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Cartilaginous

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331385/annotated-checklist-of-fish-cestodes-from-south-america
#1
Philippe V Alves, Alain de Chambrier, Tomáš Scholz, José L Luque
An exhaustive literature search supplemented by a critical examination of records made it possible to present an annotated checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) that, as adults or larvae (metacestodes), parasitize freshwater, brackish water and marine fishes, i.e. cartilaginous and bony fishes, in South America. The current knowledge of their species diversity, host associations and geographical distribution is reviewed. Taxonomic problems are discussed based on a critical evaluation of the literature and information on DNA sequences of individual taxa is provided to facilitate future taxonomic and phylogenetic studies...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327634/scleraxis-is-required-for-maturation-of-tissue-domains-for-proper-integration-of-the-musculoskeletal-system
#2
Yuki Yoshimoto, Aki Takimoto, Hitomi Watanabe, Yuji Hiraki, Gen Kondoh, Chisa Shukunami
Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is expressed persistently in tendons/ligaments, but transiently in entheseal cartilage. In this study, we generated a novel Scx(Cre) knock-in (KI) allele, by in-frame replacement of most of Scx exon 1 with Cre recombinase (Cre), to drive Cre expression using Scx promoter and to inactivate the endogenous Scx. Reflecting the intensity and duration of endogenous expression, Cre-mediated excision occurs in tendinous and ligamentous tissues persistently expressing Scx...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327586/cellular-preservation-of-musculoskeletal-specializations-in-the-cretaceous-bird-confuciusornis
#3
Baoyu Jiang, Tao Zhao, Sophie Regnault, Nicholas P Edwards, Simon C Kohn, Zhiheng Li, Roy A Wogelius, Michael J Benton, John R Hutchinson
The hindlimb of theropod dinosaurs changed appreciably in the lineage leading to extant birds, becoming more 'crouched' in association with changes to body shape and gait dynamics. This postural evolution included anatomical changes of the foot and ankle, altering the moment arms and control of the muscles that manipulated the tarsometatarsus and digits, but the timing of these changes is unknown. Here, we report cellular-level preservation of tendon- and cartilage-like tissues from the lower hindlimb of Early Cretaceous Confuciusornis...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321270/autophagy-is-a-protective-response-to-the-oxidative-damage-to-endplate-chondrocytes-in-intervertebral-disc-implications-for-the-treatment-of-degenerative-lumbar-disc
#4
Ke Chen, Xiaohua Lv, Wei Li, Fei Yu, Jianjing Lin, Junxuan Ma, Deming Xiao
Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability in the elderly. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) was considered as the main cause for LBP. Degeneration of cartilaginous endplate was a crucial harmful factor during the initiation and development of IDD. Oxidative stress was implicated in IDD. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for the degeneration of cartilaginous endplate remains elusive. Herein, we found that oxidative stress could induce apoptosis and autophagy in endplate chondrocytes evidenced by western blot analysis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, GFP-LC3B transfection, and MDC staining...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303139/evolution-of-interferons-and-interferon-receptors
#5
REVIEW
Chris J Secombes, Jun Zou
The earliest jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomes) would likely have had interferon (IFN) genes, since they are present in extant cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) and bony fish (lobe-finned and ray-finned fish, the latter consisting of the chondrostei, holostei, and teleostei), as well as in tetrapods. They are thought to have evolved from a class II helical cytokine ancestor, along with the interleukin (IL)-10 cytokine family. The two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) that occurred between invertebrates and vertebrates (1) may have given rise to additional loci, initially containing an IL-10 ancestor and IFN ancestor, which have duplicated further to give rise to the two loci containing the IL-10 family genes, and potentially the IFN type I and IFN type III loci (2)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302412/mechanical-behavior-of-idealized-stingray-skeleton-inspired-tiled-composites-as-a-function-of-geometry-and-material-properties
#6
A K Jayasankar, R Seidel, J Naumann, L Guiducci, A Hosny, P Fratzl, J C Weaver, J W C Dunlop, M N Dean
Tilings are constructs of repeated shapes covering a surface, common in both manmade and natural structures, but in particular are a defining characteristic of shark and ray skeletons. In these fishes, cartilaginous skeletal elements are wrapped in a surface tessellation, comprised of polygonal mineralized tiles linked by flexible joints, an arrangement believed to provide both stiffness and flexibility. The aim of this research is to use two-dimensional analytical models to evaluate the mechanical performance of stingray skeleton-inspired tessellations, as a function of their material and structural parameters...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301221/diagnosis-of-internal-derangement-of-the-knee-volume-isotropic-turbo-spin-echo-acquisition-mri-with-fat-suppression-versus-without-fat-suppression
#7
Ji Hyun Lee, Young Cheol Yoon, Ki Jeong Park, Joon Ho Wang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare 3D volume isotropic turbo spin-echo acquisition (VISTA) MRI with and without fat suppression for use in evaluating ligaments, menisci, and cartilage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two radiologists retrospectively and independently reviewed 71 MRI studies. Each study consisted of 3D intermediate-weighted VISTA images with fat suppression and without fat suppression. The presence of tears of the anterior cruciate and posterior cruciate ligaments, tears of the medial and lateral menisci, and cartilaginous defects was evaluated...
March 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292376/cartilaginous-choristoma-of-gingiva
#8
Manas Bajpai, Nilesh Pardhe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286227/ultrastructural-material-and-crystallographic-description-of-endophytic-masses-a-possible-damage-response-in-shark-and-ray-tessellated-calcified-cartilage
#9
Ronald Seidel, Michael Blumer, Paul Zaslansky, David Knötel, Daniel R Huber, James C Weaver, Peter Fratzl, Sidney Omelon, Luca Bertinetti, Mason N Dean
The cartilaginous endoskeletons of Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) are reinforced superficially by minute, mineralized tiles, called tesserae. Unlike the bony skeletons of other vertebrates, elasmobranch skeletons have limited healing capability and their tissues' mechanisms for avoiding damage or managing it when it does occur are largely unknown. Here we describe an aberrant type of mineralized elasmobranch skeletal tissue called endophytic masses (EPMs), which grow into the uncalcified cartilage of the skeleton, but exhibit a strikingly different morphology compared to tesserae and other elasmobranch calcified tissues...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277475/full-thickness-entire-nasal-alar-reconstruction-using-a-forehead-flap-in-asians-no-cartilaginous-infrastructural-lining-is-necessary
#10
Emi Funayama, Yuhei Yamamoto, Hiroshi Furukawa, Naoki Murao, Ryuji Shichinohe, Takeshi Yamao, Toshihiko Hayashi, Akihiko Oyama
Full-thickness defects of the entire nasal ala, including the rim, can be challenging to reconstruct. A forehead flap may provide a more imperceptible and natural-appearing reconstructed nasal ala. Previously, many authors have insisted adding cartilaginous infrastructural support for an entire, full-thickness defect to keep the postoperative alar structure symmetrical. They finally use a forehead flap after thinning of the distal covering portion subcutaneously, possibly for a Caucasian-type nasal ala. However, Asian skin has a thicker and more compact dermis than that of Caucasian skin, and the Asian ala is rounder and thicker...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272938/comparison-of-2-different-formulations-of-artificial-bone-for-a-hybrid-implant-with-a-tissue-engineered-construct-derived-from-synovial-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Kazunori Shimomura, Yu Moriguchi, Ryosuke Nansai, Hiromichi Fujie, Wataru Ando, Shuji Horibe, David A Hart, Alberto Gobbi, Hideki Yoshikawa, Norimasa Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Previously, we developed a hybrid implant composed of hydroxyapatite (HA)-based artificial bone coupled with a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based scaffold-free tissue-engineered construct (TEC) and demonstrated its feasibility for osteochondral repair. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) may be a promising alternative to HA, as it is a highly biocompatible material and is resorbed more rapidly than HA in vivo. HYPOTHESIS: A βTCP-based hybrid TEC implant will exhibit superior osteochondral repair when directly compared with an HA-based hybrid implant, as tested using a rabbit osteochondral defect model...
March 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272149/plasticity-of-auricular-cartilage-in-response-to-hormone-therapy
#12
Patrick S Cottler, Matthew D McLeod, Jesse L Payton, Angela Pineros-Fernandez, Jonathan S Black
INTRODUCTION: Correction of auricular deformities can be accomplished through splinting within the first few weeks of life. This is hypothesized to be due to retained circulating maternal estrogens decreasing the structural density of collagen; however, this has not been fully tested. Cartilage elasticity is dependent on the concentration of the proteoglycan aggregate, and hyaluronic acid, a constituent of proteoglycan aggregate, is increased by estrogens. Nonsurgical correction of these deformities in more developed patients has the potential to change clinical practice and eliminate surgical risks...
March 7, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271061/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-the-complete-family-of-zebrafish-pkd-genes
#13
Samantha J England, Paul C Campbell, Santanu Banerjee, Annika J Swanson, Katharine E Lewis
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) proteins are trans-membrane proteins that have crucial roles in many aspects of vertebrate development and physiology, including the development of many organs as well as left-right patterning and taste. They can be divided into structurally-distinct PKD1-like and PKD2-like proteins and usually one PKD1-like protein forms a heteromeric polycystin complex with a PKD2-like protein. For example, PKD1 forms a complex with PKD2 and mutations in either of these proteins cause Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), which is the most frequent potentially-lethal single-gene disorder in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267362/variability-in-patellofemoral-alignment-measurements-on-mri-influence-of-knee-position
#14
Alejandro Marquez-Lara, Jason Andersen, Leon Lenchik, Cristin M Ferguson, Pushpender Gupta
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the variability of distances between four distinct anatomic landmarks used for the evaluation of patellofemoral alignment while implementing controlled changes in patient positioning during MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Limited MRI was performed of 12 knees in healthy volunteers (10 men, two women; mean age, 28 years) with the knees in four different positions. The four landmarks used were TT (the most anterior point of the osseous tibial tubercle), TG (the nadir of the cartilaginous trochlear groove), PT (the center of the patellar tendon insertion on the tibia), and PCL (the medial border of the posterior cruciate ligament at its insertion along the posterior tibia)...
March 7, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266051/relapsing-polychondritis-associated-with-psoriasis-vulgaris-successfully-treated-with-adalimumab-a-case-report-with-published-work-review
#15
Haruka Matsuo, Akihiko Asahina, Takeshi Fukuda, Yoshinori Umezawa, Hidemi Nakagawa
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune-mediated disease characterized by inflammation involving cartilaginous tissues. We report here a case of RP in a 38-year-old Japanese man with 13-year duration of psoriasis vulgaris treated with topical steroids and vitamin D3 . The patient presented with tender swelling and erythema of both auricles, and the antibody to type II collagen was detected. The biopsy specimen revealed a dense mixed cell infiltration over the auricular cartilage. We reviewed eight cases with the association of RP and psoriasis, and in all cases the clinical course of psoriasis did not correlate with that of RP...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257057/purification-and-identification-of-antioxidant-peptides-from-protein-hydrolysate-of-scalloped-hammerhead-sphyrna-lewini-cartilage
#16
Xue-Rong Li, Chang-Feng Chi, Li Li, Bin Wang
The aim of this study was to purify and identify peptides with antioxidant properties from protein hydrolysate of scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) cartilage. Cartilaginous proteins of the scalloped hammerhead were extracted by guanidine hydrochloride, and three antioxidant peptides, named enzymolysis peptide of scalloped hammerhead cartilage A (SCPE-A), SCPE-B and SCPE-C, were subsequently isolated from the hydrolysate of the cartilaginous proteins using ultrafiltration and chromatography. The amino acid sequences of SCPE-A, SCPE-B and SCPE-C were identified as Gly-Pro-Glu (GPE), Gly-Ala-Arg-Gly-Pro-Gln (GARGPQ), and Gly-Phe-Thr-Gly-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Asn-Gly (GFTGPPGFNG), with molecular weights of 301...
March 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256906/rehabilitation-protocols-after-isolated-meniscal-repair
#17
Kevin O'Donnell, Kevin B Freedman, Fotios P Tjoumakaris
BACKGROUND: Current postoperative rehabilitation protocols after isolated meniscal repair vary widely. No consensus exists with regard to the optimal amount of weightbearing, range of motion, or speed at which the patient progresses through the rehabilitation phases. Confounding factors including concomitant ligamentous or cartilaginous injuries have made studying isolated meniscal tears problematic. PURPOSE: To systematically review and evaluate the influence of range of motion and weightbearing status during the postoperative rehabilitation period after isolated meniscal repair on clinical efficacy and outcome scores...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252516/decellularization-of-the-porcine-ear-generates-a-biocompatible-nonimmunogenic-extracellular-matrix-platform-for-face-subunit-bioengineering
#18
Jérôme Duisit, Giuseppe Orlando, Donovan Debluts, Louis Maistriaux, Daela Xhema, Yann-Alex J de Bisthoven, Cesare Galli, Andrea Peloso, Catherine Behets, Benoît Lengelé, Pierre Gianello
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether perfusion-decellularization technology could be applied to facial grafts. BACKGROUND: Facial allotransplantation remains an experimental procedure. Regenerative medicine techniques allow fabrication of transplantable organs from an individual's own cells, which are seeded into extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds from animal or human organs. Therefore, we hypothesized that ECM scaffolds also can be created from facial subunits...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246010/case-series-of-two-patients-with-fibrocartilaginous-embolism-mimicking-transverse-myelitis-of-the-spinal-cord
#19
Mahmoud AbdelRazek, Rabab Elsadek, Lobna Elsadek
Fibrocartilaginous Embolism (FCE) refers to the extrusion of some of the fibro-cartilaginous nucleus pulposus material from within the inter-vertebral disc to eventually embolize into one of the spinal cord vessels with resultant spinal cord infarction. According to a 2016 review, AbdelRazek et al. (2106) [1] there are 41 pathologically confirmed and 26 clinically suspected cases in the literature till the end of 2015. We add two more clinically diagnosed cases.
February 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244593/growth-factor-signaling-alters-the-morphology-of-the-zebrafish-ethmoid-plate
#20
Brian J Cusack, Trish E Parsons, Seth M Weinberg, Alexandre R Vieira, Heather L Szabo-Rogers
Craniofacial development relies on coordinated tissue interactions that allow for patterning and growth of the face. We know a priori that the Wingless, fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog and transforming growth factor-beta growth factor signaling pathways are required for the development of the face, but how they contribute to the shape of the face is largely untested. Here, we test how each signaling pathway contributes to the overall morphology of the zebrafish anterior neurocranium. We tested the contribution of each signaling pathway to the development of the ethmoid plate during three distinct time periods: the time of neural crest migration [10 hour post fertilization (hpf)]; once the neural crest is resident in the face (20 hpf); and finally at the time at which the cartilaginous condensations are being initiated (48 hpf)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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