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fibroblast growth factor liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328449/bioinformatics-analysis-to-screen-key-genes-implicated-in-the-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-hepatocytes
#1
Rui Lin, Yufeng Wang, Kun Ji, Zhongyan Liu, Shuai Xiao, Dehua Zhou, Quanning Chen, Baomin Shi
Due to the lack of potential organs, hepatocellular transplantation has been considered for treating end-stage liver disease. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reverted from somatic cells and are able to differentiate into hepatocytes. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying iPSC differentiation to hepatocytes. GSE66076 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus; this database includes data from 3 undifferentiated (T0), 3 definitive endoderm (T5), and 3 early hepatocyte (T24) samples across hepatic‑directed differentiation of iPSCs...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311481/a-ppar-pan-agonist-mhy2013-alleviates-age-related-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-by-promoting-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-suppressing-inflammation
#2
Hye Jin An, Bonggi Lee, Seong Min Kim, Dae Hyun Kim, Ki Wung Chung, Su Gyeong Ha, Kyung Chul Park, Yeo Jin Park, Seong Jin Kim, Hwi Young Yun, Pusoon Chun, Byung Pal Yu, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequently observed in obese and aged individuals. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play a role in regulating hepatic lipid accumulation, a hallmark of NAFLD development. A PPAR pan agonist, 2-(4-(5,6-methylenedioxybenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-methylphenoxy)-2-methylpropanoic acid (MHY2013) has been shown to prevent fatty liver formation and insulin resistance in obese mice (db/db) model. However, the beneficial effects of MHY2013 in aged model remain unknown...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295856/fgf21-induced-by-carbon-monoxide-mediates-metabolic-homeostasis-via-the-perk-atf4-pathway
#3
Yeonsoo Joe, Sena Kim, Hyo Jeong Kim, Jeongmin Park, Yingqing Chen, Hyeok-Jun Park, Seung-Joo Jekal, Stefan W Ryter, Uh Hyun Kim, Hun Taeg Chung
The prevalence of metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, has rapidly increased, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome, a primary risk factor, remain incompletely understood. The small, gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO) has well-known anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiapoptotic effects in a variety of cellular- and tissue-injury models, whereas its potential effects on the complex pathways of metabolic disease remain unknown...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289645/hepatic-regulation-of-vldl-receptor-by-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-fgf21-modulates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Mohammad Zarei, Emma Barroso, Xavier Palomer, Jianli Dai, Patricia Rada, Tania Quesada-López, Joan Carles Escolà-Gil, Lidia Cedó, Mohammad Reza Zali, Mahsa Molaei, Reza Dabiri, Santiago Vázquez, Eugènia Pujol, Ángela M Valverde, Francesc Villarroya, Yong Liu, Walter Wahli, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera
OBJECTIVE: The very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) plays an important role in the development of hepatic steatosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)β/δ and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in hepatic VLDLR regulation. METHODS: Studies were conducted in wild-type and Pparβ/δ-null mice, primary mouse hepatocytes, human Huh-7 hepatocytes, and liver biopsies from control subjects and patients with moderate and severe hepatic steatosis...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247356/current-and-future-pharmacological-therapies-for-nafld-nash
#5
REVIEW
Yoshio Sumida, Masashi Yoneda
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease worldwide, and there is no approved pharmacotherapy. The efficacy of vitamin E and pioglitazone has been established in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of NAFLD. GLP-1RA and SGLT2 inhibitors, which are currently approved for use in diabetes, have shown early efficacy in NASH, and also have beneficial cardiovascular or renal effects. Innovative NASH therapies include four main pathways. The first approach is targeting hepatic fat accumulation...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241453/bile-acid-is-a-significant-host-factor-shaping-the-gut-microbiome-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#6
Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Sha Lei, Yunjing Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Tianlu Chen, Chun Qu, Cynthia Rajani, Bing Dong, Defa Li, Wei Jia
BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria are known to regulate bile acid (BA) homeostasis via intestinal biotransformation of BAs and stimulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 through intestinal nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). On the other hand, BAs directly regulate the gut microbiota with their strong antimicrobial activities. It remains unclear, however, how mammalian BAs cross-talk with gut microbiome and shape microbial composition in a dynamic and interactive way. RESULTS: We quantitatively profiled small molecule metabolites derived from host-microbial co-metabolism in mice, demonstrating that BAs were the most significant factor correlated with microbial alterations among all types of endogenous metabolites...
December 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223982/pazopanib-sensitivity-in-a-patient-with-breast-cancer-and-fgfr1-amplification
#7
Fiona Tsui-Fen Cheng, Fu Ou-Yang, Nina Lapke, Kai-Che Tung, Yen-Kung Chen, Yuh-Yu Chou, Shu-Jen Chen
Treatment options for patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), HER2-negative (HER2-) breast cancer and resistance to endocrine therapy remain limited. An interesting therapeutic target in these patients is fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1). FGFR1 is amplified in approximately 11% of patients with breast cancer, especially those with HR+ disease. This report presents a patient with metastatic HR+ HER2- breast cancer harboring an FGFR1 amplification who was resistant to endocrine therapy but responded to pazopanib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with FGFR-inhibiting activity...
December 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196240/the-pathophysiology-of-human-obstructive-cholestasis-is-mimicked-in-cholestatic-gold-syrian-hamsters
#8
Rowan F van Golen, Pim B Olthof, Lianne R de Haan, Robert-Jan Coelen, Alexandros Pechlivanis, Mark J de Keijzer, Ruud Weijer, Dirk R de Waart, André B P van Kuilenburg, Jeroen Roelofsen, Pim W Gilijamse, Martinus A Maas, Matthew R Lewis, Jeremy K Nicholson, Joanne Verheij, Michal Heger
Obstructive cholestasis causes liver injury via accumulation of toxic bile acids (BAs). Therapeutic options for cholestatic liver disease are limited, partially because the available murine disease models lack translational value. Profiling of time-related changes following bile duct ligation (BDL) in Gold Syrian hamsters revealed a biochemical response similar to cholestatic patients in terms of BA pool composition, alterations in hepatocyte BA transport and signaling, and suppression of BA production. Hamsters tolerated cholestasis well for up to 28days and progressed relatively slowly to fibrotic liver injury...
November 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184085/diverse-changes-of-circulating-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-levels-in-hepatitis-b-virus-related-diseases
#9
Liang Wu, Qingchun Pan, Guangyu Wu, Lingling Qian, Jing Zhang, Lei Zhang, Qichen Fang, Guoqing Zang, Yudong Wang, George Lau, Huating Li, Weiping Jia
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a stress-induced hormone in the liver, has been shown the protective functions in pathological conditions. The study investigated the association of circulating FGF21 with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its related diseases. Serum FGF21 levels were measured in 33 acute hepatitis B (AHB), 75 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 66 CHB patients with advanced liver diseases including liver cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure (ALCF) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) together with 200 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159825/modulation-of-the-intestinal-bile-acid-fxr-fgf15-axis-improves-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-mice
#10
Phillipp Hartmann, Katrin Hochrath, Angela Horvath, Peng Chen, Caroline T Seebauer, Cristina Llorente, Lirui Wang, Yazen Alnouti, Derrick E Fouts, Peter Stärkel, Rohit Loomba, Sally Coulter, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Lei Ling, Stephen J Rossi, Alex M DePaoli, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, David A Brenner, Bernd Schnabl
Alcoholic liver disease is associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Functional consequences of alcohol-associated dysbiosis are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify a mechanism of how changes in the intestinal microbiota contribute to alcoholic liver disease. Metagenomic sequencing of intestinal contents demonstrated that chronic ethanol feeding in mice is associated with an overrepresentation of bacterial genomic DNA encoding choloylglycine hydrolase, which deconjugates bile acids in the intestine...
November 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119003/novel-associations-of-bile-acid-diarrhoea-with-fatty-liver-disease-and-gallstones-a-cohort-retrospective-analysis
#11
Richard N Appleby, Jonathan D Nolan, Ian M Johnston, Sanjeev S Pattni, Jessica Fox, Julian Rf Walters
Background: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea with a population prevalence of primary BAD around 1%. Previous studies have identified associations with low levels of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. The aim of this study was to identify further associations of BAD. Methods: A cohort of patients with chronic diarrhoea who underwent 75selenohomocholic acid taurate (SeHCAT) testing for BAD was further analysed retrospectively...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115426/recombinant-truncated-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-receptor-ii-attenuates-carbon-tetrachloride%C3%A2-induced-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-and-liver-fibrosis-in-rats
#12
Luxin Li, Hongzhi Li, Zhen Zhang, Junya Zheng, Yongping Shi, Jieting Liu, Yanan Cao, Xiaohuan Yuan, Yanhui Chu
Liver fibrosis is a pathological process of chronic liver diseases. In particular, epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major source of myofibroblast structure in liver fibrosis. The present study investigated the effects of recombinant truncated transforming growth factor‑ß receptor II (rtTGFβRII) on EMT and liver fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‑induced rat model. A total of 24 rats were randomly separated into three groups: Normal control (NC), model (CCl4) and treatment (CCl4 + rtTGFβRII) groups...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107287/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-is-robustly-induced-by-ethanol-and-has-a-protective-role-in-ethanol-associated-liver-injury
#13
Bhavna N Desai, Garima Singhal, Mikiko Watanabe, Darko Stevanovic, Thomas Lundasen, Ffolliott M Fisher, Marie L Mather, Hilde G Vardeh, Nicholas Douris, Andrew C Adams, Imad A Nasser, Garret A FitzGerald, Jeffrey S Flier, Carsten Skarke, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
OBJECTIVE: Excess ethanol consumption has serious pathologic consequences. In humans, repeated episodes of binge drinking can lead to liver damage and have adverse effects on other organs such as pancreas and brain. Long term chronic consumption of ethanol can also result in progressive alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple physiologic functions. FGF21 is a novel biomarker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans and limits hepatotoxicity in mice...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105277/effect-of-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-on-pro-fibrogenic-resident-hepatic-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-liver-fibrosis
#14
Anna Cargnoni, Serafina Farigu, Ester Cotti Piccinelli, Patrizia Bonassi Signoroni, Pietro Romele, Graziella Vanosi, Ivan Toschi, Valentina Cesari, Luciana Barros Sant'Anna, Marta Magatti, Antonietta R Silini, Ornella Parolini
Myofibroblasts are key fibrogenic cells responsible for excessive extracellular matrix synthesis characterizing the fibrotic lesion. In liver fibrosis, myofibroblasts derive either from activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and portal fibroblasts (PF), or from the activation of fibroblasts that originate from ductular epithelial cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Ductular cells can also indirectly promote myofibroblast generation by activating TGF-β, the main fibrogenic growth factor, through αvβ6 integrin...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104811/bile-acid-metabolism-and-signaling-in-liver-disease-and-therapy
#15
John Y L Chiang
Bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism through activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, aka TGR5). Agonist activation of FXR and TGR5 improves insulin and glucose sensitivity and stimulates energy metabolism to prevent diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Bile acids have both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions through FXR and TGR5 in the intestine and liver...
June 2017: Liver Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096734/endocrine-adiponectin-fgf15-19-axis-in-ethanol-induced-inflammation-and-alcoholic-liver-injury
#16
Min You, Zhou Zhou, Michael Daniels, Alvin Jogasuria
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent form of liver diseases, encompassing a spectrum of progressive pathological changes from steatosis to steatohepatitis to fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcoholic steatosis/steatohepatitis is the initial stage of ALD and a major risk factor for advanced liver injuries. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted from adipocytes. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 (human homolog, FGF19) is an ileum-derived hormone. Adipocyte-derived adiponectin and gut-derived FGF15/19 regulate each other, share common signaling cascades and exert similar beneficial functions...
November 2, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065221/berberine-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-and-enhances-energy-expenditure-in-mice-by-inducing-autophagy-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-21
#17
Yixuan Sun, Mingfeng Xia, Hongmei Yan, Yamei Han, Feifei Zhang, Zhimin Hu, Aoyuan Cui, Fengguang Ma, Zhengshuai Liu, Qi Gong, Xuqing Chen, Jing Gao, Hua Bian, Yi Tan, Yu Li, Xin Gao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Berberine, a compound from rhizome coptidis, is traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal infections, such as bacteria diarrhea. Recently, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic efficacies of berberine were identified. We investigate mechanisms by which berberine regulates hepatic lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Liver-specific SIRT1 knockout (SIRT1 LKO) mice and their wild-type littermates were fed on a HFHS diet, and then treated with berberine by intraperitoneal injection for five weeks...
October 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021814/sex-specific-association-between-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-type-2-diabetes-a-nested-case-control-study-in-singapore-chinese-men-and-women
#18
Yeli Wang, Woon-Puay Koh, Jian-Min Yuan, An Pan
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is mainly secreted by liver and has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Some prospective studies have shown a positive association between FGF-21 and diabetes risk. However, no study has examined whether the association differed by sex, which has been reported between FGF-21 and atherosclerosis. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the sex-specific association between FGF-21 and diabetes in a Chinese population...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975832/systemic-and-adjuvant-therapies-for-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#19
Yun Shin Chun, Milind Javle
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma represents the second most common primary liver cancer and is increasing in incidence. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced, nonsurgical stage and only about 1 in 5 cases are surgically resectable. Despite surgery, the 5-year survival is low at only 30%. Multifocal, node- or margin-positive disease is at a higher risk of recurrence after resection. There is no level 1 evidence in support of postoperative adjuvant therapy. A recent adjuvant therapy phase III trial from the Partenariat de Recherche en Oncologie Digestive-Actions Concertées dans les Cancers Colo-Rectaux et Digestifs (PRODIGE) group reported no survival advantage with adjuvant gemcitabine and oxaliplatin therapy...
July 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944920/periodic-acid%C3%A2-schiff-staining-method-for-function-detection-of-liver-cells-is-affected-by-2-horse-serum-in-induction-medium
#20
Hui Hui, Wenjun Ma, Jiejie Cui, Mengjia Gong, Yi Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tongchuan He, Yang Bi, Yun He
Developing a thorough understanding of experimental methods of hepatic differentiation in hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) should expand the knowledge of hepatocyte induction in vitro and may help to develop cell transplantation therapies for the clinical usage of HPCs in liver diseases. A previous induction method effectively induced differentiation and metabolic abilities in HPCs. Periodic acid‑Schiff (PAS) staining is used to identify glycogen synthesis and hepatocyte function; however, this method failed to detect induced hepatocytes...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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