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Infant increase liver enzymes

Noora H Al-Shahwani, David L Sigalet
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) remains a serious problem in the treatment of infants with nutritional problems and short bowel syndrome. METHODS: A review of the recent literature from 2010 to 2016, concentrating on articles related to the pathophysiology of IFALD and to outcomes of novel nutritional and pharmacological therapies for neonatal cholestasis in the post-surgical neonate. RESULTS: The pathophysiology of IFALD relates to an increase sensitivity of the neonatal liver to cholestasis in the non-fed state; prolonged cholestasis almost inevitably results in liver damage which will progress from fibrosis to cirrhosis...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Martin J J Ronis
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play an important role in metabolism and clearance of most clinically utilized drugs and other xenobiotics. They are important in metabolism of endogenous compounds including fatty acids, sterols, steroids and lipid-soluble vitamins. Dietary factors such as phytochemicals are capable of affecting CYP expression and activity, which may be important in diet-drug interactions and in the development of fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer. One important diet-CYP interaction is with diets containing plant proteins, particularly soy protein...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Seyed Hasan Tonekaboni, Narjes Jafari, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Bibi Shahin Shamsian, Nima Rezaei
DRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome, which reflects a serious hypersensitivity reaction to drugs, presenting by generalized skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytosis, and internal organ involvement. Herein a 21-month old male infant with DRESS and Encephalopathy syndrome is presented who complicated after phenobarbital usage that persisted due to phenytoin cream usage. The case received phenobarbital after a seizure disorder presented as "status epilepticus"...
September 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Brooks T McPhail, Catherine A White, Brian S Cummings, Srinivasa Muralidhara, Jewell T Wilson, James V Bruckner
Concern about potential susceptibilities of infants and children to chemicals has led to the consideration of immature rodents as potential test surrogates. Maturation of some hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs), that participate in metabolic activation of organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may differ significantly between humans and rodents. The present investigation was undertaken to delineate the ontogeny of selected hepatic CYPs in male and female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats, and to contrast them with developmental profiles in humans...
August 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Kejun Zhou, Guoxiang Xie, Jie Wen, Jun Wang, Weihua Pan, Ying Zhou, Yongtao Xiao, Yang Wang, Wei Jia, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Biliary atresia (BA) is a severe neonatal cholestasis disease that is caused by obstruction of extra bile ducts. Liver fibrosis progresses dramatically in BA, and the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. METHODS: Amino acids and biogenic amines were quantified by targeted metabolomic methods in livers of 52 infants with BA and 16 infants with neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS). Normal adjacent nontumor liver tissues from 5 hepatoblastoma infants were used as controls...
August 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Yu-Wen Chung-Davidson, Chu-Yin Yeh, Ugo Bussy, Ke Li, Peter J Davidson, Kaben G Nanlohy, C Titus Brown, Steven Whyard, Weiming Li
BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia (BA) is a human infant disease with inflammatory fibrous obstructions in the bile ducts and is the most common cause for pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, the sea lamprey undergoes developmental BA with transient cholestasis and fibrosis during metamorphosis, but emerges as a fecund adult. Therefore, sea lamprey liver metamorphosis may serve as an etiological model for human BA and provide pivotal information for hepatobiliary transformation and possible therapeutics...
December 1, 2015: BMC Developmental Biology
Mehri Najafi Sani, Mitra Ahmadi, Pejman Roohani, Nima Rezaei
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is a peroxisomal disorder with a multiple congenital anomalies, characterized by stereotypical facies, profound hypotonia, organ involvement including cerebral, retinal, hepatic, and renal. Herein, a 3-month-old female with ZS is presented who was referred because of increased liver enzymes (subclinical hepatitis), which was detected in work-up of her neck cyst, severe hypotonia, and abnormal facies. An increased concentration of very long chain fatty acid in lipid profile was detected...
October 2015: Acta Medica Iranica
Kazumichi Fujioka, Flora Kalish, Ronald J Wong, David K Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Increased bilirubin production due to hemolysis can lead to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, by metalloporphyrins (Mps) may be an ideal preventive strategy for neonatal hemolytic disease. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) is a naturally occurring Mp, potent, not phototoxic, with minimal HO-1 upregulation, but is not orally absorbed. Recently, we designed a lipid-based ZnPP formulation (ZnPP-Lipid), which is orally absorbed by newborn mice...
February 2016: Pediatric Research
Amparo Garcia-Tejedor, Vicente Maiques-Montesinos, Vicente José Diago-Almela, Antonio Pereda-Perez, Vicente Alberola-Cuñat, José Luís López-Hontangas, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo Perales
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors on the perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study with 711 infants born to 710 HCV-infected mothers was conducted at the Hospital La Fe, in Valencia, Spain, from 1986 to 2011. As potential risk factors for transmission we analyzed: maternal age, mode of acquisition of HCV infection, HIV co-infection, antiretroviral treatment against HIV, CD4 cell count, HIV and HCV viral load, liver enzyme levels during pregnancy, smoking habit, gestational age, intrapartum invasive procedures, length of rupture of membranes, length of labor, mode of delivery, episiotomy, birth weight, newborn gender and type of feeding...
November 2015: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Yun-Chen Tien, Ke Liu, Chad Pope, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaochao Ma, Xiao-bo Zhong
Drug treatment of neonates and infants and its long-term consequences on drug responses have emerged in recent years as a major challenge for health care professionals. In the current study, we use phenobarbital as a model drug and mouse as an in vivo model to demonstrate that the dose of phenobarbital and age of treatment are two key factors for the persistent induction of gene expression and consequential increases of enzyme activities of Cyp2b, Cyp2c, and Cyp3a in adult livers. We show that phenobarbital treatment at early life of day 5 after birth with a low dose (<100 mg/kg) does not change expression and enzyme activities of Cyp2b, Cyp2c, and Cyp3a in adult mouse liver, whereas phenobarbital treatment with a high dose (>200 mg/kg) significantly increases expression and enzyme activities of these P450s in adult liver...
December 2015: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Alina M Allen, W Ray Kim, Joseph J Larson, Jordan K Rosedahl, Barbara P Yawn, Kimberly McKeon, J Eileen Hay
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known in the United States about the epidemiology of liver diseases that develop only during (are unique to) pregnancy. We investigated the incidence of liver diseases unique to pregnancy in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and long-term maternal and fetal outcomes. METHODS: We identified 247 women with liver diseases unique to pregnancy from 1996 through 2010 using the Rochester Epidemiology Project database. The crude incidence rate was calculated by the number of liver disease cases divided by 35,101 pregnancies...
February 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
R Gandley, A Abramovici
INTRODUCTION: Maternal tobacco use increases the incidence of numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage, small for gestational age infants, spontaneous preterm birth and placental abruption. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship between prenatal vitamin C/E supplementation and perinatal outcomes by maternal smoking status. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a multicenter trial of vitamin C/E starting at 9-16 weeks in low-risk nulliparous women with singletons...
July 2012: Pregnancy Hypertension
Kathrin Hanke, Annika Hartz, Maike Manz, Meike Bendiks, Friedhelm Heitmann, Thorsten Orlikowsky, Andreas Müller, Dirk Olbertz, Thomas Kühn, Jens Siegel, Axel von der Wense, Christian Wieg, Angela Kribs, Anja Stein, Julia Pagel, Egbert Herting, Wolfgang Göpel, Christoph Härtel
OBJECTIVE: It was the aim of our study to evaluate the independent effect of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) as a cause of preterm delivery on mortality during primary hospital stay and significant morbidities in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants < 32 weeks of gestation. DESIGN: Observational, epidemiological study design. SETTING: Population-based cohort, German Neonatal Network (GNN). POPULATION: 6102 VLBW infants were enrolled in GNN from 2009-2012, n=4120 fulfilled criteria for primary analysis (< 32 gestational weeks, no pre-eclampsia, HELLP (highly elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome) or placental abruption as cause of preterm birth)...
2015: PloS One
Barbara E U Burkhardt, Gerta Rücker, Brigitte Stiller
BACKGROUND: Children with congenital heart disease often undergo heart surgery at a young age. They are at risk for postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) or death. Milrinone may be used to provide inotropic and vasodilatory support during the immediate postoperative period. OBJECTIVES: This review examines the effectiveness of prophylactic postoperative use of milrinone to prevent LCOS or death in children having undergone surgery for congenital heart disease...
March 25, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Stefan Dhein, Maria Grassl, Maria Gerdom, Marcel Vollroth, Farhad Bakhtiary, Sandy von Salisch, Klaus Krämer, Axel Sobiraj, Martin Kostelka, Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr, Aida Salameh
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) often is required for the operative correction of congenital heart defects in small infants. Unfortunately, CPB is associated with injury of inner organs such as the brain, kidney, lung, and liver. Renal failure and increase in liver enzymes are typical side effects observed after CPB. Here, we investigate whether organ protection of the kidney and liver can be achieved with the application of minocycline, which is known-besides its anti-infective effects-to act as a poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase inhibitor...
June 2015: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Raheleh Assari, Vahid Ziaee, Mohammad-Hassan Moradinejad, Arash Mirmohammadsadeghi
BACKGROUND: Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is a transient autoimmune disease of developing fetus and neonate in mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this report we introduce an infant with NLE whose mother had rheumatoid arthritis. CASE PRESENTATION: Our case was a 40 day old male infant with discoid-like and annular skin lesions over forehead and neck, irritability and low grade fever. There was a history of prematurity due to preeclampsia. There was no cytopenia or cardiac involvement but liver enzymes were more than 5-fold increased...
August 2014: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Stephan C Jahn, Laura Rowland-Faux, Peter W Stacpoole, Margaret O James
We recently reported that, in a concentration-dependent manner, chloride protects hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 from inactivation by dichloroacetate, an investigational drug used in treating various acquired and congenital metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of chloride ions in normal physiology, and decades of study of chloride transport across membranes, the literature lacks information on chloride concentrations in animal tissues other than blood. In this study we measured chloride concentrations in human liver samples from male and female donors aged 1 day to 84 years (n = 97)...
April 10, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yi-Tzai Chen, Lynnie Trzoss, Dongfang Yang, Bingfang Yan
Human carboxylesterase-2 (CES2) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) are two major drug metabolizing enzymes that play critical roles in hydrolytic and oxidative biotransformation, respectively. They share substrates but may have opposite effect on therapeutic potential such as the metabolism of the anticancer prodrug irinotecan. Both CES2 and CYP3A4 are expressed in the liver and the gastrointestinal tract. This study was conducted to determine whether CES2 and CYP3A4 are expressed under developmental regulation and whether the regulation occurs differentially between the liver and duodenum...
April 1, 2015: Toxicology
Gian Maria Pacifici, Karel Allegaert
Paracetamol is commonly used to control mild-to-moderate pain or to reduce opioid exposure as part of multimodal analgesia, and is the only compound recommended to treat fever in neonates. Paracetamol clearance is lower in neonates than in children and adults. After metabolic conversion, paracetamol is subsequently eliminated by the renal route. The main metabolic conversions are conjugation with glucuronic acid and with sulphate. In the urine of neonates sulphated paracetamol concentration is higher than the glucuronidated paracetamol level, suggesting that sulfation prevails over glucuronidation in neonates...
December 2015: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
Mukesh Choudhary, Deepak Sharma, Dhanraj Dabi, Mamta Lamba, Aakash Pandita, Sweta Shastri
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to determine the occurrence of hypoxic hepatitis in full-term neonates after perinatal asphyxia and to correlate between the rise in enzymes and severity of asphyxia with Apgar score and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) grading of the neonates. METHOD AND MATERIAL: This prospective case-controlled study was conducted in a tertiary-level hospital in India for a period of 12 months. The study group A comprised 70 newborns suffering from birth asphyxia, while 30 healthy neonates were included in group B (control)...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
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