
REVIEW
Julian Mutz, Daniel R Edgcumbe, Andre R BrunoniMD, Cynthia H Y FuMD
We examined the efficacy and acceptability of non-invasive brain stimulation in adult unipolar and bipolar depression. Randomised sham-controlled trials of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and theta-burst stimulation (TBS), without co-initiation of another treatment, were included. We analysed effects on response, remission, all-cause discontinuation rates and continuous depression severity measures. Fifty-six studies met our criteria for inclusion (N  = 3,058, mean age = 44...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762165/improved-fracture-prediction-using-different-frax-adjustments-in-hiv-infected-women
#7
Jingyan Yang, Anjali Sharma, Qiuhu Shi, Kathryn Anastos, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub, Deborah Gustafson, Daniel Merenstein, Wendy J Mack, Phyllis C Tien, Jeri Nieves, Michael T Yin
OBJECTIVES: A Fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX®) using clinical risk factors (CRFs) alone underestimates fracture risk in HIV-infected men. Our objective was to determine whether accuracy of FRAX would be improved by considering HIV as a cause of secondary osteoporosis, and further improved with addition of DXA parameters in HIV-infected women. DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of Women's Interagency HIV Study. METHODS: We included 1148 women (900 HIV-infected and 248 uninfected) over age 40 with data to approximate FRAX CRFs and 10-year observational data for incident fragility fractures; 181 (20%) HIV-infected women had DXA data...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750829/robust-trabecular-microstructure-in-type-2-diabetes-revealed-by-individual-trabecula-segmentation-analysis-of-hr-pqct-images
#8
Jessica F Starr, Leonardo C Bandeira, Sanchita Agarwal, Ankit M Shah, Kyle K Nishiyama, Yizhong Hu, Donald J McMahon, X Edward Guo, Shonni J Silverberg, Mishaela R Rubin
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients have an increased fracture risk, which may be partly explained by compromised bone microarchitecture within the cortical bone compartment. Data on trabecular bone parameters in T2D are contradictory. By high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) trabecular microarchitecture is preserved, yet larger trabecular holes are detected in T2D by MRI and DXA-based trabecular bone scores (TBS) are abnormal. To determine if there are differences in trabecular microstructure, connectivity and alignment in postmenopausal women with T2D as compared to controls, we performed individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analysis on high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans of the distal radius and tibia in 92 women with (n = 42) and without (n = 50) T2D...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739679/low-trabecular-bone-score-in-adolescent-female-inpatients-with-anorexia-nervosa
#9
Yael Levy-Shraga, Liana Tripto-Shkolnik, Dana David, Iris Vered, Daniel Stein, Dalit Modan-Moses
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Trabecular bone score (TBS) is an emerging technology that provides information regarding bone microarchitecture. A recent study showed that in healthy girls normal TBS (≥1.35) was achieved within the first year post-menarche. The aims of our study was to assess TBS in adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to evaluate correlations with clinical, laboratory and densitometric variables. METHODS: A cohort study of 208 adolescent females (mean age 15...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736760/assessment-of-bone-quality-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
N Jiang, W Xia
Substantial evidence exists that diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Low bone strength as well as bone extrinsic factors are probably contributing to the increased bone fragility in diabetes. Bone density and quality are important determinants of bone strength. Although bone mineral density (BMD) and the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) are very useful clinical tools in assessing bone strength, they may underestimate the fracture risk in diabetes mellitus. Through advances in new technologies such as trabecular bone score (TBS) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), we can better assess the bone quality and fracture risk of patients with diabetes mellitus...
May 7, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730251/effects-of-prefrontal-theta-burst-stimulation-on-brain-function-in-treatment-resistant-depression-a-randomized-sham-controlled-neuroimaging-study
#11
Cheng-Ta Li, Mu-Hong Chen, Chi-Hung Juan, Ren-Shyan Liu, Wei-Chen Lin, Ya-Mei Bai, Tung-Ping Su
BACKGROUND: Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) can quickly modulate brain activity and can be used to treat treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Whole-brain analytical research has revealed that left high-frequency PFC rTMS modulates brain activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the fronto-cingulo-temporal circuit. We aimed to investigate whether the prefrontal TBS's antidepressant mechanisms involve these regions. METHODS: We designed a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled neuroimaging study to investigate different mechanisms of TBS [i...
April 23, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725346/theta-burst-stimulation-enhances-connectivity-of-the-dorsal-attention-network-in-young-healthy-subjects-an-exploratory-study
#12
Lubomira Anderkova, Dominik Pizem, Patricia Klobusiakova, Martin Gajdos, Eva Koritakova, Irena Rektorova
We examined effects of theta burst stimulation (TBS) applied over two distinct cortical areas (the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule) on the Stroop task performance in 20 young healthy subjects. Neural underpinnings of the behavioral effect were tested using fMRI. A single session of intermittent TBS of the left superior parietal lobule induced certain cognitive speed enhancement and significantly increased resting-state connectivity of the dorsal attention network. This is an exploratory study that prompts further research with multiple-session TBS in subjects with cognitive impairment...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717734/asymmetric-twins-in-boron-rich-boron-carbide
#13
Xiaokun Yang, William A Goddard, Qi An
Twin boundaries (TBs) play an essential role in enhancing the mechanical, electronic and transport properties of polycrystalline materials. However, the mechanisms are not well understood. In particular, we considered that they may play an important role in boron rich boron carbide (BvrBC), which exhibits promising properties such as low density, super hardness, high abrasion resistance, and excellent neutron absorption. Here, we apply first-principles-based simulations to identify the atomic structures of TBs in BvrBC and their roles for the inelastic response to applied stresses...
May 2, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704137/bonding-to-new-cad-cam-resin-composites-influence-of-air-abrasion-and-conditioning-agents-as-pretreatment-strategy
#14
Marcel Reymus, Malgorzata Roos, Marlis Eichberger, Daniel Edelhoff, Reinhard Hickel, Bogna Stawarczyk
OBJECTIVES: Because of their industrially standardized process of manufacturing, CAD/CAM resin composites show a high degree of conversion, making a reliable bond difficult to achieve. PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the tensile bond strength (TBS) of luting composite to CAD/CAM resin composite materials as influenced by air abrasion and pretreatment strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The treatment factors of the present study were (1) brand of the CAD/CAM resin composite (Brilliant Crios [Coltene/Whaledent], Cerasmart [GC Europe], Shofu Block HC [Shofu], and Lava Ultimate [3M]); (2) air abrasion vs...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696556/long-term-effect-of-testosterone-replacement-therapy-on-bone-in-hypogonadal-men-with-klinefelter-syndrome
#15
N Tahani, L Nieddu, G Prossomariti, M Spaziani, S Granato, F Carlomagno, A Anzuini, A Lenzi, A F Radicioni, E Romagnoli
PURPOSE: To assess different aspects of bone damage in untreated adult patients with Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) before and during testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). METHODS: Fifteen untreated hypogonadal men with KS and 26 control subjects (C) matched for age and BMI were recruited. Sex hormone levels were measured in all subjects. Lumbar spine (LS) and femoral (neck: FN and total hip: TH) bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular bone score (TBS), hip structure analysis (HSA) and fat measures (percentage of fat mass, android/gynoid ratio and visceral adipose tissue) were evaluated by DEXA...
April 25, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685494/trabecular-bone-score-is-a-valuable-addition-to-bone-mineral-density-for-bone-quality-assessment-in-older-mexican-american-women-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Nahid Rianon, Catherine G Ambrose, Maryam Buni, Gordon Watt, Carlos Reyes-Ortiz, Miryoung Lee, Joseph McCormick, Susan Fisher-Hoch
Altered bone quality due to the underlying metabolic changes of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been hypothesized to affect bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in patients with T2D. Lumbar spine trabecular bone score (LS-TBS), an indirect measure of trabecular microarchitecture, provides information on bone quality and has been associated with T2D. However, trabecular bone score (TBS) is also affected by demographic patterns and body size, and is expected to be different in people from various ethnic or racial backgrounds...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682570/influence-of-polishing-methods-on-the-bonding-effectiveness-and-durability-of-different-resin-cements-to-dentin
#17
Lingyan Ren, Mingfei Li, Yahui Pan, Xiangfeng Meng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of polishing methods on the bonding effectiveness and durability of different resin cements to dentin. The dentin surfaces were either treated with a fine-grit diamond bur (polishing A) or further polished by polishing disks (polishing B), and then they were bonded with any one of the three resin cements, namely, etch-and-rinse, self-etch, and self-adhesive resin cements. After 24-hour or 2-year water storage, a microtensile bond strength ( μ TBS) test was performed...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675848/the-role-of-barrels-1-and-2-in-the-enzymatic-activity-of-factor-xiii-a
#18
E L Hethershaw, Penelope J Adamson, Kerrie A Smith, Whitney N Goldsberry, Richard J Pease, Sheena E Radford, Peter J Grant, Robert A S Ariëns, Muriel C Maurer, Helen Philippou
BACKGROUND: Factor XIII (FXIII) is composed of an activation peptide segment, a β-sandwich domain, a catalytic core, and finally β-barrels 1 and 2. FXIII is activated following cleavage of its A-subunits by thrombin. The resultant transglutaminase activity leads to increased resistance of fibrin clots to fibrinolysis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the functional roles of β-barrels 1 and 2 in FXIII, we expressed and characterised the full-length FXIII-A subunit (FXIII-A) and variants truncated to residue 628 [truncated to β-barrel 1 (TB1)], 515 [truncated to catalytic core (TCC)] and 184 [truncated to β-sandwich (TBS)]...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667818/balancing-the-electron-and-hole-transfer-for-efficient-quantum-dot-light-emitting-diodes-by-employing-a-versatile-organic-electron-blocking-layer
#19
Xiao Jin, Chun Chang, Weifeng Zhao, Shujuan Huang, Xiaobing Gu, Qin Zhang, Feng Li, Yubao Zhang, Qinghua Li
The electron blocking layer (EBL) is important to balance the charge carrier transfer and achieve highly efficient quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). Here we report the utilization of a soluble tert-butyldimethylsilyl chloride-modified poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (TBS-PBO) as an EBL for simultaneous good charge carrier transfer balance while maintaining high current density. We show that the versatile TBS-PBO blocks excess electron injection into the QDs, thus leading to better charge carrier transfer balance...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667491/optimization-of-3d-print-material-for-the-recreation-of-patient-specific-temporal-bone-models
#20
Max Haffner, Austin Quinn, Tsung-Yen Hsieh, E Bradley Strong, Toby Steele
OBJECTIVE: Identify the 3D printed material that most accurately recreates the visual, tactile, and kinesthetic properties of human temporal bone Subjects and Methods: Fifteen study participants with an average of 3.6 years of postgraduate training and 56.5 temporal bone (TB) procedures participated. Each participant performed a mastoidectomy on human cadaveric TB and five 3D printed TBs of different materials. After drilling each unique material, participants completed surveys to assess each model's appearance and physical likeness on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (0 = poorly representative, 10 = completely life-like)...
May 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
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