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ROS plants

Julio A Massange-Sánchez, Paola A Palmeros-Suárez, Eduardo Espitia-Rangel, Isaac Rodríguez-Arévalo, Lino Sánchez-Segura, Norma A Martínez-Gallardo, Fulgencio Alatorre-Cobos, Axel Tiessen, John P Délano-Frier
Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF) genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII) conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS) in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites...
2016: PloS One
Vivek Ambastha, Sudhir K Sopory, Budhi Sagar Tiwari, Baishnab C Tripathy
In this paper we provide evidence for involvement of chloroplast as alternate organelle for initiating PCD in plants under light and abiotic stress. In animals, mitochondria are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and key executioner of programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, however, the primary site of generation of ROS is chloroplast and yet its involvement in PCD has not been worked out in details. We found by Evans blue staining that salt (150 mM NaCl)-treated protoplasts obtained from green seedlings had higher rate of cell death than protoplasts obtained from etiolated seedlings...
October 17, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Sheng Shu, Pan Gao, Lin Li, Yinghui Yuan, Jin Sun, Shirong Guo
With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhen Wang, Fuxing Wang, Yechun Hong, Jirong Huang, Huazhong Shi, Jian-Kang Zhu
Chloroplast as the site for photosynthesis is an essential organelle in plants, but little is known about its role in stomatal regulation and drought resistance. In this study, we show that two chloroplastic proteins essential for thylakoid formation negatively regulate drought resistance in Arabidopsis. By screening a mutant pool with T-DNA insertions in nuclear genes encoding chloroplastic proteins, we identified a HCF106 knockdown mutant exhibiting increased resistance to drought stress. The hcf106 mutant displayed elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in guard cells, improved stomatal closure and reduced water loss under drought conditions...
October 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
Madhuri A Inupakutika, Soham Sengupta, Amith R Devireddy, Rajeev K Azad, Ron Mittler
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the regulation of many biological processes in plants. Nonetheless, they are considered highly reactive and toxic to cells. Owing to their toxicity, as well as their important role in signaling, the level of ROS in cells needs to be tightly regulated. The ROS gene network, encoding a highly redundant arsenal of ROS scavenging mechanisms and an array of enzymes involved in ROS production, regulates ROS metabolism and signaling in plants. In this article, we review the role of the ROS gene network in plants and examine how it evolved...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nobuhiro Suzuki
As sessile organisms, plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses. In contrast to the controlled conditions employed in many researches, more than one or more abiotic and/or biotic stresses simultaneously occur and highly impact growth of plants and crops in the field environments. Therefore, an urgent need to generate crops with enhanced tolerance to stress combinations exists. Researchers, however, focused on the mechanisms underlying acclimation of plants to combined stresses only in recent studies...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Navdeep Kaur, Kamal Kirat, Shivani Saini, Isha Sharma, Pascal Gantet, Pratap Kumar Pati
Salinity stress is one of the major environmental challenges which adversely affects plant growth and productivity. The acquisition of salinity stress tolerance has been an interesting area of investigation for plant abiotic stress management. Recently, we investigated the interdependency of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating and scavenging system for offering salt stress adaptation in rice. In continuation to our earlier findings, in the present study we analysed the transcript level expression of different respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) genes in salt sensitive and salt tolerant cultivars of rice to corroborate this result with their activities...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yunxie Wei, Wei Hu, Qiannan Wang, Wei Liu, Chunjie Wu, Hongqiu Zeng, Yu Yan, Xiaolin Li, Chaozu He, Haitao Shi
Melatonin is a widely known hormone in animals. Since melatonin was discovered in plants, more and more studies highlight its involvement in a wide range of physiological processes including plant development and stress responses. Many advances have been made in the terms of melatonin-mediated abiotic stress resistance and innate immunity in plants, focusing on model plants such as rice and Arabidopsis. In this study, 7 melatonin synthesis genes were systematically analyzed in cassava. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that all these genes were commonly regulated by melatonin, flg22, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Farhadur Rahman, Anubrata Ghosal, Mohammad Firoz Alam, Ahmad Humayan Kabir
Cadmium (Cd) is an important phytotoxic element causing health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) influences the alleviation of Cd toxicity in field peas at biochemical and molecular level. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants noticeably increased growth and development as well as total protein and membrane stability of Cd-stressed plants, suggesting that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in peas. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed simultaneous significant increase and decrease of Cd and Fe in roots and shoots, respectively, compared with Cd-stressed plants...
October 10, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zeng Xiaowei, Liu Cuicui, Han Ning, Bian Hongwu, Zhu Muyuan
Autophagy is an evolutionarily highly conserved catabolic pathway among eukaryotic cells that protects the organisms against environmental stress. Normally, autophagy is mainly involved with autophagy-related proteins(ATGs) and autophagic regulators including a series of cytoplasmic proteins and small molecules. Besides, the selective autophagy, which targets damaged organalles or protein aggregates, is mediated by the additional receptors to help the ATGs recognize different substrates. In this review, we summarize recent advances in autophagic regulators like ROS(Reactive oxygen species), TOR(Target of rapamycin) and receptors like NBR1(Neighbor of BRCA1 gene protein), RPN10(Regulatory particle non-ATPase 10) as well as their functional mechanisms mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Melisa E Yonny, Ariel Orlando Rodríguez-Torressi, Claire Cuyamendous, Guillaume Reversat, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Claire Vigor, Monica Azucena Nazareno
The extreme temperatures generated in the melon crop early harvest, induce an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) plant levels leading to oxidative stress. Phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) are plant metabolites derived from α-linolenic acid oxidation induced by ROS. The aims of this work were to evaluate PhytoPs and PhytoFs as oxidative stress biomarkers in leaves of melon plants thermally stressed. Besides, in order to fortify melon plant antioxidant defenses, foliar spraying was assayed using salicylic and gallic acid solutions and Ilex paraguariensis extract...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Anca Macovei, Andrea Pagano, Paola Leonetti, Daniela Carbonera, Alma Balestrazzi, Susana S Araújo
The pre-germinative metabolism is among the most fascinating aspects of seed biology. The early seed germination phase, or pre-germination, is characterized by rapid water uptake (imbibition), which directs a series of dynamic biochemical events. Among those are enzyme activation, DNA damage and repair, and use of reserve storage compounds, such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Industrial seedling production and intensive agricultural production systems require seed stocks with high rate of synchronized germination and low dormancy...
October 11, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Rachana Singh, Samiksha Singh, Parul Parihar, Rohit K Mishra, Durgesh K Tripathi, Vijay P Singh, Devendra K Chauhan, Sheo M Prasad
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably in the redox reactions of plants, including respiration and photosynthesis. In earlier studies, ROS were considered as toxic by-products of aerobic pathways of the metabolism. But in recent years, concept about ROS has changed because they also participate in developmental processes of plants by acting as signaling molecules. In plants, ROS regulate many developmental processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, programmed cell death, seed germination, gravitropism, root hair growth and pollen tube development, senescence, etc...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nilanjan Chakraborty, Sudeepa Ghosh, Swarnendu Chandra, Sarban Sengupta, Krishnendu Acharya
Improvement of the host resistance by using hazard free chemical elicitors is emerging as an alternative approach in the field of plant disease management. In our present work, we have screened the efficacy and possible mechanism of abiogenic elicitors like Dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate (K2HPO4), Oxalic acid (OA), Isonicotinic acid (INA), Salicylic acid (SA), Acetylsalicylate (AS), Arachidonic acid (AA) and Calcium chloride (CaCl2) to stimulate innate immune responses in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Anisur Rahman, Md Shahadat Hossain, Jubayer-Al Mahmud, Kamrun Nahar, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Masayuki Fujita
Hydroponically grown 12-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 150 mM NaCl alone and combined with 0.5 mM MnSO4. Salt stress resulted in disruption of ion homeostasis by Na(+) influx and K(+) efflux. Higher accumulation of Na(+) and water imbalance under salinity caused osmotic stress, chlorosis, and growth inhibition. Salt-induced ionic toxicity and osmotic stress consequently resulted in oxidative stress by disrupting the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG), respectively...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Prafull Salvi, Saurabh Chandra Saxena, Bhanu Prakash Petla, Nitin Uttam Kamble, Harmeet Kaur, Pooja Verma, Venkateswara Rao, Shraboni Ghosh, Manoj Majee
Galactinol synthase (GolS) catalyzes the first and rate limiting step of Raffinose Family Oligosaccharide (RFO) biosynthetic pathway, which is a highly specialized metabolic event in plants. Increased accumulation of galactinol and RFOs in seeds have been reported in few plant species, however their precise role in seed vigor and longevity remain elusive. In present study, we have shown that galactinol synthase activity as well as galactinol and raffinose content progressively increase as seed development proceeds and become highly abundant in pod and mature dry seeds, which gradually decline as seed germination progresses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum)...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anees A Syed, Shibani Lahiri, Divya Mohan, Guru R Valicherla, Anand P Gupta, Mohammed Riyazuddin, Sudhir Kumar, Rakesh Maurya, Kashif Hanif, Jiaur R Gayen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulmus wallichiana Planchon (Himalayan Elm), a traditional medicinal plant, used in fracture healingin folk tradition of Uttarakhand, Himalaya, India. It is also used as diuretic. U. rhynchophylla, native to China, known as Gou Teng in Chinese medicine, is used for hypertension (WHO). U. macrocarpa has antihypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. However, no detailed studies related to hypertension have been reported previously, so we have explored the antihypertensive activity of U...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mahmoud Kamal Ahmadi, Lei Fang, Nicholas Moscatello, Blaine A Pfeifer
In this report, the heterologous production of salicylate (SA) is the basis for metabolic extension to salicylate 2-O-β-d-glucoside (SAG), a natural product implicated in plant-based defense mechanisms. Production was optimized through a combination of metabolic engineering, gene expression variation, and co-culture design. When combined, SA and SAG production titers reached ~0.9g/L and ~2.5g/L, respectively. The SAG compound was then tested for anti-inflammatory properties relative to SA and acetylsalicylate (aspirin)...
October 5, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Delphine Cerveau, Alexandra Kraut, Henrik U Stotz, Martin J Mueller, Yohann Couté, Pascal Rey
Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-dependent peroxidases for which chaperone and signaling roles have been reported in various types of organisms in recent years. In plants, the peroxidase function of the two typical plastidial 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys PRX A and B) has been highlighted while the other functions, particularly in ROS-dependent signaling pathways, are still elusive notably due to the lack of knowledge of interacting partners. Using an ex vivo approach based on co-immunoprecipitation of leaf extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and mutant plants lacking 2-Cys PRX expression followed by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, 158 proteins were found associated with 2-Cys PRXs...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Haihong Jia, Lili Hao, Xulei Guo, Shuchang Liu, Yan Yan, Xingqi Guo
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) function at the top level of MAPK cascades and play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Although MAPKKKs comprise the largest family in the MAPK cascades, very few Raf-like MAPKKKs have been functionally identified, especially in the economically important crop cotton. In this study, a Raf-like MAPKKK gene, GhRaf19, was characterized for the first time in cotton. Our data show that the expression of GhRaf19 was inhibited by PEG and NaCl and induced by cold (4°C) and H2O2...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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