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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453836/cba-and-precaution-policy-making-about-emerging-technologies
#1
Gregory E Kaebnick, Michael K Gusmano
In the technology assessment literature, the leading alternative to CBA-like methods is usually held to be precaution, which is understood in various ways but is always about making decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Under such conditions, proponents of precaution commonly hold, a straightforward tallying of potential outcomes does not seem possible. Since CBA aims to tally up outcomes to determine which outcome would produce the greatest public benefit, precaution begins to look like, not just an alternative to CBA, but an incompatible alternative...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453439/working-memory-and-brain-tissue-microstructure-white-matter-tract-integrity-based-on-multi-shell-diffusion-mri
#2
Sohae Chung, Els Fieremans, Nuri E Kucukboyaci, Xiuyuan Wang, Charles J Morton, Dmitry S Novikov, Joseph F Rath, Yvonne W Lui
Working memory is a complex cognitive process at the intersection of sensory processing, learning, and short-term memory and also has a general executive attention component. Impaired working memory is associated with a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but very little is known about how working memory relates to underlying white matter (WM) microstructure. In this study, we investigate the association between WM microstructure and performance on working memory tasks in healthy adults (right-handed, native English speakers)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452365/indigenous-medicine-and-biomedical-health-care-in-fragile-settings-insights-from-burundi
#3
Jean-Benoît Falisse, Serena Masino, Raymond Ngenzebuhoro
This study contributes to the health policy debate on medical systems integration by describing and analysing the interactions between health-care users, indigenous healers, and the biomedical public health system, in the so far rarely documented case of post-conflict Burundi. We adopt a mixed-methods approach combining (1) data from an existing survey on access to health-care, with 6,690 individuals, and (2) original interviews and focus groups conducted in 2014 with 121 respondents, including indigenous healers, biomedical staff, and health-care users...
February 14, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452065/past-year-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-drugs-among-women-on-probation-and-parole-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Martin T Hall, Diana Ball, Jeanelle Sears, George E Higgins, T K Logan, Seana Golder
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug-related overdose deaths have increased dramatically in recent years. Women in the justice system experience high rates of drug use, victimization, trauma symptoms, and other health problems, and would appear to be at high risk for nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). This study will be among the first to describe prevalence and correlates of NMUPD among this population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected data from 406 victimized women on probation and parole between 2010 and 2012...
February 16, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450797/cultural-considerations-for-psychologists-in-primary-care
#5
Adeya Richmond, Jessica Jackson
Many health concerns in the United States (e.g., diabetes) are routinely managed in primary care settings. Regardless of the medical condition, patients' health is directly influenced by factors such as healthcare providers and cultural background. Training related to how behaviors influence health, coupled with training on how cultural diversity intersects with mental health, allows psychologists to have the relevant expertise to assist in the development of primary care behavioral health interventions. However, many psychologists in primary care struggle with how to integrate a culture-centered paradigm into their roles as behavioral health providers...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449875/a-robust-vegetation-index-for-remotely-assessing-chlorophyll-content-of-dorsiventral-leaves-across-several-species-in-different-seasons
#6
Shan Lu, Fan Lu, Wenqiang You, Zheyi Wang, Yu Liu, Kenji Omasa
Background: Leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) provides valuable information about plant physiology. Most of the published chlorophyll vegetation indices at the leaf level have been based on the spectral characteristics of the adaxial leaf surface, thus, they are not appropriate for estimating LCC when both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces influence the spectral reflectance. We attempted to address this challenge by measuring the spectral reflectance of the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of several plant species at different growth stages using a portable field spectroradiometer...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448885/-recognize-our-humanity-immigrant-youth-voices-on-health-care-in-arizona-s-restrictive-political-environment
#7
Sofía Gómez, Heide Castañeda
The "DACAmented Voices in Healthcare" project examined the intersection of restrictive immigration policies and health care via photovoice, a participatory action research approach, with immigrant youth living in Arizona, who were recipients of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. These "DACAmented" youth took part in nine photovoice sessions exploring their health care experiences and accessibility to care using documentary photography and narratives. They poignantly illustrated their experiences through images identifying their main health concerns and strengths, facilitating the development of health policy recommendations...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447448/gendered-racism-and-the-sexual-and-reproductive-health-of-black-and-latina-women
#8
Lisa Rosenthal, Marci Lobel
OBJECTIVE: To understand health disparities, it is important to use an intersectional framework that examines unique experiences of oppression faced by particular groups due to their intersecting identities and social positions linked to societal structures. We focus on Black and Latina women and their experiences with 'gendered racism' - unique forms of oppression due to the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender - to foster understanding of disparities between Black and Latina versus White women in sexual and reproductive health outcomes in the U...
February 15, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447339/integrated-microrna-and-mrna-network-analysis-of-the-human-myometrial-transcriptome-in-the-transition-from-quiescence-to-labor
#9
William E Ackerman, Irina A Buhimschi, Douglas Brubaker, Sean Maxwell, Kara M Rood, Mark R Chance, Hongwu Jing, Sam Mesiano, Catalin S Buhimschi
We conducted integrated transcriptomics network analyses of miRNA and mRNA interactions in human myometrium to identify novel molecular candidates potentially involved in human parturition. Myometrial biopsies were collected from women undergoing primary Cesarean deliveries in well-characterized clinical scenarios: 1) spontaneous term labor (TL, n = 5); 2) term non-labor (TNL, n = 5); 3) spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) with histologic chorioamnionitis (PTB-HCA, n = 5); and 4) indicated PTB non-labor (PTB-NL, n = 5)...
February 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447234/folic-acid-derived-p5779-mimetics-regulate-damp-mediated-inflammation-through-disruption-of-hmgb1-tlr4-md-2-axes
#10
Shan Sun, Mingzhu He, Yongjun Wang, Huan Yang, Yousef Al-Abed
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein that mediates inflammatory responses after infection or injury. Previously, we reported a peptide inhibitor of HMGB1 (P5779) that acts by directly interrupting HMGB1/MD-2 binding. Here, fingerprint similarity search and docking studies suggest folic acid derived-drugs function as P5779 mimetopes. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies demonstrate that folic acid mimics the binding of P5779 at the TLR4 and MD-2 intersection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447168/quantitative-proteome-profile-of-water-deficit-stress-responses-in-eastern-cottonwood-populus-deltoides-leaves
#11
Paul E Abraham, Benjamin J Garcia, Lee E Gunter, Sara S Jawdy, Nancy Engle, Xiaohan Yang, Daniel A Jacobson, Robert L Hettich, Gerald A Tuskan, Timothy J Tschaplinski
Drought stress is a recurring feature of world climate and the single most important factor influencing agricultural yield worldwide. Plants display highly variable, species-specific responses to drought and these responses are multifaceted, requiring physiological and morphological changes influenced by genetic and molecular mechanisms. Moreover, the reproducibility of water deficit studies is very cumbersome, which significantly impedes research on drought tolerance, because how a plant responds is highly influenced by the timing, duration, and intensity of the water deficit...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446425/electronic-structure-calculations-and-nonadiabatic-dynamics-simulations-of-excited-state-relaxation-of-pigment-yellow-101
#12
Meng Che, Yuan-Jun Gao, Yan Zhang, Shu-Hua Xia, Ganglong Cui
Pigment Yellow 101 (PY101) is widely used as a typical pigment due to its excellent excited-state properties. However, the origin of its photostability is still elusive. In this work, we have systematically investigated the photodynamics of PY101 by performing combined electronic structure calculations and trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics simulations. On the basis of the results, we have found that upon photoexcitation to the S 1 state, PY101 undergoes an essentially barrierless excited-state intramolecular single proton transfer generating an S 1 keto species...
February 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446302/life-cycle-assessment-of-connected-and-automated-vehicles-sensing-and-computing-subsystem-and-vehicle-level-effects
#13
James H Gawron, Gregory A Keoleian, Robert D De Kleine, Timothy J Wallington, Hyung Chul Kim
Although recent studies of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have begun to explore the potential energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts from an operational perspective, little is known about how the full life cycle of the vehicle will be impacted. We report the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Level 4 CAV sensing and computing subsystems integrated into internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) platforms. The results indicate that CAV subsystems could increase vehicle primary energy use and GHG emissions by 3-20% due to increases in power consumption, weight, drag, and data transmission...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445954/normal-boundary-intersection-applied-as-multivariate-and-multiobjective-optimization-in-the-treatment-of-amoxicillin-synthetic-solution
#14
Deberton Moura, Vithor Barcelos, Gisella Rossana Lamas Samanamud, Alexandre Boscaro França, Renata Lofrano, Carla Cristina Almeida Loures, Luzia Lima Rezende Naves, Mateus Souza Amaral, Fabiano Luiz Naves
Amoxicillin is a useful antibiotic to combat bacterial infections. However, this drug can cause serious problems when discarded in waterways due to its great bioaccumulation potential. This compound can be treated via advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), which are capable of converting amoxicillin into carbon dioxide and water. In this context, the use of ozone as an oxidizer has excelled in amoxicillin degradation. This paper aims at treating a synthetic solution of amoxicillin (0.1 g L -1 ) in a reactor with ozone bubbling...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444945/interaction-of-human-cytomegalovirus-tegument-proteins-ppul35-and-ppul35a-with-sorting-nexin-5-regulates-glycoprotein-b-gpul55-localization
#15
Gregor Maschkowitz, Sabine Gärtner, Heike Hofmann-Winkler, Helmut Fickenscher, Michael Winkler
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a wide-spread human pathogen that causes asymptomatic infection in healthy individuals, but poses a serious threat to immunocompromised patients. During the late phase of HCMV infection, the viral capsid is transported to the cytoplasmic viral assembly center (cVAC) where it is enclosed by the tegument protein layer and the viral envelope. The cVAC consists of circularly arranged vesicles from the trans-Golgi and endosomal networks. The HCMV gene UL35 encodes ppUL35 and its shorter form ppUL35A...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444480/does-crash-risk-increase-when-emergency-vehicles-are-driving-with-lights-and-sirens
#16
Celestin Missikpode, Corinne Peek-Asa, Tracy Young, Cara Hamann
INTRODUCTION: Emergency vehicles, such as police, ambulances, and fire vehicles, need to arrive at the scene of emergencies as quickly as possible, and thus they often travel in emergency mode - using their lights and sirens and often bypassing traffic signals. We examined whether travelling in emergency mode increased crash risk among police, ambulance and fire vehicles. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-induced exposure analysis using data from the Iowa Crash Database for the period of 2005 through 2013...
February 10, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444408/simple-models-for-difficult-electronic-excitations
#17
Giuseppe M J Barca, Andrew T B Gilbert, Peter M W Gill
We present a single-determinant approach to three challenging topics in the chemistry of excited states: double excitations, charge-transfer states and conical intersections. The results are obtained by using the Initial Maximum Overlap Method (IMOM) which is a modified version of the Maximum Overlap Method (MOM). The new algorithm converges better than the original, especially for these difficult problems. By considering several case studies, we show that a single-determinant framework provides a simple and accurate alternative for modelling excited states in cases where other low-cost methods, such as CIS and TD-DFT, either perform poorly or fail completely...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442222/novel-methods-for-environmental-assessment-of-pedestrian-injury-creation-and-validation-of-the-inventory-for-pedestrian-safety-infrastructure
#18
Elizabeth D Nesoff, Adam J Milam, Keshia M Pollack, Frank C Curriero, Janice V Bowie, Andrea C Gielen, Debra M Furr-Holden
Nationally, 80% of pedestrian fatalities occur in urban environments, yet the distribution of injuries across urban areas is not uniform. Identifying street-level risk factors for pedestrian injury is essential for urban planning and improvement projects, as well as targeted injury prevention efforts. However, creating and maintaining a comprehensive database of a city's traffic safety infrastructure can be cumbersome and costly. The purpose of this study was to create and validate a neighborhood environmental observational assessment tool to capture evidence-based pedestrian safety infrastructure using Google Street View (GSV)-The Inventory for Pedestrian Safety Infrastructure (IPSI)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440729/enhanced-nonlinear-characteristics-with-the-assistance-of-a-formula-see-text-symmetric-trimer-system
#19
Lei Du, Yan Zhang, Chu-Hui Fan, Yi-Mou Liu, Feng Gao, Jin-Hui Wu
We study the parity-time (PT) symmetry characteristics and the applications to nonlinear optics in an optical trimer system consisting of two indirectly coupled standing-mode micro-cavities and a two-level quantum emitter (QE) placed at the intersection of two cavities. We find this trimer system can exhibit analogical phenomena as those in typical [Formula: see text]-symmetric dimer systems composed of a passive cavity directly coupled to an active cavity. This system, whose [Formula: see text] symmetry is demonstrated by our analytic results, can be transformed between the [Formula: see text]-symmetric phase and the [Formula: see text]-broken phase by adjusting relevant system parameters...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440422/climate-for-women-in-climate-science-women-scientists-and-the-intergovernmental-panel-on-climate-change
#20
Miriam Gay-Antaki, Diana Liverman
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an authoritative and influential source of reports on climate change. The lead authors of IPCC reports include scientists from around the world, but questions have been raised about the dominance of specific disciplines in the report and the disproportionate number of scholars from the Global North. In this paper, we analyze the as-yet-unexamined issue of gender and IPCC authorship, looking at changes in gender balance over time and analyzing women's views about their experience and barriers to full participation, not only as women but also at the intersection of nationality, race, command of English, and discipline...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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