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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651231/evaluation-of-in-vitro-anticancer-activity-of-1-8-cineole-containing-n-hexane-extract-of-callistemon-citrinus-curtis-skeels-plant-and-its-apoptotic-potential
#1
Sowndarya Sampath, Vidhya Veeramani, Gopal Shankar Krishnakumar, Udhayakumar Sivalingam, Suguna Lakshmi Madurai, Rose Chellan
Plants are the source of a variety of secondary metabolites, which are often used in the anticancer activity. Discovering new anticancer drug from herbal source is more important in both biological and pharmacological activities. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the anticancer agent in Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels (CC) for the treatment of cancer. Very recently we have reported an increased antioxidant activity in the ethanolic and methanolic extracts (EE and ME) of CC but significantly reduced activity (rather increased cytotoxicity), in the n-hexane extract (HE)...
June 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647924/comparative-expression-analysis-of-rice-and-arabidopsis-peroxiredoxin-genes-suggests-conserved-or-diversified-roles-between-the-two-species-and-leads-to-the-identification-of-tandemly-duplicated-rice-peroxiredoxin-genes-differentially-expressed-in-seeds
#2
Yun-Shil Gho, Sun-A Park, Sung-Ruyl Kim, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Gynheung An, Ki-Hong Jung
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) have recently been identified as plant antioxidants. Completion of various genome sequencing projects has provided genome-wide information about PRX genes in major plant species. Two of these -- Oryza sativa (rice) and Arabidopsis -- each have 10 PRX members. Although significant progress has been made in understanding their biological roles in Arabidopsis, those functions in rice, a model crop plant, have not been well studied. RESULTS: We performed a comparative expression analysis of rice and Arabidopsis PRXs...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647604/hydrogen-rich-water-induces-aluminum-tolerance-in-maize-seedlings-by-enhancing-antioxidant-capacities-and-nutrient-homeostasis
#3
Xueqiang Zhao, Qiuhong Chen, Yanmei Wang, Zhenguo Shen, Wenbiao Shen, Xiaoming Xu
The ameliorative effect of H2 on aluminum (Al)-induced stress remains poorly understood. We treated maize seedlings with Al and hydrogen-rich water (HRW) to determine the roles of H2 in the alleviation of Al toxicity. Our results demonstrated that Al stress triggered damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, plant growth inhibition, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and boosted lipid peroxidation. However, the addition of HRW at 75% saturation markedly alleviated Al toxicity symptoms through the promotion of root elongation...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646629/mechanisms-of-inhibitory-effects-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-photosynthetic-primary-processes-in-pea-leaves-and-thylakoid-preparations
#4
V D Kreslavski, M Brestic, S K Zharmukhamedov, V Yu Luybimov, A V Lankin, A Jajoo, S I Allakhverdiev
Inhibitory effects of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on plants is studied in pea leaves in order to elucidate the mechanisms of action of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene (Naph) and phenanthrene (Phen) on activity of photosystem 2 (PS-2). The changes in different Chl fluorescence parameters were calculated on the basis of Chl fluorescence induction curves. Hydrogen peroxide content was measured in leaf homogenates by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence method. We demonstrated that due to PAH treatment, the total energy dissipation (DI0 /ABS) and amount of QB -non-reducing complexes of PS-2 significantly increased...
June 24, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646314/ozone-and-desiccation-tolerance-in-chlorolichens-are-intimately-connected-a-case-study-based-on-two-species-with-different-ecology
#5
Stefano Bertuzzi, Elisa Pellegrini, Fabio Candotto Carniel, Guido Incerti, Giacomo Lorenzini, Cristina Nali, Mauro Tretiach
Tropospheric ozone (O3) causes severe damage to many vascular plants but not to lichens. It was recently suggested that this may be due to their high levels of natural defences against the oxidative bursts associated to their fluctuating water content. In this study, the combined effects of watering regime (with or without a daily spray of distilled water), air relative humidity (20 ± 5 vs. 80 ± 5% RH) and O3 (250 vs. 0 ppb, 5 h day(-1) for 2 weeks) were monitored in two chlorolichens with different ecology, Parmotrema perlatum and Xanthoria parietina...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646156/mahanine-exerts-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antileishmanial-activity-by-modulation-of-redox-homeostasis
#6
Saptarshi Roy, Devawati Dutta, Eswara M Satyavarapu, Pawan K Yadav, Chhabinath Mandal, Susanta Kar, Chitra Mandal
Earlier we have established a carbazole alkaloid (mahanine) isolated from an Indian edible medicinal plant as an anticancer agent with minimal effect on normal cells. Here we report for the first time that mahanine-treated drug resistant and sensitive virulent Leishmania donovani promastigotes underwent apoptosis through phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest. An early induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) suggests that the mahanine-induced apoptosis was mediated by oxidative stress...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645873/generation-of-nitric-oxide-by-olive-olea-europaea-l-pollen-during-in-vitro-germination-and-assessment-of-the-s-nitroso-and-nitro-pollen-proteomes-by-computational-predictive-methods
#7
María José Jimenez-Quesada, Rosario Carmona, Elena Lima-Cabello, José Ángel Traverso, Antonio Jesús Castro, M Gonzalo Claros, Juan de Dios Alché
Nitric oxide is recognized as a signaling molecule involved in a broad range of physiological processes in plants including sexual reproduction. NO has been detected in the pollen grain at high levels and regulates pollen tube growth. Previous studies demonstrated that NO as well as ROS are produced in the olive reproductive tissues in a stage- and tissue-specific manner. The aim of this study was to assess the production of NO throughout the germination of olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen in vitro. The NO fluorescent probe DAF-2DA was used to image NO production in situ, which was correlated to pollen viability...
June 20, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645294/3-5-4-trihydroxy-6-7-3-trimethoxyflavone-protects-against-beta-amyloid-induced-neurotoxicity-through-antioxidative-activity-and-interference-with-cell-signaling
#8
Alona Telerman, Rivka Ofir, Yoel Kashman, Anat Elmann
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized by progressive decline in memory and cognitive functions, that results from loss of neurons in the brain. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein and oxidative stress are major contributors to Alzheimer's disease, therefore, protecting neuronal cells against Aβ-induced toxicity and oxidative stress might form an effective approach for treatment of this disease. 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-6,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone (TTF) is a flavonoid we have purified from the plant Achillea fragrantissima; and the present study examined, for the first time, the effects of this compound on Aβ-toxicity to neuronal cells...
June 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644383/use-of-ultrasonication-technology-for-the-increased-production-of-plant-secondary-metabolites
#9
REVIEW
Md Mohidul Hasan, Tufail Bashir, Hanhong Bae
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) provide taste, color, odor, and resistance to plants, and they are also used to treat cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Synthesis of PSMs in plants is stimulated in response to different forms of external stress. Use of ultrasonication (US) to clean or decontaminate fruits and vegetables leads to physical stress that finally results in the accumulation of PSMs. US can stimulate accumulation of taxol, ginsenoside saponins, shikonin, and resveratrol, e.g., up to 319-fold increase of resveratrol synthesis has been observed in grape due to US...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641138/changes-in-lipid-peroxidation-in-stay-green-leaves-of-tobacco-with-senescence-induced-synthesis-of-cytokinins
#10
Maria Pilarska, Ernest Skowron, Rafał Pietraś, Karin Krupinska, Ewa Niewiadomska
The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progress of leaf senescence has long been suggested, but there are contrasting results to either support or deny the positive correlation between the senescence progression and the level of ROS-triggered lipid peroxidation. The inconsistency among reported results can partly be attributed to the poor specificity of the most commonly employed colorimetric assay and changes in the ratio of dry weight/fresh weight during leaf senescence. In this study we determined the end-product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) by GS-MS, and analyzed its changes during senescence of tobacco leaves as calculated on dry weight basis...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638863/neuroprotective-effect-of-terminalia-chebula-extracts-and-ellagic-acid-in-pc12-cells
#11
Yuh-Chiang Shen, Chi-Wen Juan, Che-San Lin, Chien-Chih Chen, Chia-Lin Chang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the common neurodegenerative disorders among elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effect and mechanisms of action underlying the Terminalia chebula extracts and ellagic acid by using beta-amyloid25-35 (Aβ25-35)-induced cell toxicity in an undifferentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The T. chebula extracts were prepared using the methanol, water, and 95% ethanol...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638833/isolation-and-abiotic-stress-resistance-analyses-of-a-catalase-gene-from-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam
#12
Bin Yong, Xiaoyan Wang, Pan Xu, Haiyan Zheng, Xueting Fei, Zixi Hong, Qinqin Ma, Yuzhi Miao, Xianghua Yuan, Yusong Jiang, Huanhuan Shao
As an indicator of the antioxidant capability of plants, catalase can detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by environmental stresses. Sweet potato is one of the top six most important crops in the world. However, its catalases remain largely unknown. In this study, a catalase encoding gene, IbCAT2 (accession number: KY615708), was identified and cloned from sweet potato cv. Xushu 18. It contained a 1479 nucleotides' open reading frame (ORF). S-R-L, Q-K-L, and a putative calmodulin binding domain were located at the C-terminus of IbCAT2, which suggests that IbCAT2 could be a peroxisomal catalase...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638400/integration-of-cadmium-accumulation-subcellular-distribution-and-physiological-responses-to-understand-cadmium-tolerance-in-apple-rootstocks
#13
Jiangtao Zhou, Huixue Wan, Jiali He, Deguo Lyu, Huifeng Li
Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential and highly toxic element causing agricultural problems. However, little information is available about the variation in Cd tolerance among apple rootstocks and its underlying physiological regulation mechanisms. This study investigated Cd accumulation, subcellular distribution, and chemical forms as well as physiological changes among four apple rootstocks exposed to either 0 or 300 μM CdCl2. The results showed that variations in Cd tolerance existed among these rootstocks. Cd exposure caused decline in photosynthesis, chlorophyll and biomass in four apple rootstocks, which was less pronounced in M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638395/modulation-of-antioxidant-defense-system-is-associated-with-combined-drought-and-heat-stress-tolerance-in-citrus
#14
Sara I Zandalinas, Damián Balfagón, Vicent Arbona, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas
Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636077/arabidopsis-shaker-pollen-inward-k-channel-spik-functions-in-snrk1-complex-regulated-pollen-hydration-on-the-stigma
#15
Dan-Dan Li, Huan Guan, Fei Li, Chang-Zhen Liu, Yu-Xiu Dong, Xian-Sheng Zhang, Xin-Qi Gao
Pollen hydration is a critical step that determines pollen germination on stigma. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex (SnRK1 complex). In pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were decreased which lead to compromised hydration of the mutant pollen on stigma. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in kinβγ mutant pollen by RNA-seq and found the expression of inward shaker K(+) channel SPIK was down-regulated in the kinβγ pollen...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633325/malus-hupehensis-mir168-targets-to-argonaute1-and-contributes-to-the-resistance-against-botryosphaeria-dothidea-infection-by-altering-defense-responses
#16
Xinyi Yu, Yingjun Hou, Weiping Chen, Sanhong Wang, Peihong Wang, Shenchun Qu
MicroRNA-mediated post transcriptional regulation plays a fundamental role in various plant physiological processes, including responses to pathogens. MicroRNA168 has been implicated as an essential factor of miRNA pathways by targeting ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1), the core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). A fluctuation in AGO1 expression influences various plant-pathogen interactions, and the homeostasis of AGO1 and miR168 accumulation is maintained by a complicated feedback regulatory loop. In this study, the connection between miR168 and the resistance of M...
June 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633105/effects-of-triacontanol-on-ascorbate-glutathione-cycle-in-brassica-napus-l-exposed-to-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress
#17
Elham Asadi Karam, Viviana Maresca, Sergio Sorbo, Batool Keramat, Adriana Basile
The ability of exogenous triacontanol (TRIA), a plant growth regulator, to reduce Cd toxicity was studied in canola (Brassica napus L.) plants. The following biological parameters were examined in canola seedlings to investigate TRIA-induced tolerance to Cd toxicity: seedling growth, chlorophyll damage and antioxidant response. In particular, TRIA application reduced Cd-induced oxidative damage, as shown by reduction of ROS content, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and lipid peroxidation level. TRIA pretreatment increased non-enzymatic antioxidant contents (ascorbate, AsA, glutathione and GSH), phytochelatin content (PCs) and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydro ascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), so reducing the oxidative stress...
June 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629321/the-biocontrol-agent-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-pa23-primes-brassica-napus-defenses-through-distinct-gene-networks
#18
Kelly A Duke, Michael G Becker, Ian J Girard, Jenna L Millar, W G Dilantha Fernando, Mark F Belmonte, Teresa R de Kievit
BACKGROUND: The biological control agent Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is capable of protecting Brassica napus (canola) from the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum via direct antagonism. While we have elucidated bacterial genes and gene products responsible biocontrol, little is known about how the host plant responds to bacterial priming on the leaf surface, including global changes in gene activity in the presence and absence of S. sclerotiorum. RESULTS: Application of PA23 to the aerial surfaces of canola plants reduced the number of S...
June 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629201/systemic-induction-of-the-defensin-and-phytoalexin-pisatin-pathways-in-pea-pisum-sativum-against-aphanomyces-euteiches-by-acetylated-and-nonacetylated-oligogalacturonides
#19
Sameh Selim, Jean Sanssené, Stéphanie Rossard, Josiane Courtois
Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are known for their powerful ability to stimulate the plant immune system but little is known about their mode of action in pea (Pisum sativum). In the present study, we investigated the elicitor activity of two fractions of OGs, with polymerization degrees (DPs) of 2-25, in pea against Aphanomyces euteiches. One fraction was nonacetylated (OGs - Ac) whereas the second one was 30% acetylated (OGs + Ac). OGs were applied by injecting the upper two rachises of the plants at three- and/or four-weeks-old...
June 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628666/the-effector-avrrxo1-phosphorylates-nad-in-planta
#20
Teja Shidore, Corey D Broeckling, Jay S Kirkwood, John J Long, Jiamin Miao, Bingyu Zhao, Jan E Leach, Lindsay R Triplett
Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals employ type III secreted effectors to suppress innate immunity. Most characterized effectors work through modification of host proteins or transcriptional regulators, although a few are known to modify small molecule targets. The Xanthomonas type III secreted avirulence factor AvrRxo1 is a structural homolog of the zeta toxin family of sugar-nucleotide kinases that suppresses bacterial growth. AvrRxo1 was recently reported to phosphorylate the central metabolite and signaling molecule NAD in vitro, suggesting that the effector might enhance bacterial virulence on plants through manipulation of primary metabolic pathways...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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