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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805500/chitin-receptor-mediated-activation-of-map-kinases-and-ros-production-in-rice-and-arabidopsis
#1
Tsutomu Kawasaki, Kenta Yamada, Satomi Yoshimura, Koji Yamaguchi
Rapid induction of plant immune responses is essential to inhibit colonization and invasion by pathogens. Plants can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) including fungal chitin and bacterial flagellin using pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which trigger the intracellular activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MAPK activation and ROS production play pivotal roles in the induction of robust immune responses...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805296/basidiomycete-specific-pscamkl1-encoding-a-camk-like-protein-kinase-is-required-for-full-virulence-of-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#2
Min Jiao, Dan Yu, Chenglong Tan, Jia Guo, Dingyun Lan, Ershang Han, Tuo Qi, Ralf Thomas Voegele, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases (PKs) that respond to changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) and play diverse roles in eukaryotes. In fungi, CAMKs are generally classified into four families CAMK1, CAMKL, RAD53, and CAMK-Unique. Among these, CAMKL constitutes the largest family. In some fungal plant pathogens members of the CaMKL family have been shown to be responsible for pathogenesis. However, little is known about their role(s) in rust fungi. In this study, we functionally characterized a novel PK gene, PsCaMKL1, from Puccinia striiformis f...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802848/structure-and-intracellular-antioxidant-activity-of-pectic-polysaccharide-from-acerola-malpighia-emarginata
#3
Rafael Roberto Klosterhoff, Juliana Müller Bark, Nícolas Manzke Glänzel, Marcello Iacomini, Gláucia Regina Martinez, Sheila M B Winnischofer, Lucimara M C Cordeiro
Malpighia emarginata is a tropical fruit plant, found naturally in the Caribbean islands and South America that produces an edible fruit known as acerola or Barbados Cherry. Its polysaccharides were obtained by aqueous extraction, subjected to a freezing and thawing process and ultrafiltration. A homogeneous fraction (ACWS-01E) was analyzed by sugar composition, HPSEC, methylation and NMR spectroscopy analyses. The results showed an arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharide, with 6.1×10(4)g/mol and formed mainly by a high methyl esterified (DM=86%) homogalacturonan and branched arabinan...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802018/characterization-of-two-catalase-peroxidase-encoding-genes-in-fusarium-verticillioides-reveals-differential-responses-to-in-vitro-versus-in-planta-oxidative-challenges
#4
Shan Gao, Scott E Gold, Anthony E Glenn
Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are a superfamily of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-degrading enzymes believed to be horizontally acquired by ancient Ascomycota from bacteria. Subsequent gene duplication resulted in two KatG paralogs in ascomycetes: the widely distributed intracellular KatG1 group, and the phytopathogen-dominated extracellular KatG2 group. To functionally characterize FvCP01 (KatG1) and FvCP02 (KatG2) in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, single and double gene deletion mutants were examined in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798765/physcomitrella-patens-dehydrins-ppdhna-and-ppdhnc-confer-salinity-and-drought-tolerance-to-transgenic-arabidopsis-plants
#5
Qilong Li, Xiaochen Zhang, Qiang Lv, Dong Zhu, Tianhang Qiu, Yu Xu, Fang Bao, Yikun He, Yong Hu
Dehydrins (DHNs) as a member of late-embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins are involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Two dehydrins PpDHNA and PpDHNC were previously characterized from the moss Physcomitrella patens, which has been suggested to be an ideal model plant to study stress tolerance due to its adaptability to extreme environment. In this study, functions of these two genes were analyzed by heterologous expressions in Arabidopsis. Phenotype analysis revealed that overexpressing PpDHN dehydrin lines had stronger stress resistance than wild type and empty-vector control lines...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798320/chickpea-fusarium-oxysporum-interaction-transcriptome-reveals-differential-modulation-of-plant-defense-strategies
#6
Medha L Upasani, Bhakti M Limaye, Gayatri S Gurjar, Sunitha M Kasibhatla, Rajendra R Joshi, Narendra Y Kadoo, Vidya S Gupta
Fusarium wilt is one of the major biotic stresses reducing chickpea productivity. The use of wilt-resistant cultivars is the most appropriate means to combat the disease and secure productivity. As a step towards understanding the molecular basis of wilt resistance in chickpea, we investigated the transcriptomes of wilt-susceptible and wilt-resistant cultivars under both Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc) challenged and unchallenged conditions. Transcriptome profiling using LongSAGE provided a valuable insight into the molecular interactions between chickpea and Foc, which revealed several known as well as novel genes with differential or unique expression patterns in chickpea contributing to lignification, hormonal homeostasis, plant defense signaling, ROS homeostasis, R-gene mediated defense, etc...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795692/the-novel-resveratrol-derivative-3-5-diethoxy-3-4-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene-induces-mitochondrial-ros-mediated-er-stress-and-cell-death-in-human-hepatoma-cells-in-vitro
#7
Jae-Woo Park, Woo-Gyun Choi, Phil-Jun Lee, Su-Wol Chung, Byung-Sam Kim, Hun-Taeg Chung, Sungchan Cho, Jong-Heon Kim, Byoung-Heon Kang, Hyoungsu Kim, Hong-Pyo Kim, Sung-Hoon Back
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a well-known polyphenol that is present in grapes, peanuts, pine seeds, and several other plants. Resveratrol exerts deleterious effects on various types of human cancer cells. Here, we analyzed the cell death-inducing mechanisms of resveratrol-006 (Res-006), a novel resveratrol derivative in human liver cancer cells in vitro. Res-006 was more effectively suppressed the viability of HepG2 human hepatoma cells than resveratrol (the IC50 values were 67.2 and 354...
August 10, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792498/4-hydroxywogonin-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-raw-264-7-macrophages-and-acute-lung-injury-mice
#8
Chao Fan, Le-Hao Wu, Gu-Fang Zhang, Fangfang Xu, Shuo Zhang, Xiuli Zhang, Lei Sun, Yang Yu, Yan Zhang, Richard D Ye
4'-Hydroxywogonin (4'-HW), a flavonoid, has been isolated from various plants and shown to inhibit NO production in macrophages. However, the molecular mechanisms and its in vivo activity have not been determined. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of 4'-HW in vitro and in vivo. We showed that 4'-HW potently reduced the expression levels of COX-2 and iNOS as well as their products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792065/environmental-plasticity-of-pinot-noir-grapevine-leaves-a-trans-european-study-of-morphological-and-biochemical-changes-along-a-1500-km-latitudinal-climatic-gradient
#9
Antonella Castagna, Kristóf Csepregi, Susanne Neugart, Gaetano Zipoli, Kristýna Večeřová, Gábor Jakab, Tjaša Jug, Laura Llorens, Javier Martínez-Abaigar, Johann Martínez-Lüscher, Encarnación Núñez-Olivera, Annamaria Ranieri, Katharina Schoedl-Hummel, Monika Schreiner, Péter Teszlák, Susanne Tittmann, Otmar Urban, Dolors Verdaguer, Marcel A K Jansen, Éva Hideg
A two-year study explored metabolic and phenotypic plasticity of sun acclimated Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir leaves collected from twelve locations across a 36.69(o) N - 49.98(o) N latitudinal gradient. Leaf morphological and biochemical parameters were analysed in the context of meteorological parameters and the latitudinal gradient. We found that leaf fresh weight and area were negatively correlated with both global and UV radiation; cumulated global radiation being a stronger correlator. Cumulative UV radiation (sumUVR) was the strongest correlator with most leaf metabolites and pigments...
August 9, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791033/sink-status-and-photosynthetic-rate-of-the-leaflet-galls-induced-by-bystracoccus-mataybae-eriococcidae-on-matayba-guianensis-sapindaceae
#10
Denis C Oliveira, Ana Silvia F P Moreira, Rosy M S Isaias, Vitor Martini, Uiara C Rezende
The galling insect Bystracoccus mataybae (Eriococcidae) induces green and intralaminar galls on leaflets of Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae), and promotes a high oxidative stress in host plant tissues. This biotic stress is assumed by the histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS), whose production alters gall physiology. Thus, we hypothesize that high levels of nutrients are accumulated during gall development in response to a local maintenance of photosynthesis and to the galling insect activity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790447/wheat-tapub1-modulates-plant-drought-stress-resistance-by-improving-antioxidant-capability
#11
Guangqiang Zhang, Meng Zhang, Zhongxian Zhao, Yuanqing Ren, Qinxue Li, Wei Wang
E3 ligases play significant roles in plant stress tolerance by targeting specific substrate proteins for post-translational modification. In a previous study, we cloned TaPUB1 from Triticum aestivum L., which encodes a U-box E3 ligase. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the gene was up-regulated under drought stress. To investigate the function of TaPUB1 in the response of plants to drought, we generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana (N. benthamiana) plants constitutively expressing TaPUB1 under the CaMV35S promoter...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790385/connexin-43-enhances-tumor-suppressing-activity-of-artesunate-via-gap-junction-dependent-as-well-as-independent-pathways-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Asif Raza, Archita Ghoshal, S Chockalingam, Siddhartha Sankar Ghosh
The gap junction (GJ) protein connexin-43 (Cx43) is considered as a tumour suppressor protein for its role in reversing the phenotype of the cancer cells. In this study, we exploited the antitumor property of Cx43 in conjunction with the artesunate (ART), a plant-based active anti-malarial compound. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by ART resulted in DNA damage, which in turn led to DNA damage response by activation of DNA damage repair proteins. GJ deficient MCF-7 cells transfected with Cx43 gene showed an increased sensitivity towards dose-dependent ART treatment and required a significantly lower dose of ART to attain its IC50, as compared to parental cells...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778044/role-of-phenolic-compounds-during-antioxidative-responses-of-winter-triticale-to-aphid-and-beetle-attack
#13
Paweł Czerniewicz, Hubert Sytykiewicz, Roma Durak, Beata Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Grzegorz Chrzanowski
One of the earliest responses of plants to insects' attack is generation of reactive oxygen species. However, the elevated level of ROS can elicit oxidative burst within plant tissues, and plants employ antioxidant systems against these radicals. Due to their chemical structures, polyphenols are able to diminish the level of ROS. Thus, we investigated the role of phenolic compounds in oxidative stress within winter triticale caused by Sitobion avenae and Oulema melanopus. It was found, that infestation by insects induced a high increase in the content of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical within resistant Lamberto cv...
July 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776104/heat-or-cold-priming-induced-cross-tolerance-to-abiotic-stresses-in-plants-key-regulators-and-possible-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Zhong-Guang Li, Tahsina Sharmin Hoque, David J Burritt, Masayuki Fujita, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Plants growing under field conditions are constantly exposed, either simultaneously or sequentially, to more than one abiotic stress factor. Plants have evolved sophisticated sensory systems to perceive a number of stress signals that allow them to activate the most adequate response to grow and survive in a given environment. Recently, cross-stress tolerance (i.e. tolerance to a second, strong stress after a different type of mild primary stress) has gained attention as a potential means of producing stress-resistant crops to aid with global food security...
August 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772154/plasma-membrane-depolarization-precedes-photosynthesis-damage-and-long-term-leaf-bleaching-in-e-chalcone-treated-arabidopsis-shoots
#15
C Díaz-Tielas, E Graña, M E Maffei, M J Reigosa, A M Sánchez-Moreiras
The plant phenolic compound (E)-chalcone has been previously found to induce noticeable seedling size reduction and progressive de-greening (bleaching) in shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. In this work, we demonstrate that this progressive de-greening occurring on Arabidopsis shoots after (E)-chalcone treatment, is directly linked to early plasma membrane depolarization and dramatic effects on chloroplasts structure and function. Later effects in chalcone-treated seedlings included ROS accumulation, pigment degradation, reduced photosynthetic activity, bleaching, and eventually cell death...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771007/thymol-ameliorates-cadmium-induced-phytotoxicity-in-the-root-of-rice-oryza-sativa-seedling-by-decreasing-endogenous-nitric-oxide-generation
#16
Ting-Ting Wang, Zhi Qi Shi, Liang-Bin Hu, Xiao-Feng Xu, Fengxiang X Han, Ligang Zhou, Jian Chen
Thymol has been developed as medicine and food preservative due to its immune-regulatory effect and anti-microbial activity, respectively. However, little is currently known about the role of thymol in the modulation of plant physiology. In the present study, we applied biochemical and histochemical approaches to investigate thymol-induced tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings against Cd (cadmium) stress. Thymol at 20 μM recovered root growth completely upon CdCl2 exposure. Thymol pronouncedly decreased Cd-induced ROS accumulation, oxidative injury, cell death, and Cd2+ accumulation in roots...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770198/arsenic-hyperaccumulation-strategies-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
Zahra Souri, Naser Karimi, Luisa M Sandalio
Arsenic (As) pollution, which is on the increase around the world, poses a growing threat to the environment. Phytoremediation, an important green technology, uses different strategies, including As uptake, transport, translocation, and detoxification, to remediate this metalloid. Arsenic hyperaccumulator plants have developed various strategies to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of As. In these plants, the formation of AsIII complexes with GSH and phytochelatins and their transport into root and shoot vacuoles constitute important mechanisms for coping with As stress...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769954/taarpc3-contributes-to-wheat-resistance-against-the-stripe-rust-fungus
#18
Tuo Qi, Juan Wang, Qixiong Sun, Brad Day, Jun Guo, Qing Ma
The actin cytoskeleton participates in numerous cellular processes, including less-characterized processes, such as nuclear organization, chromatin remodeling, transcription, and signal transduction. As a key regulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics, the actin related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) controls multiple developmental processes in a variety of tissues and cell types. To date, the role of the Arp2/3 complex in plant disease resistance signaling is largely unknown. Herein, we identified and characterized wheat ARPC3, TaARPC3, which encodes the C3 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769947/heterologous-expression-of-panax-ginseng-pgtip1-confers-enhanced-salt-tolerance-of-soybean-cotyledon-hairy-roots-composite-and-whole-plants
#19
Jing An, Zhenmin Hu, Benning Che, Haiying Chen, Bingjun Yu, Weiming Cai
The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767746/exogenous-catalase-and-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-improve-survival-and-regeneration-and-affect-oxidative-stress-in-cryopreserved-dendrobium-nobile-protocorm-like-bodies
#20
W Di, M X Jia, J Xu, B L Li, Y Liu
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage is responsible for viability loss in plant tissues following cryopreservation. Antioxidants may improve viability by preventing or repairing the injury. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed at studying the effect of catalase (CAT) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which are involved in ROS metabolism and are differentially expressed during pollen cryopreservation, for cryopreservation of Dendrobium nobile Lindl...
May 2017: Cryo Letters
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