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ROS plants

Anat Elmann, Alona Telerman, Rivka Ofir, Yoel Kashman, Orly Lazarov
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia in adults. Current available drugs for AD transiently alleviate some of the symptoms, but do not modify the disease mechanism or cure it. Therefore, new drugs are desperately needed. Key contributors to AD are amyloid beta (Aβ)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cytotoxicities. Plant-derived substances have been shown to affect various potential targets in various diseases including AD. Therefore, phytochemicals which can protect neuronal cells against these insults might help in preventing and treating this disease...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Raúl Cassia, Macarena Nocioni, Natalia Correa-Aragunde, Lorenzo Lamattina
Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth's surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxides (Nx O) and ozone (O3 ). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Muhammad Abid, Shafaqat Ali, Lei Kang Qi, Rizwan Zahoor, Zhongwei Tian, Dong Jiang, John L Snider, Tingbo Dai
Defining the metabolic strategies used by wheat to tolerate and recover from drought events will be important for ensuring yield stability in the future, but studies addressing this critical research topic are limited. To this end, the current study quantified the physiological, biochemical, and agronomic responses of a drought tolerant and drought sensitive cultivar to periods of water deficit and recovery. Drought stress caused a reversible decline in leaf water relations, membrane stability, and photosynthetic activity, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and membrane injury...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Walid Korani, Ye Chu, C Corley Holbrook, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Post-harvest aflatoxin contamination is a challenging issue that affects peanut quality. Aflatoxin is produced by fungi belonging to the Aspergilli group, and is known as an acutely toxic, carcinogenic and immune-suppressing class of mycotoxins. Evidence for several host genetic factors that may impact aflatoxin contamination has been reported, e.g. , genes for lipoxygenase (PnLOX1 and PnLOX2/PnLOX3 that showed either positive or negative regulation with Aspergillus infection), ROS, and WRKY (highly associated with or differentially expressed upon infection of maize with A...
March 15, 2018: Genetics
Iram Iqbal Hejazi, Rashmin Khanam, Syed Hassan Mehdi, Abdul Roouf Bhat, M Moshahid Alam Rizvi, Sonu Chand Thakur, Fareeda Athar
Plant phytoconstituents have been a valuable source of clinically important anticancer agents. Antioxidant and anticancerous activity of plant Curculigo orchioides Gaertn were explored In vitro antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity of oxidatively stressed tissue, and cell culture studies on human cancer cell lines HepG2, HeLa and MCF-7 were carried out. Active plant fractions were subjected to GC-MS analysis and compounds selected on the basis of their abundance were screened in silico with the help of Auto Dock 4...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Ajit Ghosh, Zhong-Guang Li, Md Nurealam Siddiqui, Masayuki Fujita, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Abiotic stresses are the most common harmful factors, adversely affecting all aspects of plants' life. Plants have to elicit appropriate responses against multifaceted effects of abiotic stresses by reprogramming various cellular processes. Signaling molecules play vital roles in sensing environmental stimuli to modulate gene expression, metabolism and physiological processes in plants to cope with the adverse effects. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound, is known to accumulate in cells as a byproduct of various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Wei Zhang, Zheng Dong, Xiujuan Chang, Cuihong Zhang, Guanghua Rong, Xudong Gao, Zhen Zeng, Chunping Wang, Yan Chen, Yihui Rong, Jianhui Qu, Ze Liu, Yinying Lu
Apocynum venetum L., belonging to the family Apocynaceae, is a popular medicinal plant, which is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, neurasthenia, and hepatitis in China. In the present study, the total flavonoids (TFs) were prepared from the leaves of A. venetum, and its protective effects on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in a cultured HepG2 cell line and in mice were investigated. Cell exposed to 0.4% CCl4 (v/v) for 6 h led to a significant decrease in cell viability, increased LDH leakage, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Min Yang, Youcong Chuan, Cunwu Guo, Jingjing Liao, Yanguo Xu, Xinyue Mei, Yixiang Liu, Huichuan Huang, Xiahong He, Shusheng Zhu
Panax notoginseng is a highly valuable medicinal herb, but its culture is strongly hindered by replant failure, mainly due to autotoxicity. Deciphering the response mechanisms of plants to autotoxins is critical for overcoming the observed autotoxicity. Here, we elucidated the response of P. notoginseng to the autotoxic ginsenoside Rg1 via transcriptomic and cellular approaches. Cellular analyses demonstrated that Rg1 inhibited root growth by disrupting the cell membrane and wall. Transcriptomic analyses confirmed that genes related to the cell membrane, cell wall decomposition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism were up-regulated by Rg1 stress...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cuimei Zhang, Shangli Shi
Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yannan Zhao, Lilan Luo, Jiesi Xu, Peiyong Xin, Hongyan Guo, Jian Wu, Lin Bai, Guodong Wang, Jinfang Chu, Jianru Zuo, Hong Yu, Xun Huang, Jiayang Li
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental biological process. Deficiency in MOSAIC DEATH 1 (MOD1), a plastid-localized enoyl-ACP reductase, leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and PCD, which can be suppressed by mitochondrial complex I mutations, indicating a signal from chloroplasts to mitochondria. However, this signal remains to be elucidated. In this study, through cloning and analyzing a series of mod1 suppressors, we reveal a comprehensive organelle communication pathway that regulates the generation of mitochondrial ROS and triggers PCD...
March 14, 2018: Cell Research
Qing-Long Wang, Juan-Hua Chen, Ning-Yu He, Fang-Qing Guo
Increases in ambient temperatures have been a severe threat to crop production in many countries around the world under climate change. Chloroplasts serve as metabolic centers and play a key role in physiological adaptive processes to heat stress. In addition to expressing heat shock proteins that protect proteins from heat-induced damage, metabolic reprogramming occurs during adaptive physiological processes in chloroplasts. Heat stress leads to inhibition of plant photosynthetic activity by damaging key components functioning in a variety of metabolic processes, with concomitant reductions in biomass production and crop yield...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Silvia Revoltella, Giorgia Baraldo, Birgit Waltenberger, Stefan Schwaiger, Philipp Kofler, Julia Moesslacher, Astrid Huber-Seidel, Konrad Pagitz, Roland Kohl, Pidder Jansen-Duerr, Hermann Stuppner
NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) has recently been implicated as driving force in cellular senescence. Thus, there is growing interest to develop Nox4 inhibitors, which might be valuable agents for cosmeceutical applications. Alpine plants represent a valuable source for the identification of novel bioactive natural products with anti-ageing effects, especially substances that protect plants against UV radiation, which is also known to contribute to the ageing of human skin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel Nox4 inhibitors from alpine plants...
March 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Suchi Srivastava, Sonal Srivastava, Vidisha Bist, Surabhi Awasthi, Reshu Chauhan, Vasvi Chaudhry, Poonam C Singh, Sanjay Dwivedi, Abhishek Niranjan, Lalit Agrawal, Puneet Singh Chauhan, Rudra Deo Tripathi, Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal
Rice grown in arsenic (As) contaminated areas contributes to high dietary exposure of As inducing multiple adverse effects on human health. The As contamination and application of phosphate fertilizers during seedling stage creates a high P and As stress condition. The flooded paddy fields are also conducive for algal growth and microbial activity. The present study proposes potential role of microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris (CHL) and bacteria, Pseudomonas putida (RAR) on rice plant grown under excess As and phosphate (P) conditions...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zhenhua Xu, Steven J Rothstein
Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with antioxidant activities. In plants, multiple factors can trigger the accumulation of anthocyanins, including chemicals and environmental factors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common by-products produced under different biotic and abiotic conditions and cause oxidative stress when accumulated at a high level in plant cells. This in turn leads to the production of anthocyanins. However, the mechanisms of ROS-induced anthocyanin accumulation and the role of anthocyanins in the response of plants to different stresses are largely unknown...
March 13, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ming Li, Yonglai Xue, Zhenjiang Liu, Jin Guo, Liyun Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Lu Gao, Lizhao Wang, Yin Cui, Daolin Du
Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as model organisms to investigate the toxic effect and mechanism of four kinds of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids (ILs) on plant seedling taproots. After exposure to ILs, the growth of seedling taproots was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. The toxicity of ILs on seedling taproots was [Bmim][BF4 ] > [Bmpy][BF4 ] > [Bmim][Br] > [Bmpy][Br]. The reduction of seedling root cell vitality, aggravation of seedling root cell death, and repression of gravitropic growth responses were observed...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Caixia Zhang, Guangyan Li, Tingting Chen, Baohua Feng, Weimeng Fu, Jinxiang Yan, Mohammad Rezaul Islam, Qianyu Jin, Longxing Tao, Guanfu Fu
BACKGROUND: Pollen tube elongation in the pistil is a key step for pollination success in plants, and auxins play an important role in this process. However, the function of auxins in pollen tube elongation in the pistil of rice under heat stress has seldom been previously reported. RESULTS: Two rice genotypes differing in heat tolerance were subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for 2 h after flowering. A sharp decrease in spikelet fertility was found in the Nipponbare (NPB) and its mutant High temperature susceptible (HTS) under heat stress, but the stress-induced spikelet sterility was reversed by 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), especially the HTS...
March 12, 2018: Rice
Francine Kengne Mediesse, Thaddée Boudjeko, Anantharaju Hasitha, Matharasala Gangadhar, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Perumal Yogeeswari
BACKGROUND: Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf) and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr leaves are used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have been performed on the biological activities of secondary metabolites extracted from these plants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the anti-neuro inflammatory and protective roles of the polysaccharides of these three plants have not yet been elucidated...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ismail Turkan, Baris Uzilday, Karl-Josef Dietz, Andrea Bräutigam, Rengin Ozgur
Redox regulation, antioxidant defence and ROS signalling are critical in realizing and tuning metabolic activities. However, our concepts were mostly developed for C3 plants since Arabidopsis thaliana is major model. Efforts to convert C3 plants to C4 plants to increase yield (see C4 rice; entails better understanding of these processes in C4 plants. Various photosynthetic enzymes that take part in light reactions and carbon reactions are regulated via redox components such as thioredoxins as redox transmitters and peroxiredoxins...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yu-Ting Li, Ying Liang, Yue-Nan Li, Xing-Kai Che, Shi-Jie Zhao, Zi-Shan Zhang, Hui-Yuan Gao
Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely distributed pollutant, suppresses photosynthesis in leaves. In previous studies on higher plants, the plants were treated by BPA through irrigation to root. This method cannot distinguish whether the BPA directly suppresses photosynthesis in leaves, or indirectly influences photosynthesis through affecting the function of root. Here, only the leaves but not the roots of cucumber were infiltrated with BPA solution. The photosystem II and I (PSII, PSI) were insensitive to BPA under darkness...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ginga Shimakawa, Chikahiro Miyake
Oxygenic phototrophs are vulnerable to damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced in photosystem I (PSI) by excess photon energy over the demand of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. In plant leaves, repetitive short-pulse (rSP) illumination produces ROS to inactivate PSI. The production of ROS is alleviated by oxidation of the reaction center chlorophyll in PSI, P700, during the illumination with the short-pulse light, which is supported by flavodiiron protein (FLV). In this study, we found that in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp...
March 8, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
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