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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448253/lycorine-suppresses-endplate-chondrocyte-degeneration-and-prevents-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-pathway
#1
Gangliang Wang, Kangmao Huang, Yangxin Dong, Shuai Chen, Jianfeng Zhang, Jiying Wang, Ziang Xie, Xianfeng Lin, Xiangqiang Fang, Shunwu Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cartilaginous endplate (CEP) degeneration is an important cause for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration that leads to low-back pain. The identification of compounds that may prevent CEP degeneration is of interest for the prevention of IVD degeneration. METHODS: Catabolic protease expression in the CEP of disc degeneration patients was first assessed. The toxicity, function and underlying mechanism of lycorine (LY) on CEP-derived chondrocytes degeneration were assessed in vitro by flow cytometry analysis and western blotting...
February 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447475/the-divergent-genomes-of-teleosts
#2
Vydianathan Ravi, Byrappa Venkatesh
Boasting nearly 30,000 species, teleosts account for half of all extant vertebrates and approximately 98% of all ray-finned fish species (Actinopterygii). Teleosts are also the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, exhibiting an astonishing level of morphological, physiological, and behavioral diversity. Previous studies had indicated that the teleost lineage has experienced an additional whole-genome duplication event. Recent comparative genomic analyses of teleosts and other bony vertebrates using spotted gar (a nonteleost ray-finned fish) and elephant shark (a cartilaginous fish) as outgroups have revealed several divergent features of teleost genomes...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443763/epibulbar-complex-cartilaginous-choristoma-a-distinctive-clinicopathological-case-series-and-literature-review
#3
Zongduan Zhang, Zhengwei Yang, Qintuo Pan, Xiaoyi Qin, Yuxuan Deng, Yuehong Cao
To newly describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics of epibulbar complex cartilaginous choristoma incidentally observed in a series of pterygium excision patients.Noncomparative case series with chart review of 8 patients.During a 4-year period, we identified 8 cases of conventional unilateral nasal subpterygial cartilaginous choristoma in 1799 pterygium patients and analyzed their clinicopathological features. The incidence rate of this entity is 0.44% in pterygium patients. All of the cartilaginous choristomas were buried deep in the caruncle, covered by the pterygium, and embedded in tenon facia tissue...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439662/comparative-genome-analysis-of-52-fish-species-suggests-differential-associations-of-repetitive-elements-with-their-living-aquatic-environments
#4
Zihao Yuan, Shikai Liu, Tao Zhou, Changxu Tian, Lisui Bao, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
BACKGROUND: Repetitive elements make up significant proportions of genomes. However, their roles in evolution remain largely unknown. To provide insights into the roles of repetitive elements in fish genomes, we conducted a comparative analysis of repetitive elements of 52 fish species in 22 orders in relation to their living aquatic environments. RESULTS: The proportions of repetitive elements in various genomes were found to be positively correlated with genome sizes, with a few exceptions...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437070/outcomes-after-extensive-manual-curettage-and-limited-burring-for-atypical-cartilaginous-tumour-of-long-bone
#5
W Kim, J S Lee, H W Chung
AIMS: Adjuvant treatment after intralesional curettage for atypical cartilaginous tumours (ACTs) of long bones is widely accepted for extending surgical margins. However, evaluating the isolated effect of adjuvant treatment is difficult, and it is unclear whether not using such adjuvants provides poor oncological outcomes. Hence, we analyzed whether intralesional curettage without cryosurgery or chemical adjuvants provides poor oncological outcomes in patients with an ACT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 24 patients (nine men, 15 women) (mean age 45 years; 18 to 62) were treated for ACTs of long bones and followed up for a median of 66 months (interquartile range 50 to 84)...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436723/variable-prenatal-presentation-of-pfeiffer-syndrome-suggested-aids-to-prenatal-sonographic-diagnosis
#6
Souha Saliba, Baptiste Morel, Marie Gonzales, Marie-Victoire Sénat, Lucie Guilbaud, Jean-Marie Jouannic, Marie Cassart, Catherine Garel, Eléonore Blondiaux
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to describe and compare the cranial and extracranial abnormalities of Pfeiffer syndrome on prenatal imaging with postnatal or postmortem findings, which may help in prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome (PS). METHODS: Cases of fetuses with a confirmed diagnosis of PS over a 4-year period (2012-2016) were retrospectively reviewed. Prenatal imaging findings, postnatal or postmortem investigations and genetic test results were analyzed...
February 13, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435763/functions-of-vitamin-d-in-bone
#7
REVIEW
D Goltzman
Vitamin D, synthesized in the skin or absorbed from the diet, undergoes multi-step enzymatic conversion to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D], followed by interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR), to modulate target gene expression. Loss-of function mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes regulating these processes, or in the VDR, result in human diseases, which have demonstrated the paramount role of 1,25(OH) 2 D in mineral and skeletal homeostasis. Mouse genetics has been used to create disease phenocopies which have produced considerable insight into the mechanisms of 1,25(OH) 2 D regulation of mineral and skeletal metabolism...
February 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434299/quantitative-morphometry-for-osteochondral-tissues-using-second-harmonic-generation-microscopy-and-image-texture-information
#8
Takashi Saitou, Hiroshi Kiyomatsu, Takeshi Imamura
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disorder involving degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We previously established a second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging technique for evaluating degenerative changes to articular cartilage in an OA mouse model. SHG imaging, an optical label-free technique, enabled observation of collagen fibrils, and characterized critical changes in the collagenous patterns of the joints. However, it still remains to be determined how morphological changes in the organization of tissue collagen fibrils should be quantified...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432864/intestinal-granular-cells-of-a-cartilaginous-fish-thornback-ray-raja-clavata-morphological-characterization-and-expression-of-different-molecules
#9
B Sayyaf Dezfuli, M Manera, G Bosi, P Merella, J A DePasquale, L Giari
This investigation aims to fill gaps in our understanding of the intestinal immune cells of elasmobranchs. Whole digestive tracts of fifteen thornback ray Raja clavata were provided by a trawl fleet from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations were conducted on the spiral intestine. Three types of granular cells were identified; type I in epithelium, types II and III in lamina propria-submucosa, with each of them containing cytoplasmic granules with different ultrastructural characteristics...
February 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430055/conservative-management-of-mri-confirmed-knee-osteoarthritis-with-instrument-assisted-soft-tissue-mobilization-joint-manipulation-and-platelet-rich-plasma
#10
Arif Karmali
Objective: To describe the successful conservative management of a patient with chronic degenerative knee pain. Clinical Features: An active 47 year-old female office-worker with intermittent right knee pain inferolateral to the right patella for eight months described difficulty ascending stairs, sitting on a chair for one hour, and squatting. A physical exam led to the diagnosis of a suspected chronic degenerative tear of the posterior horn of the right medial meniscus and chronic right subpatellar chondrosis, in addition to extensive cartilaginous degeneration revealed by an MRI study conducted prior to initial presentation...
December 2017: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428562/notum-attenuates-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-to-promote-tracheal-cartilage-patterning
#11
B Gerhardt, L Leesman, K Burra, J Snowball, Racheal Rosenzweig, Natalie Guzman, M Ambalavanan, D Sinner
Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is a common congenital disorder in which the cartilaginous rings of the trachea are weakened or missing. Despite the high prevalence and clinical issues associated with TBM, the etiology is largely unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Wntless (Wls) and its associated Wnt pathways are critical for patterning of the upper airways. Deletion of Wls in respiratory endoderm caused TBM and ectopic trachealis muscle. To understand mechanisms by which Wls mediates tracheal patterning, we performed RNA sequencing in prechondrogenic tracheal tissue of Wlsf/f;ShhCre/wt embryos...
February 8, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426958/epiphyseal-hyperplasia-caused-by-an-ectopic-ossification-center-of-the-distal-tibia-presentation-of-a-pediatric-case-with-13-years-of-radiological-surveillance
#12
Susanne Scheipl, Stefan Tauber, Marko Bergovec, Andreas Leithner, Gerhard Ranner
Herein, we report the case of a 4-year-old boy, who presented with a cortical lytic lesion of his distal tibia. It was located eccentrically, measured 2 cm in its craniocaudal diameter, and was associated with a lamella-like soft-tissue mineralization that resembled a periosteal reaction. Thus, the lesion's radiographic features were initially suggestive of an aggressive disease. However, further imaging revealed the lesion to be of cartilaginous origin and to extend into the metaphysis, thus creating the aspect of hyperplastic epiphyseal cartilage...
February 9, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424418/extracellular-matrix-fragmentation-in-young-healthy-cartilaginous-tissues
#13
R J Craddock, N W Hodson, M Ozols, T Shearer, J A Hoyland, M J Sherratt
Although the composition and structure of cartilaginous tissues is complex, collagen II fibrils and aggrecan are the most abundant assemblies in the articular cartilage (AC) and nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Whilst structural heterogeneity of intact (three globular domain) aggrecan is well characterised, the extent of aggrecan fragmentation in healthy tissues is poorly defined. Using young, yet skeletally mature (18-30 months) bovine AC and NP tissues, it was shown that, whilst the ultrastructure of intact aggrecan was tissue-dependent, most molecules (AC: 95 %; NP: 99...
February 9, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416176/spontaneous-conventional-osteosarcoma-transformation-of-a-chondroblastoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Prashant Narhari, Amber Haseeb, Serene Lee, Vivek Ajit Singh
Chondroblastomas are a primary benign cartilaginous tumor that accounts for approximately 1% of all benign bone tumors. Primarily they are treated by curettage. The patient presented 4 years after a successfully treated chondroblastoma (curettage and Bone cement). Wide resection of the proximal tibia with endoprosthesis replacement was done. Lung CT showed multiple lung metastasis and despite starting chemotherapy, he succumbed to the disease. We discuss regarding the possibilities of "aggressive" chondroblastoma and more recently termed chondroblastoma-like osteosarcoma which is a separate entity from chondroblastoma...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414518/peering-beneath-the-surface-juxtacortical-tumors-of-bone-part-i
#15
REVIEW
Ali Gholamrezanezhad, Kyle Basques, Christos Kosmas
Juxtacortical or surface tumors of bone are neoplasms arising from or just outside the cortex, and are composed of different histologic types. Although the imaging appearances of these lesions have similarities to their intramedullary counterparts, their location alters their radiographic and MR characteristics, creating difficulties in diagnosis. Meanwhile, several non-neoplastic lesions, such as stress reaction/stress fracture and indolent infectious processes, compound the differential diagnosis. Neoplastic juxtacortical lesions of bone have been classified into five categories: cartilaginous, fibrous, lipomatous, osseous, and metastatic tumors...
January 27, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405186/-the-forensic-medical-characteristic-of-the-age-based-on-the-results-of-the-comprehensive-examination-of-the-thyroid-cartilage
#16
Yu I Pigolkin, M P Poletaeva, G V Zolotenkova
The objective of the present study was the development of the diagnostic model for determining the human age based on the results of the comprehensive examination of the 230 thyroid cartilages (TC) obtained from the corpses of men and women of different age. TC were examined with the use of the anthropometric, X-ray, and histological methods. The anthropometric investigations confirmed the gender-related differences in the structure of human TC. Various characteristics of TC were shown to correlate with the age but these relationships were rather weak even if formally significant...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398348/evolution-of-the-vertebrate-corneal-stroma
#17
REVIEW
Elena Koudouna, Moritz Winkler, Eric Mikula, Tibor Juhasz, Donald J Brown, James V Jester
Although the cornea is the major refractive element of the eye, the mechanisms controlling corneal shape and hence visual acuity remain unknown. To begin to address this question we have used multiphoton, non-linear optical microscopy to image second harmonic generated signals (SHG) from collagen to characterize the evolutionary and structural changes that occur in the collagen architecture of the corneal stroma. Our studies show that there is a progression in complexity of the stromal collagen organization from lower (fish and amphibians) to higher (birds and mammals) vertebrates, leading to increasing tissue stiffness that may control shape...
February 1, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397960/synergistic-anti-proliferative-effects-of-mtor-and-mek-inhibitors-in-high-grade-chondrosarcoma-cell-line-oums-27
#18
Singo Fukumoto, Kiyoto Kanbara, Masashi Neo
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant bone tumor that produces cartilaginous neoplastic tissue. Owing to the absence of an effective adjuvant therapy, high-grade chondrosarcoma has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to develop an effective adjuvant therapy to prevent the recurrence and metastasis. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central regulator of cell growth, metabolism, proliferation, and survival, is considered an important target for anticancer drug development. The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is another highly implicated cellular pathway in cancer and is thought to have compensatory effects in response to the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway...
February 2, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397789/rock-inhibition-promotes-development-of-chondrogenic-tissue-by-improved-mass-transport
#19
Kuo-Chen Wang, Thomas T Egelhoff, Arnold I Caplan, Jean F Welter, Harihara Baskaran
Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-based chondrogenesis is a key process used to develop tissue engineered cartilage constructs from stem cells, but the resulting constructs have inferior biochemical and biomechanical properties compared to native articular cartilage. Transforming growth factor β containing medium is commonly applied to cell layers of hMSCs, which aggregate upon centrifugation to form 3-D constructs. The aggregation process leads to a high cell density condition, which can cause nutrient limitations during long-term culture, and subsequently, inferior quality of tissue engineered constructs...
February 3, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396887/a-staging-table-for-the-embryonic-development-of-the-brownbanded-bamboo-shark-chiloscyllium-punctatum
#20
Koh Onimaru, Fumio Motone, Itsuki Kiyatake, Kiyonori Nishida, Shigehiro Kuraku
BACKGROUND: Studying cartilaginous fishes (chondrichthyans) has helped us understand vertebrate evolution and diversity. However, resources such as genome sequences, embryos, and detailed staging tables are limited for species within this clade. To overcome these limitations, we have focused on a species, the brownbanded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum), which is a relatively common aquarium species that lays eggs continuously throughout the year. In addition, because of its relatively small genome size, this species is promising for molecular studies...
February 3, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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