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Critical race theory

Nakia Lee-Foon, Clemon George, Jacqueline Gahagan, Josephine Etowa, Robert Weaver
Health and social care providers' perceptions of Black-Canadian parent-youth sexual health communication has important implications for addressing knowledge gaps in the provision of services to young people and their parents. Providers' perceptions are crucial as they often act as advisers in tailoring programmes or services to the perceived needs of parents and youth. To understand these perceptions, 17 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with providers who worked with African, Caribbean or Black (ACB) parents and youth in Toronto, Ontario, Canada...
March 6, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Katherine Smith Fornili
The purpose of this column is to summarize important aspects of the racialized War on Drugs, including (a) the school-to-prison pipeline, (b) the for-profit prison system ("prison industrial complex"), (c) racialized mass incarceration, and (d) the disproportionately negative impact of the War on Drugs on families and communities of color. Analysis of critical race theory (CRT), the study of the relationships between race, racism, and power, will provide a cohesive framework for examining these four aspects...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Erik I Svensson
Recent calls for a revision of standard evolutionary theory (SET) are based partly on arguments about the reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation means that cause-effect relationships are bi-directional, as a cause could later become an effect and vice versa. Such dynamic cause-effect relationships raise questions about the distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, as originally formulated by Ernst Mayr. They have also motivated some biologists and philosophers to argue for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES)...
2018: Evolutionary Biology
Rebecca Hodes, Robert Morrell
Research about HIV constitutes a global domain of academic knowledge. The patterns that structure this domain reflect inequalities in the production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as broader inequalities in geopolitics. Conventional metrics for assessing the value and impact of academic research reveal that "Northern" research remains dominant, while "Southern" research remains peripheral. Southern theory provides a framework for greater critical engagement with knowledge produced by researchers within the global South...
February 22, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Donna Cormack, James Stanley, Ricci Harris
BACKGROUND: The complex ways in which experiences of discrimination are patterned in society, including the exposure of communities to multiple overlapping forms of discrimination within social systems of oppression, is increasingly recognised in the health sciences. However, research examining the impacts on health and contribution to racial/ethnic health inequities remains limited. This study aims to contribute to the field by exploring the prevalence and patterning of experience of multiple forms of discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand, and associations with health and wellbeing...
February 17, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Vijaya Hogan, Diane L Rowley, Stephanie Baker White, Yanica Faustin
Introduction Existing health disparities frameworks do not adequately incorporate unique interacting contributing factors leading to health inequities among African Americans, resulting in public health stakeholders' inability to translate these frameworks into practice. Methods We developed dimensionality and R4P to integrate multiple theoretical perspectives into a framework of action to eliminate health inequities experienced by African Americans. Results The dimensional framework incorporates Critical Race Theory and intersectionality, and includes dimensions of time-past, present and future...
February 1, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Kevin W Potter, Chris Donkin, David E Huber
With immediate repetition priming of forced choice perceptual identification, short prime durations produce positive priming (i.e., priming the target leads to higher accuracy, while priming the foil leads to lower accuracy). Many theories explain positive priming following short duration primes as reflecting increased perceptual fluency for the primed target (i.e., decreased identification latency). However, most studies only examine either accuracy or response times, rather than considering the joint constraints of response times and accuracy to properly address the role of decision biases and response caution...
December 11, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
Christian D Chan, Adrienne N Erby
Intercultural queer couples are growing at an extensive rate in the United States, exemplifying diversity across multiple dimensions (e.g., race, ethnicity, sexuality, affectional identity, gender identity) while experiencing multiple converging forms of oppression (e.g., racism, heterosexism, genderism). Given the dearth of conceptual and empirical literature that unifies both dimensions related to intercultural and queer, applied practices and research contend with a unilateral approach focusing exclusively on either intercultural or queer couples...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
Bentley L Gibson, Philippe Rochat, Erin B Tone, Andrew S Baron
Implicit intergroup bias emerges early in development, are typically pro-ingroup, and remain stable across the lifespan. Such findings have been interpreted in terms of an automatic ingroup bias similar to what is observed with minimal groups paradigms. These studies are typically conducted with groups of high cultural standing (e.g., Caucasians in North America and Europe). Research conducted among culturally lower status groups (e.g., African-Americans, Latino-Americans) reveals a notable absence of an implicit ingroup bias...
2017: PloS One
Kane Race
Within the field of drug and alcohol studies, researchers think about pleasure or against it; we analyse, consider, investigate, invoke or ignore it. The philosophically inclined may think of pleasure or write on it, but in each of these scenarios pleasure is kept at an arm's length while the researcher appears to remain unmoved - detached observers, objective scientists, conceptual experts, program directors, sharp critics, policy advocates - sober judges whose sovereignty is secured by the formal conventions of positivist research, established theory, institutional authority and/or disciplinary knowledge...
September 5, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kim L Stansbury, Gillian L Marshall, Jodi Hall, Gaynell M Simpson, Karen Bullock
OBJECTIVE: The intent of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine African American Baptist clergy's pastoral care to older congregants with mental disorders. Critical Race Theory was the guiding framework in this study. METHOD: A purposive sample of 18 African American clergy participated in one-on-one interviews. RESULTS: Collectively, all participants were active in the provision of mental health to older congregants with mental disorders...
August 21, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
Jennifer Tsai, Ann Crawford-Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Giovanni Cerro
Giuseppe Sergi (1841-1936) was one of the most important anthropologists and psychologists of the age of positivism and this article focuses on three domains of his scientific research: degeneration, eugenics and race. His concept of degeneration is defined as the development of special forms of human adaptation to the environment. This issue is closely related to his theory of the "stratification of character", which had a profound impact on Italian psychiatry and criminal anthropology in the late nineteenth century...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
Patrick Janulis, Michael E Newcomb, Patrick Sullivan, Brian Mustanski
Knowledge about the transmission, prevention, and treatment of HIV remains a critical element in psychosocial models of HIV risk behavior and is commonly used as an outcome in HIV prevention interventions. However, most HIV knowledge questions have not undergone rigorous psychometric testing such as using item response theory. The current study used data from six studies of men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 3565) to (1) examine the item properties of HIV knowledge questions, (2) test for differential item functioning on commonly studied characteristics (i...
May 9, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Kristen Proehl
Published in the 1980s, Fannie Flagg's Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café and Alice Walker's The Color Purple are lesbian coming-of-age narratives that share a great deal in common in terms of their thematic content, publication histories, and cultural afterlives. In both novels, female friendships are shaped by patriarchal violence and develop in the context of the rural, segregated, early twentieth-century U.S. South. But the two novels also diverge in significant ways, as differences in race, gender, class, and sexuality shape their protagonists' experiences of love and friendship...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Robert Freeman, Marya Viorst Gwadz, Elizabeth Silverman, Alexandra Kutnick, Noelle R Leonard, Amanda S Ritchie, Jennifer Reed, Belkis Y Martinez
BACKGROUND: African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) in the U.S. evidence insufficient engagement in HIV care and low uptake of HIV antiretroviral therapy, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. The present qualitative study used critical race theory, and incorporated intersectionality theory, to understand AABH-PLWH's perspectives on the mechanisms by which structural racism; that is, the macro-level systems that reinforce inequities among racial/ethnic groups, influence health decisions and behaviors...
March 24, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Vassilis Cutsuridis
Response inhibition is the ability to override a planned or an already initiated response. It is the hallmark of executive control as its deficits favour impulsive behaviours, which may be detrimental to an individual's life. This article reviews behavioural and computational guises of response inhibition. It focuses only on inhibition of oculomotor responses. It first reviews behavioural paradigms of response inhibition in eye movement research, namely the countermanding and antisaccade paradigms, both proven to be useful tools for the study of response inhibition in cognitive neuroscience and psychopathology...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Derek C Braun, Cara Gormally, M Diane Clark
Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not underrepresented individuals. We describe the development of a next-generation mentoring survey built upon capital theory and critical race theory. It emphasizes community cultural wealth, thought to be instrumental to the success of individuals from minority communities...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
Nalo Hamilton, Emily A Haozous
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic diversity among nursing faculty is low, preventing schools of nursing (SON) from reflecting the populations that they serve academically and clinically. Few studies address the experience and success of faculty of color (FOC) in nursing. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to summarize the current literature related to FOC retention and promotion. METHODS: We reviewed 25 articles from the nursing literature following PRISMA guidelines, using a critical race theory framework...
March 2017: Nursing Outlook
Emily E Whitgob, Rebecca L Blankenburg, Alyssa L Bogetz
PURPOSE: Trainee mistreatment remains an important and serious medical education issue. Mistreatment toward trainees by the medical team has been described; mistreatment by patients and families has not. Motivated by discrimination towards a resident by a family in their emergency department, the authors sought to identify strategies for trainees and physicians to respond effectively to mistreatment by patients and families. METHOD: A purposeful sample of pediatric faculty educational leaders was recruited from April-June 2014 at Stanford University...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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