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Intersectionality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906020/targeting-vulnerable-populations-a-synthetic-review-on-alcohol-use-and-risky-sexual-behaviour-among-migrant-populations
#1
REVIEW
Emilia Maria Vaz Martins-Fonteyn, Nina Sommerland, Herman Meulemans, Olivier Degomme, Ines Raimundo, Edwin Wouters
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated a link between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviour among different types of migrant populations. Therefore, research investigating risk factors associated with alcohol consumption among them is a public health priority. This review aimed to explore the intersection between migration, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. METHODS: This article is a synthetic review of empirical studies on the association of alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviour among different types of the migrant populations, focusing on measurable outcomes generated from quantitative data...
September 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904172/compositions-of-professionalism-in-counselling-work-an-embodied-and-embedded-intersectionality-framework
#2
Maria Adamson, Marjana Johansson
This article explores the embodied compositions of professionalism in the context of the counselling psychology profession in Russia. Specifically, we develop an embodied intersectionality framework for theorizing compositions of professionalism, which allows us to explain how multiple embodied categories of difference intersect and are relationally co-constitutive in producing credible professionals, and, importantly, how these intersections are contingent on intercorporeal encounters that take place in localized professional settings...
December 2016: Human Relations; Studies Towards the Integration of the Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903822/synthetic-biology-and-the-prospects-for-responsible-innovation
#3
REVIEW
Phil Macnaghten, Richard Owen, Roland Jackson
In this article we provide a short review of the debate on responsible innovation and its intersection with synthetic biology, focusing on initiatives we have witnessed and been involved with in the UK. First, we describe the ways in which responsibility in science has been reconfigured institutionally, from an internal focus on the provision of objective and reliable knowledge, to a more external view that embraces the ways in which it has an impact on society. Secondly, we introduce a framework for responsible innovation as a (partial) response to this shift, highlighting its constituent dimensions and the capacities and competencies that are needed to put it into practice...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903619/interleukin-10-mediated-regenerative-postnatal-tissue-repair-is-dependent-on-regulation-of-hyaluronan-metabolism-via-fibroblast-specific-stat3-signaling
#4
Swathi Balaji, Xinyi Wang, Alice King, Louis D Le, Sukanta S Bhattacharya, Chad M Moles, Manish J Butte, Vinicio A de Jesus Perez, Kenneth W Liechty, Thomas N Wight, Timothy M Crombleholme, Paul L Bollyky, Sundeep G Keswani
The cytokine IL-10 has potent antifibrotic effects in models of adult fibrosis, but the mechanisms of action are unclear. Here, we report a novel finding that IL-10 triggers a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent signaling pathway that regulates hyaluronan (HA) metabolism and drives adult fibroblasts to synthesize an HA-rich pericellular matrix, which mimics the fetal regenerative wound healing phenotype with reduced fibrosis. By using cre-lox-mediated novel, inducible, fibroblast-, keratinocyte-, and wound-specific STAT3 knockdown postnatal mice-plus syngeneic fibroblast cell-transplant models-we demonstrate that the regenerative effects of IL-10 in postnatal wounds are dependent on HA synthesis and fibroblast-specific STAT3-dependent signaling...
November 30, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902688/correction-the-diguanylate-cyclase-hsbd-intersects-with-the-hptb-regulatory-cascade-to-control-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-and-motility
#5
Martina Valentini, Benoît-Joseph Laventie, Joana A Moscoso, Urs Jenal, Alain Filloux
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006354.].
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901295/nonparametric-de-noising-filter-optimization-using-structure-based-microscopic-image-classification
#6
Samsad Beagum, Nilanjan Dey, Amira S Ashour, Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla, Valentina E Balas
The Local Polynomial Approximation (LPA) is a nonparametric filter that performs pixel-wise polynomial fit on a certain neighborhood. This filter can be supported by the Intersection of Confidence Interval rule (ICI) as an adaptation algorithm to identify the most suited neighborhood at which the polynomial assumptions provide superior fit for the observations. However, the LPA-ICI is considered to be a near-optimal de-noising filter. Moreover, the ICI rule has several parameters that affect its performance...
November 30, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900934/gender-relations-and-women-s-reproductive-health-in-south-sudan
#7
Sumit Kane, Matilda Rial, Anthony Matere, Marjolein Dieleman, Jacqueline E W Broerse, Maryse Kok
BACKGROUND: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. DESIGN: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900640/statistical-effects-of-religious-participation-and-marriage-on-substance-use-and-abuse-in-racial-and-ethnic-minorities
#8
Kristine Ria Hearld, Amy Badham, Henna Budhwani
Substance use and abuse, which includes alcohol use, alcohol dependence, drug use, and drug dependence, inflicts a substantial toll on Americans. Although studies have demonstrated the protective effect of social support, such as religious participation and via marriage, understanding their influence on racial and ethnic minorities is limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the impact of social support on substance use and abuse in racial and ethnic minorities. The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, a repository of race, ethnicity, and mental health data, was leveraged to develop four models using multivariate analysis, specifically logistic regression to estimate the probability of meeting the criteria for substance use and abuse...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899208/sroi-in-the-pay-for-success-context-are-they-at-odds
#9
Robert L Fischer, Francisca García-Cobián Richter
The Pay For Success (PFS) and Social Impact Bond (SIB) movements to date have focused heavily on shorter-term outcomes that can be monetized and show clear savings to government entities. In part, this focus derives from the need to specify contract payments based on a narrow set of well measured outcomes (e.g., avoided days in jail and foster care, decreased use of behavioral health services). Meanwhile efforts to measure the social return on investment (SROI) of interventions have sought to expand the view of relevant outcomes to include domains that lend themselves less clearly to monetization...
November 21, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898313/wellbeing-in-the-aftermath-of-floods
#10
Kate Walker-Springett, Catherine Butler, W Neil Adger
The interactions between flood events, their aftermath, and recovery leading to health and wellbeing outcomes for individuals are complex, and the pathways and mechanisms through which wellbeing is affected are often hidden and remain under-researched. This study analyses the diverse processes that explain changes in wellbeing for those experiencing flooding. It identifies key pathways to wellbeing outcomes that concern perceptions of lack of agency, dislocation from home, and disrupted futures inducing negative impacts, with offsetting positive effects through community networks and interactions...
November 26, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897669/domain-general-stroop-performance-and-hemispheric-asymmetries-a-resting-state-eeg-study
#11
Ettore Ambrosini, Antonino Vallesi
The ability to suppress irrelevant information while executing a task or interference resistance is a function of pFC that is critical for successful goal-directed human behavior. In the study of interference resistance and, more generally, executive functions, two key questions are still open: Does pFC contribute to cognitive control abilities through lateralized but domain-general mechanisms or through hemispheric specialization of domain-specific processes? And what are the underlying causes of interindividual differences in executive control performance? To shed light on these issues, here we employed an interindividual difference approach to investigate whether participants' hemispheric asymmetry in resting-state electrophysiological brain dynamics may reflect their variability in domain-general interference resistance...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895102/delaying-and-seeking-care-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-the-role-of-gender-family-and-morality
#12
Dana Zarhin
Social scientists have proposed various theories as to when, why, and how people come to seek medical care for multiple conditions. Yet, there is still little empirical research to illustrate the pathways into and out of care, especially for chronic illness. This article contributes to this body of work by exploring individuals' reasons for delaying and seeking care for obstructive sleep apnea, which despite being the most diagnosed sleep disorder, has been largely neglected by social scientists. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 65 Jewish-Israeli obstructive sleep apnea patients, this study shows how intersections of gender, family, and morality shape and are shaped by care-seeking behavior...
November 28, 2016: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894448/the-intersection-of-medical-child-abuse-and-medical-complexity
#13
REVIEW
Hillary W Petska, John B Gordon, Debra Jablonski, Lynn K Sheets
Children with medical complexity and victims of medical child abuse may have similar clinical presentations. Atypical or unexplained signs and symptoms due to rare diseases may lead providers to suspect medical child abuse when not present. Conversely, medical child abuse may be the cause of or coexist with medical complexity. Careful consideration of whether or not medical child abuse is present is essential when assessing a child with medical complexity since either diagnosis has significant consequences for children and families...
February 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893799/tobacco-smoking-and-tuberculosis-among-men-living-with-hiv-in-johannesburg-south-africa-a-case-control-study
#14
Liza Bronner Murrison, Neil Martinson, Rachael M Moloney, Regina Msandiwa, Mondiwana Mashabela, Jonathan M Samet, Jonathan E Golub
SETTING: Although there is ample evidence that smoking increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB), the magnitude of impact on TB risk among HIV-infected persons is poorly described. Given that a high proportion of patients with TB are co-infected with HIV in South Africa, the risks arising from the intersection of smoking, TB, and HIV/AIDS have key relevance for tobacco control policies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with current tobacco smoking among men with HIV in South Africa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892625/progress-at-the-intersection-of-patient-safety-and-medical-liability-insights-from-the-ahrq-patient-safety-and-medical-liability-demonstration-program
#15
M Susan Ridgely, Michael D Greenberg, Michelle B Pillen, James Bell
OBJECTIVE: To identify lessons learned from the experience of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety and Medical Liability (PSML) Demonstration Program. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: On September 9, 2009, President Obama directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to authorize demonstration projects that put "patient safety first" with the intent of reducing preventable adverse outcomes and stemming liability costs. Seven demonstration projects received 3 years of funding from AHRQ in the summer of 2010, and the program formally came to a close in June 2015...
December 2016: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891059/ethnic-identity-attachment-and-motivation-for-weight-loss-and-exercise-among-rural-overweight-african-american-women
#16
K Bryant Smalley, Jacob C Warren, Sydney McClendon, Wilburn Peacock, Marisol Caro
Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888330/dendritic-cells-in-central-nervous-system-autoimmunity
#17
REVIEW
Christopher Sie, Thomas Korn
Dendritic cells (DCs) operate at the intersection of the innate and adaptive immune systems. DCs can promote or inhibit adaptive immune responses against neuroantigens. While DC intrinsic properties, i.e., their maturation state or the subset they belong to, are important determinants of the outcome of an autoimmune reaction, tissue-specific cues might also be relevant for the function of DCs. Thus, a better understanding of the performance of distinct DC subsets in specific anatomical niches, not only in lymphoid tissue but also in non-lymphoid tissues such as the meninges, the choroid plexus, and the inflamed CNS parenchyma, will be instrumental for the design of immune intervention strategies to chronic inflammatory diseases that do not put at risk basic surveillance functions of the immune system in the CNS...
November 25, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887668/meddling-with-middle-modalities-a-decomposition-approach-to-mental-health-inequalities-between-intersectional-gender-and-economic-middle-groups-in-northern-sweden
#18
Per E Gustafsson, Miguel San Sebastián, Paola A Mosquera
BACKGROUND: Intersectionality has received increased interest within population health research in recent years, as a concept and framework to understand entangled dimensions of health inequalities, such as gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health. However, little attention has been paid to the intersectional middle groups, referring to those occupying positions of mixed advantage and disadvantage. OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to 1) examine mental health inequalities between intersectional groups reflecting structural positions of gender and economic affluence and 2) decompose any observed health inequalities, among middle groups, into contributions from experiences and conditions representing processes of privilege and oppression...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886791/environmental-exposures-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-challenge-for-health-and-development-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#19
REVIEW
Melissa S Burroughs Peña, Allman Rollins
Environmental exposures in low- and middle-income countries lie at the intersection of increased economic development and the rising public health burden of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence suggests an association of exposure to ambient air pollution, household air pollution from biomass fuel, lead, arsenic, and cadmium with multiple cardiovascular disease outcomes, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Although populations in low- and middle-income countries are disproportionately exposed to environmental pollution, evidence linking these exposures to cardiovascular disease is derived from populations in high-income countries...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886592/the-intersection-of-climate-environment-food-nutrition-and-health-crisis-and-opportunity
#20
REVIEW
Daniel J Raiten, Ashley M Aimone
Climate/environmental change (C-E-C) is affecting human health and quality of life. Significant attention has been given to the impact of C-E-C on food supply, and food as a vehicle for exposure. However, C-E-C has been superimposed on prevalent malnutrition, infectious and non-communicable diseases. We discuss why nutrition is not synonymous with food and must be viewed as a biological variable that affects and is affected by both C-E-C as well as the current global health challenges. The nexus of C-E-C, food, nutrition and health must be considered in the development of safe and efficacious interventions...
November 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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