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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600906/giuseppe-sergi-the-portrait-of-a-positivist-scientist
#1
Giovanni Cerro
Giuseppe Sergi (1841-1936) was one of the most important anthropologists and psychologists of the age of positivism and this article focuses on three domains of his scientific research: degeneration, eugenics and race. His concept of degeneration is defined as the development of special forms of human adaptation to the environment. This issue is closely related to his theory of the "stratification of character", which had a profound impact on Italian psychiatry and criminal anthropology in the late nineteenth century...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488126/evaluating-hiv-knowledge-questionnaires-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-multi-study-item-response-theory-analysis
#2
Patrick Janulis, Michael E Newcomb, Patrick Sullivan, Brian Mustanski
Knowledge about the transmission, prevention, and treatment of HIV remains a critical element in psychosocial models of HIV risk behavior and is commonly used as an outcome in HIV prevention interventions. However, most HIV knowledge questions have not undergone rigorous psychometric testing such as using item response theory. The current study used data from six studies of men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 3565) to (1) examine the item properties of HIV knowledge questions, (2) test for differential item functioning on commonly studied characteristics (i...
May 9, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414628/fried-green-tomatoes-and-the-color-purple-a-case-study-in-lesbian-friendship-and-cultural-controversy
#3
Kristen Proehl
Published in the 1980s, Fannie Flagg's Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café and Alice Walker's The Color Purple are lesbian coming-of-age narratives that share a great deal in common in terms of their thematic content, publication histories, and cultural afterlives. In both novels, female friendships are shaped by patriarchal violence and develop in the context of the rural, segregated, early twentieth-century U.S. South. But the two novels also diverge in significant ways, as differences in race, gender, class, and sexuality shape their protagonists' experiences of love and friendship...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340589/critical-race-theory-as-a-tool-for-understanding-poor-engagement-along-the-hiv-care-continuum-among-african-american-black-and-hispanic-persons-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states-a-qualitative-exploration
#4
Robert Freeman, Marya Viorst Gwadz, Elizabeth Silverman, Alexandra Kutnick, Noelle R Leonard, Amanda S Ritchie, Jennifer Reed, Belkis Y Martinez
BACKGROUND: African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) in the U.S. evidence insufficient engagement in HIV care and low uptake of HIV antiretroviral therapy, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. The present qualitative study used critical race theory, and incorporated intersectionality theory, to understand AABH-PLWH's perspectives on the mechanisms by which structural racism; that is, the macro-level systems that reinforce inequities among racial/ethnic groups, influence health decisions and behaviors...
March 24, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242730/behavioural-and-computational-varieties-of-response-inhibition-in-eye-movements
#5
REVIEW
Vassilis Cutsuridis
Response inhibition is the ability to override a planned or an already initiated response. It is the hallmark of executive control as its deficits favour impulsive behaviours, which may be detrimental to an individual's life. This article reviews behavioural and computational guises of response inhibition. It focuses only on inhibition of oculomotor responses. It first reviews behavioural paradigms of response inhibition in eye movement research, namely the countermanding and antisaccade paradigms, both proven to be useful tools for the study of response inhibition in cognitive neuroscience and psychopathology...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188283/the-deaf-mentoring-survey-a-community-cultural-wealth-framework-for-measuring-mentoring-effectiveness-with-underrepresented-students
#6
Derek C Braun, Cara Gormally, M Diane Clark
Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not underrepresented individuals. We describe the development of a next-generation mentoring survey built upon capital theory and critical race theory. It emphasizes community cultural wealth, thought to be instrumental to the success of individuals from minority communities...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087139/retention-of-faculty-of-color-in-academic-nursing
#7
REVIEW
Nalo Hamilton, Emily A Haozous
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic diversity among nursing faculty is low, preventing schools of nursing (SON) from reflecting the populations that they serve academically and clinically. Few studies address the experience and success of faculty of color (FOC) in nursing. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to summarize the current literature related to FOC retention and promotion. METHODS: We reviewed 25 articles from the nursing literature following PRISMA guidelines, using a critical race theory framework...
March 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779512/the-discriminatory-patient-and-family-strategies-to-address-discrimination-towards-trainees
#8
Emily E Whitgob, Rebecca L Blankenburg, Alyssa L Bogetz
PURPOSE: Trainee mistreatment remains an important and serious medical education issue. Mistreatment toward trainees by the medical team has been described; mistreatment by patients and families has not. Motivated by discrimination towards a resident by a family in their emergency department, the authors sought to identify strategies for trainees and physicians to respond effectively to mistreatment by patients and families. METHOD: A purposeful sample of pediatric faculty educational leaders was recruited from April-June 2014 at Stanford University...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719694/the-beginnings-of-human-palaeontology-prehistory-craniometry-and-the-fossil-human-races
#9
Matthew R Goodrum
Since the nineteenth century, hominid palaeontology has offered critical information about prehistoric humans and evidence for human evolution. Human fossils discovered at a time when there was growing agreement that humans existed during the Ice Age became especially significant but also controversial. This paper argues that the techniques used to study human fossils from the 1850s to the 1870s and the way that these specimens were interpreted owed much to the anthropological examination of Stone, Bronze, and Iron Age skeletons retrieved by archaeologists from prehistoric tombs throughout Europe...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532470/the-experiences-of-people-living-with-epilepsy-in-developing-countries-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#10
Asahngwa Tanywe, Chelea Matchawe, Ritin Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a global public health problem affecting people of all ages, sex, races, nations and social class. The majority of the 50 million people with epilepsy live in developing countries, with a prevalence rate of five to 10 people per 1000. The disease poses an enormous psychological, social and economic burden on patients. An estimated 90% of people with epilepsy in developing countries do not receive treatment due to sociocultural, economic and political factors. Current treatment interventions are limited to the clinical management of the disease and are largely driven by the healthcare provider's perspective, ignoring the experiences of people living with epilepsy (PLWE)...
May 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490876/marginalization-a-revisitation-with-integration-of-scholarship-on-globalization-intersectionality-privilege-microaggressions-and-implicit-biases
#11
Joanne M Hall, Kelly Carlson
In 1994, the concept of marginalization was explored in an article in Advances in Nursing Science. This is a revisitation of the concept incorporating new scholarship. This update is founded on feminism, postcolonialism, critical race theory, and discourse deconstruction, all viewpoints that have been explicated in nursing. The purpose of this analysis is to look at new scholarship and concepts useful to applying marginalization in nursing knowledge development from the standpoint of Bourdieu's macro, meso, and micro levels...
July 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462962/contemporary-issues-of-social-justice-a-focus-on-race-and-physical-education-in-the-united-states
#12
Louis Harrison, Langston Clark
Ongoing events in the United States show the continual need to address issues of social justice in every social context. Of particular note in this article, the contemporary national focus on race has thrust social justice issues into the forefront of the country's conscious. Although legal segregation has ran its course, schools and many neighborhoods remain, to a large degree, culturally, ethnically, linguistically, economically, and racially segregated and unequal (Orfield & Lee, 2005). Even though an African American president presently occupies the White House, the idea of a postracial America remains an unrealized ideal...
September 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432213/does-race-still-matter-in-nursing-the-narratives-of-african-american-nursing-faculty-members
#13
Kenya V Beard, Wrenetha A Julion
BACKGROUND: The rise in undergraduate enrollment of African-American students has not translated into more African-American faculty members, although they could mentor minority students and promote an ethos that encourages their academic success. Discrimination against African-American faculty members continues, which could lessen their presence. PURPOSE: This study explored the narratives of 23 African-American faculty members to determine if race still matters in nursing...
November 2016: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392800/commentary-an-asian-americanist-perspective-on-child-development
#14
Richard M Lee, Adam Y J Kim, Xiang Zhou
In this commentary, we put forth an Asian Americanist perspective on child development that frames, expands upon, and at times challenges the contextual, conceptual, and methodological ideas put forward by Kiang et al., Mistry et al., and Yoshikawa et al. (this volume). This Asian Americanist perspective draws upon scholarship in Asian American Studies and critical race theory to bridge the historical, conceptual, and methodological contributions of the three articles. We also aim to challenge current and future generations of scholars studying Asian American child development to look at Asian American youth and families as autonomous, self-determining agents who are capable of challenging, resisting, and affecting change in a racialized society...
July 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383087/in-their-own-words-success-stories-from-the-great-lakes-native-american-research-center-for-health
#15
Matthew Dellinger, Brian Jackson, Amy Poupart
In 2009, the Great Lakes Native American Research Center for Health (GLNARCH) set out to generate a promotional video that highlights the successes of the program. Ten GLNARCH interns were interviewed and filmed for participation in the promotional video using a documentary production style. During the editing and transcription process, interviewer responses were noted for relevance to theoretical frameworks--specifically, tribal critical race theory, mentoring, and cultural compatibility--which guided GLNARCH program design...
2016: American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: the Journal of the National Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367141/the-framing-of-women-and-health-disparities-a-critical-look-at-race-gender-and-class-from-the-perspectives-of-grassroots-health-communicators
#16
Jennifer Vardeman-Winter
As women's health has received significant political and media attention recently, I proposed an expanded structural theory of women's communication about health. Women's health communication and critical race and systemic racism research framed this study. I interviewed 15 communicators and community health workers from grass-roots organizations focused on women's health to learn of their challenges of communicating with women from communities experiencing health disparities. Findings suggest that communicators face difficulties in developing meaningful messaging for publics because of disjunctures between medical and community frames, issues in searching for health among women's many priorities, Whiteness discourses imposed on publics' experiences, and practices of correcting for power differentials...
July 1, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321751/judith-butler-s-theories-reflections-for-nursing-research-and-practice
#17
Maurice G Nagington
Judith Butler is one of the most influential late 20th and early 21st century philosophers in regard to left wing politics, as well as an active campaigner for social justice within the United States and worldwide. Her academic work has been foundational to the academic discipline of queer theory and has been extensively critiqued and applied across a hugely wide range of disciplines. In addition, Butler's work itself is extensive covering topics such as gender, sexuality, race, literary theory, and warfare...
October 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213836/the-other-side-of-the-brain-the-politics-of-split-brain-research-in-the-1970s-1980s
#18
Michael E Staub
In the course of the 1970s and 1980s, theories derived from neuropsychological research on the bisected brain came rapidly to achieve the status of common sense in the United States and Canada, inflecting all manner of popular and academic discussion. These theories often posited that the right hemisphere was the seat of creative expression, whereas the left hemisphere housed rationality and language. This article analyzes the political and cultural implications of theories about the split brain. Gender relations, educational reform, management theory, race relations, and countercultural concepts about self-expression all quickly came to be viewed through the lens of left-brain/right-brain neuropsychological research...
November 2016: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196389/domestic-violence-survivors-empowerment-and-mental-health-exploring-the-role-of-the-alliance-with-advocates
#19
Lisa A Goodman, Jennifer E Fauci, Cris M Sullivan, Craig D DiGiovanni, Joshua M Wilson
Over the last 4 decades, domestic violence (DV) programs-both residential and nonresidential-have sprung up in communities across the country with the aim of helping survivors become safe. These programs place strong emphasis on the relationship between the advocate and survivor as critical to becoming safer and healing from the trauma of abuse. Yet little research has demonstrated the extent to which specific aspects of the advocate-survivor alliance are related to specific indicators of survivor well-being, nor shown what factors might mediate that relationship...
2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105445/when-sex-and-power-collide-an-argument-for-critical-sexuality-studies
#20
Breanne Fahs, Sara I McClelland
Attentive to the collision of sex and power, we add momentum to the ongoing development of the subfield of critical sexuality studies. We argue that this body of work is defined by its critical orientation toward the study of sexuality, along with a clear allegiance to critical modalities of thought, particularly feminist thought. Critical sexuality studies takes its cues from several other critical moments in related fields, including critical psychology, critical race theory, critical public health, and critical youth studies...
May 2016: Journal of Sex Research
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