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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031145/small-molecule-mediated-upregulation-of-ccr7-ameliorates-murine-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-accelerating-t-cell-homing
#1
Xin Li, Tingting Lu, Wenwen Xue, Yixuan Wang, Qiong Luo, Huiming Ge, Renxiang Tan, Yan Shen, Qiang Xu
Impairing the infiltration of immune cells into the CNS is a promising target for suppressing the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we found that oral administration of a synthetic small molecular compound Fc24 showed potential preventive effects on the development of EAE, including the reduction in EAE severity and a delay in the onset of the disease. Fc24 facilitated the accumulation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells within spleen and lymph nodes, while having no effect on MOG-specific T cell responses...
October 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031042/humoral-and-cellular-immune-response-of-mice-challenged-with-yersinia-pestis-antigenic-preparations
#2
Elida A Leal, Josimar D Moreira, Fernanda F Nunes, Larissa R Souza, Janaina M Martins, Vicente P C Toledo, Alzira M P Almeida, Tania M P Guimarães
OBJECTIVES: The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response...
October 11, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029206/dissecting-hiv-virulence-heritability-of-setpoint-viral-load-cd4-t-cell-decline-and-per-parasite-pathogenicity
#3
Frederic Bertels, Alex Marzel, Gabriel Leventhal, Venelin Mitov, Jacques Fellay, Huldrych F Günthard, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Vincent Aubert, Manuel Battegay, Andri Rauch, Matthias Cavassini, Alexandra Calmy, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra U Scherrer, Viktor Müller, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Roger Kouyos, Roland R Regoes
Pathogen strains may differ in virulence because they attain different loads in their hosts, or because they induce different disease-causing mechanisms independent of their load. In evolutionary ecology, the latter is referred to as" per-parasite pathogenicity". Using viral load and CD4+ T cell measures from 2014 HIV-1 subtype B infected individuals enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if virulence - measured as the rate of decline of CD4+ T cells - and per-parasite pathogenicity are heritable from donor to recipient...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029171/effect-of-hiv-on-the-frequency-and-number-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cd4-t-cells-in-blood-and-the-airways-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#4
Rubina Bunjun, Catherine Riou, Andreia P Soares, Narjis Thawer, Tracey L Müller, Agano Kiravu, Zekarias Ginbot, Tolu Oni, Rene Goliath, Barbara Kalsdorf, Florian von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Willem Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Robert J Wilkinson, Wendy A Burgers
HIV-1 infection substantially increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). There is extensive depletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ T cells in blood in early HIV infection, but little is known about responses in the lungs at this stage. Given that mucosal organs are a principal target for HIV-mediated CD4 destruction, we investigated M.tuberculosis-specific responses in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), in persons with latent TB infection and untreated HIV-1 co-infection with preserved CD4 counts...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028973/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-newborn-mva85a-vaccination-and-selective-delayed-bacille-calmette-guerin-bcg-for-infants-of-hiv-infected-mothers-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Elisa Nemes, Anneke C Hesseling, Michele Tameris, Katya Mauff, Katrina Downing, Humphrey Mulenga, Penelope Rose, Marieke van der Zalm, Sharon Mbaba, Danelle Van As, Willem A Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Thomas J Scriba, Helen McShane, Mark Hatherill
Background: Vaccination of HIV-infected infants with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is contraindicated. HIV-exposed newborns need a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccination strategy that protects against TB early in life; and avoids the potential risk of BCG disease until after HIV infection has been excluded. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial compared newborn MVA85A prime vaccination (1 x10 8 PFU) vs. Candin® control, followed by selective deferred BCG vaccination at 8 weeks of age for HIV-uninfected infants, and 12 months follow-up for safety and immunogenicity...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028770/expression-and-clinical-correlations-of-co-stimulatory-molecules-on-peripheral-t-lymphocyte-subsets-of-early-stage-severe-sepsis-a-prospective-observational-study
#6
Yi Lu, Le An, Qiang Liu, Chunsheng Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and clinical correlations of co-stimulatory molecules on peripheral T cell subsets of severe sepsis (SS) patients. METHODS: Blood samples of patients with community-acquired pneumonia associated SS and healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed. SS patients were followed up for 28 days. Co-stimulatory molecules expression on T cell subsets was determined by flow cytometry analysis. The clinical correlations of these parameters were examined...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028486/a-point-mutation-in-the-extracellular-domain-of-cd4-completely-abolishes-cd4-t-cell-development-in-c57bl-6-mouse
#7
Huijie Wang, Saichao Li, Tianzhu Chao, Xugang Wang, Lijin Shi, Lichen Zhang, Yinming Liang, Qianqian Zheng, Liaoxun Lu
In this study, we performed ENU mutagenesis and multi-parameter flow cytometric analysis in C57BL/6 mice to uncover novel genes or alleles regulating immune cell development. We identified a novel mutant allele of Cd4 gene which completely blocked development of a major subset of T cells named CD4 T cell. Our data for the first time showed experimentally in mice the critical role of the first extracellular domain, by obtaining mice with a loss of function mutation from Ile to Asn at the position 99 of CD4 (I99N)...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027667/co-inhibitory-profile-and-cytotoxicity-of-cd57-pd-1-t-cells-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#8
Rens Kraaijeveld, Gretchen N de Graav, Marjolein Dieterich, Nicolle H R Litjens, Dennis A Hesselink, Carla C Baan
Blockade of the CD80/86-CD28 pathway by belatacept after kidney transplantation is associated with an increased risk of rejection as compared with standard, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based therapy. CD28(-) T-cells, which express CD57, are not susceptible to belatacept treatment. High number of CD4(+) CD57(+) PD-1(-) T-cells pre transplantation have been associated with a higher chance of rejection, although conflicting data have been reported. To investigate the working mechanism behind this possible higher chance of rejection, we studied the expression of co-inhibitory molecules (CD223, CD244 and PD-1), proliferative capacity and cytotoxic potential of FACS-sorted CD4(+) CD57(+) PD-1(-) and CD8(+) CD57(+) PD-1(-) T-cells, and their CD57(-) control populations, after allo antigen stimulation...
October 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026463/t-cell-allorecognition-of-donor-glutathione-s-transferase-t1-in-plasma-cell-rich-rejection
#9
María José Martínez-Bravo, Berta Sánchez, José Manuel Sousa, María José Acevedo, Miguel Angel Gómez-Bravo, Antonio Núñez-Roldán, Isabel Aguilera
AIM: To investigate the role of glutathione S-transferase T1 donor-specific T lymphocytes in plasma cell-rich rejection of liver allografts. METHODS: The study group included 22 liver transplant patients. Among them, 18 patients were mismatched for the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) alleles (don+/rec-), and 4 were matched (don+/rec+). Seven of the mismatched patients produced anti-GSTT1 antibodies and developed plasma cell-rich rejection (former de novo immune hepatitis)...
September 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026141/combined-skin-and-muscle-vaccination-differentially-impact-the-quality-of-effector-t-cell-functions-the-cuthivac-001-randomized-trial
#10
G Haidari, A Cope, A Miller, S Venables, C Yan, H Ridgers, K Reijonen, D Hannaman, A Spentzou, P Hayes, G Bouliotis, A Vogt, S Joseph, B Combadiere, S McCormack, R J Shattock
Targeting of different tissues via transcutaneous (TC), intradermal (ID) and intramuscular (IM) injection has the potential to tailor the immune response to DNA vaccination. In this Phase I randomised controlled clinical trial in HIV-1 negative volunteers we investigate whether the site and mode of DNA vaccination influences the quality of the cellular immune responses. We adopted a strategy of concurrent immunization combining IM injection with either ID or TC administration. As a third arm we assessed the response to IM injection administered with electroporation (EP)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026137/opiate-use-inhibits-tlr9-signaling-pathway-in-vivo-possible-role-in-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#11
Yanyan Liao, Junjun Jiang, Bingyu Liang, Fumei Wei, Jiegang Huang, Peijiang Pan, Jinming Su, Bo Zhou, Ning Zang, Li Ye, Hao Liang
The molecular mechanism of opiate use promoting HIV-1 infection is not fully understood. TLR9 is expressed in many immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, which can recognize viruses and viral products and consequently induce the production of antiviral factors and initiate immune responses. Previous studies have shown that chronic viral infections can overcome and impair TLR9 pathway. We aimed to explore whether opiate use enhances HIV infection through inhibition of TLR9 pathway via a population-based study...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025906/comparative-profiling-of-hla-dr-and-hla-dq-associated-factor-viii-peptides-presented-by-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#12
Ivan Peyron, Robin B Hartholt, Laura Pedró-Cos, Floris van Alphen, Anja Ten Brinke, Neubury Lardy, Sander Meijer, Jan Voorberg
The development of anti-factor VIII antibodies represents a major complication in the treatment of patients with hemophilia A. Generation of high affinity anti-factor VIII antibodies is dependent on help provided by CD4+ T cells that recognize factor VIII-derived peptides presented on class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of antigen presenting cells. In order to identify the immune-dominant epitopes that can be presented to CD4+ T cells, we previously developed a mass-spectrometry based method to identify factor VIII derived peptides that are presented on human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR...
October 12, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025273/higher-frequencies-of-circulating-icos-il-21-t-follicular-helper-cells-and-plasma-cells-in-patients-with-new-onset-membranous-nephropathy
#13
Zhihui Zhang, Yunpeng Shi, Kunmeng Yang, Rebecca Crew, Haifeng Wang, Yanfang Jiang
BACKGROUND: T follicular helper (TFH) cells and B cells are known to regulate humoral immune responses. This study is aimed at examining the putative contribution of different subsets of circulating of TFH cells and B cells to membranous nephropathy (MN). METHODS: A total of 45 MN patients and 19 healthy controls (HCs) were examined for the number of TFH cells and B cells by flow cytometry. The level of 24-h urinary protein and eGFR were calculated, and the level of serum cytokines was examined...
October 13, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024606/role-of-the-tslp-dc-ox40l-pathway-in-asthma-pathogenesis-and-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#14
Shuang Feng, Li Zhang, Xu-Hua Bian, Ying Luo, Guang-Hui Qin, Rui-Ming Shi
This study aims to explore the effect of the TSLP/DC/OX40L pathway in asthma pathogenesis and airway inflammation in mice. Sixty-five male BALF/c mice were divided into the control, asthma, IgG + asthma (IgG, 500 g/500 l, intratracheal injection of 50 l each time), LY294002 (OX40L inhibitor) + asthma (intratracheal injection of 2 mg/kg LY294002), and anti-TSLP + asthma (intratracheal injection of 500 ug/500 l TSLP antibody, 50 l each time) groups. ELISA was applied to measure the serum levels of IgE, ovalbumin (OVA)-sIgE, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), flow cytometry was employed to detect Treg cells and dendritic cell (DC) and lymphopoiesis...
October 12, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024496/higher-levels-of-cystatin-c-in-hiv-aids-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Gordana Dragović, Danica Srdić, Khawla Al Musalhi, Ivan Soldatović, Jovana Kušić, Djordje Jevtović, Devaki Nair
Data about Cystatin-C levels in HIV-infected patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlations of serum levels of Cystatin-C in HIV/AIDS patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) with or without MetS. This cross-sectional study included 89 HIV/AIDS Caucasian patients receiving cART at the HIV/AIDS Centre Belgrade, Serbia, divided into two groups according to the presence of MetS. Cystatin-C and other biochemical parameters were measured using Cytokine-Array-I, Metabolic-Array-I and Metabolic-Array-II, at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Hospital and University College London, United Kingdom...
October 11, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023933/mir-15a-16-1-suppresses-ahr-dependent-il-22-secretion-in-cd4-t-cells-and-contributes-to-immune-mediated-organ-injury
#16
Zhou Lu, Jiajing Liu, Xiaoming Liu, Enyu Huang, Jiao Yang, Jiawen Qian, Dan Zhang, Ronghua Liu, Yiwei Chu
Interleukin-22 (IL-22), as a link between leukocytic and non-leukocytic cells, has gained increasing attention for its pronounced tissue-protective properties. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), emerging as crucial immune modulators, have been reported to be involved in the production and action of various cytokines. However, the precise control of IL-22 by miRNAs and its subsequent actions remained to be elucidated. In this study, we found a negative correlation between the expression of miR-15a/16-1 and IL-22 in the model of concanavalinA (ConA)-induced immune-mediated liver injury...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023682/short-term-cytokine-stimulation-reveals-regulatory-t-cells-with-down-regulated-foxp3-expression-in-human-peripheral-blood
#17
Paula Tabares, Susanne Berr, Daniela Langenhorst, Birgit Sawitzki, Ineke Ten Berge, Hans-Peter Tony, Thomas Hünig
The identification of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in human peripheral blood is an important tool in diagnosis, research and therapeutic intervention. As compared to lymphoid tissues, the frequencies of circulating Treg cells identified as CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) are, however, low. We here show that many of these cells remain undetected due to transient down regulation of Foxp3, which rapidly decays in the absence of cytokine-mediated STAT5 signals. Short-term incubation of PBMCs or isolated CD4(+) T-cells, but not of lymph node cells, with IL-2, -7, or -15 more than doubles the frequency of Foxp3(+) CD25(+) among CD4(+) T-cells detectable by flow cytometry...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023549/supraphysiologic-control-over-hiv-1-replication-mediated-by-cd8-t-cells-expressing-a-re-engineered-cd4-based-chimeric-antigen-receptor
#18
Rachel S Leibman, Max W Richardson, Christoph T Ellebrecht, Colby R Maldini, Joshua A Glover, Anthony J Secreto, Irina Kulikovskaya, Simon F Lacey, Sarah R Akkina, Yanjie Yi, Farida Shaheen, Jianbin Wang, Keith A Dufendach, Michael C Holmes, Ronald G Collman, Aimee S Payne, James L Riley
HIV is adept at avoiding naturally generated T cell responses; therefore, there is a need to develop HIV-specific T cells with greater potency for use in HIV cure strategies. Starting with a CD4-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that was previously used without toxicity in clinical trials, we optimized the vector backbone, promoter, HIV targeting moiety, and transmembrane and signaling domains to determine which components augmented the ability of T cells to control HIV replication. This re-engineered CAR was at least 50-fold more potent in vitro at controlling HIV replication than the original CD4 CAR, or a TCR-based approach, and substantially better than broadly neutralizing antibody-based CARs...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023507/massive-immune-response-against-ivig-interferes-with-response-against-other-antigens-in-mice-a-new-mode-of-action
#19
Laetitia Sordé, Sebastian Spindeldreher, Ed Palmer, Anette Karle
Administration of high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is widely used in the clinic to treat autoimmune and severe inflammatory diseases. However, its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of IVIg on immune cell populations using an in vivo ovalbumin (Ova)-immunization mouse model. High dose IVIg significantly reduced the Ova-specific antibody response. Intriguingly, the results obtained indicate an immediate and massive immune reaction against IVIg, as shown by the activation and expansion of B cells and CD4+ T cells in the spleen and draining lymph nodes and the production of IVIg-specific antibodies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023386/the-immunogenicity-of-branded-and-biosimilar-infliximab-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-according-to-th9-related-responses
#20
Rossella Talotta, Angela Berzi, Andrea Doria, Alberto Batticciotto, Maria Chiara Ditto, Fabiola Atzeni, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Daria Trabattoni
Our objective was to evaluate the immunogenicity of branded and biosimilar infliximab by detecting changes in T-helper-9 (Th9) percentages induced by an in vitro stimulation test. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from 55 consecutive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outpatients (15 drug free, 20 successfully treated with branded infliximab, 20 branded infliximab inadequate responders) and 10 healthy controls were cultured, with or without 50 μg/mL of infliximab originator (Remicade(®)) or 50 μg/mL of infliximab biosimilar (Remsima(®)) for 18 h...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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