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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144106/cognitive-reserve-as-a-variable-impacting-the-effectiveness-of-rehabilitation-on-balance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Giulia Piccinini, Isabella Imbimbo, Diego Ricciardi, Daniele Coraci, Claudia Santilli, Maria R Lo Monaco, Claudia Loreti, Maria C Vulpiani, Maria C Silveri, Luca Padua
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR) can be considered an active expression of brain resilience in response to damage. Several studies have shown the influence of CR on cognitive impairment and its relationship with cognitive function in Parkinson's disease (PD). AIM: To show if CR influences the effectiveness of balance rehabilitation in PD patients who performed a conventional rehabilitative treatment. DESIGN: Observational longitudinal study...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143882/enzymatic-properties-of-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosaminidases
#2
REVIEW
Rui Zhang, Junpei Zhou, Zhifeng Song, Zunxi Huang
β-N-Acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases) hydrolyse N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharides and proteins. These enzymes produce N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and have a wide range of promising applications in the food, energy, and pharmaceutical industries, such as synergistic degradation of chitin with endo-chitinases and using GlcNAc to produce sialic acid, bioethanol, single-cell proteins, and pharmaceutical therapeutics. GlcNAcases also play an important role in the dynamic balance of cellular O-linked GlcNAc levels, catabolism of ganglioside storage in Tay-Sachs disease, and bacterial cell wall recycling and flagellar assembly...
November 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143805/mechanisms-of-acupuncture-therapy-in-ischemic-stroke-rehabilitation-a-literature-review-of-basic-studies
#3
REVIEW
Lina M Chavez, Shiang-Suo Huang, Iona MacDonald, Jaung-Geng Lin, Yu-Chen Lee, Yi-Hung Chen
Acupuncture is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an alternative and complementary strategy for stroke treatment and for improving stroke care. Clinical trial and meta-analysis findings have demonstrated the efficacy of acupuncture in improving balance function, reducing spasticity, and increasing muscle strength and general well-being post-stroke. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of acupuncture in stroke rehabilitation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review, summarize the current known mechanisms in ischemic stroke rehabilitation through acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) therapy, and to detail the frequently used acupoints implicated in these effects...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143798/skullcap-scutellaria-baicalensis-hexane-fraction-inhibits-the-permeation-of-ovalbumin-and-regulates-th1-2-immune-responses
#4
Sun Young Jung, So-Young Lee, Dae Woon Choi, Hye-Jeong See, Da-Ae Kwon, Jeong-Ryong Do, Dong-Hwa Shon, Hee Soon Shin
Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) is well known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. In our previous study, we found that skullcap could inhibit allergen permeation and regulate Th1/2 immune balance. To reveal the key fractions and components of skullcap, we fractionated skullcap extract into five fractions: hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fraction. Among these fractions, the hexane fraction significantly suppressed the production of Th2-mediated cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-4, 5, 10 and 13) and increased Th1-mediated cytokines (Interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-12)...
October 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143769/senescent-nephropathy-the-new-renal-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Florencia Aiello, Eliana P Dueñas, Carlos G Musso
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition characterized by progressive and irreversible deterioration of renal function due to the reduction of nephron mass for a period of at least three months. The prevalence of CKD is roughly 10% in the general population but increases with age, affecting more than one-third of people older than 65. Frailty is a condition usually found in elderly people, characterized by weakness, motility, and balance issues, with a declined ability to resist stressors leading to increased risks of adverse health outcomes including falls, fracture, hospitalization, institutionalization, disability, dependence, dementia, poor quality of life, and death...
October 28, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142820/excessive-by-product-formation-a-key-contributor-to-low-isobutanol-yields-of-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains
#6
N Milne, S A Wahl, A J A van Maris, J T Pronk, J M Daran
It is theoretically possible to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in which isobutanol is the predominant catabolic product and high-yielding isobutanol-producing strains are already reported by industry. Conversely, isobutanol yields of engineered S. cerevisiae strains reported in the scientific literature typically remain far below 10% of the theoretical maximum. This study explores possible reasons for these suboptimal yields by a mass-balancing approach. A cytosolically located, cofactor-balanced isobutanol pathway, consisting of a mosaic of bacterial enzymes whose in vivo functionality was confirmed by complementation of null mutations in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, was expressed in S...
December 2016: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142756/usefulness-of-central-venous-saturation-as-a-predictor-of-thiamine-deficiency-in-critically-ill-patients-a-case-report
#7
Genri Numata, Satoshi Kodera, Hiroyuki Kiriyama, Atsuko Nakayama, Eisuke Amiya, Arihiro Kiyosue, Masaru Hatano, Eiki Takimoto, Masafumi Watanabe, Issei Komuro
Background: Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) reflects the balance of oxygen delivery and consumption. Low ScvO2 indicates the presence of inadequate oxygen delivery, while high ScvO2 indicates reduced oxygen consumption and is sometimes associated with a high mortality rate in critically ill patients from dysoxia. Thiamine is an essential cofactor in cellular aerobic metabolism. Thiamine deficiency is more prevalent than was previously thought, and underlies severe conditions in critically ill patients...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142309/hypercholesterolemia-enhances-t-cell-receptor-signaling-and-increases-the-regulatory-t-cell-population
#8
Reiner K W Mailer, Anton Gisterå, Konstantinos A Polyzos, Daniel F J Ketelhuth, Göran K Hansson
Hypercholesterolemia promotes the inflammation against lipoproteins in atherosclerosis. Development of atherosclerosis is affected by the balance between pro-inflammatory effector T cells and anti-inflammatory regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, phenotype and function of T cell subpopulations in hypercholesterolemia remain to be investigated. Here, we found that cholesterol-containing diet increased the expression of the Treg cell lineage-defining transcription factor FoxP3 among thymocytes and splenocytes...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142022/balance-between-cytosolic-and-chloroplast-translation-affects-leaf-variegation
#9
Ruijuan Wang, Jun Zhao, Min Jia, Ni Xu, Shuang Liang, Jingxia Shao, Yafei Qi, Xiayan Liu, Lijun An, Fei Yu
The development of functional chloroplasts relies on the fine coordination of expressions of both nuclear and chloroplast genomes. We have been using the Arabidopsis yellow variegated (var2) leaf variegation mutant as a tool to dissect the regulation of chloroplast development. In this work, we screened for var2 genetic enhancer modifiers termed enhancer of variegation (evr) mutants and report the characterization of the first EVR locus, EVR1. We showed that EVR1 encodes the cytosolic 80S ribosome 40S small subunit protein RPS21B and the loss of EVR1 causes the enhancement of var2 leaf variegation...
November 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141912/wh2-and-proline-rich-domains-of-wasp-family-proteins-collaborate-to-accelerate-actin-filament-elongation
#10
Peter Bieling, Scott D Hansen, Orkun Akin, Tai-De Li, Carl C Hayden, Daniel A Fletcher, R Dyche Mullins
WASP-family proteins are known to promote assembly of branched actin networks by stimulating the filament-nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex. Here, we show that WASP-family proteins also function as polymerases that accelerate elongation of uncapped actin filaments. When clustered on a surface, WASP-family proteins can drive branched actin networks to grow much faster than they could by direct incorporation of soluble monomers. This polymerase activity arises from the coordinated action of two regulatory sequences: (i) a WASP homology 2 (WH2) domain that binds actin, and (ii) a proline-rich sequence that binds profilin-actin complexes...
November 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141795/validity-and-reliability-of-the-international-cooperative-ataxia-rating-scale-icars-and-the-scale-for-the-assessment-and-rating-of-ataxia-sara-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-ataxia
#11
Yeliz Salcı, Ayla Fil, Hilal Keklicek, Barış Çetin, Kadriye Armutlu, Anıl Dolgun, Aslı Tuncer, Rana Karabudak
BACKGROUND: Ataxia is an extremely common problem in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Thus, appropriate scales are required for detailed assessment of this issue. The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) and Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), which are widely used in ataxia evaluation in the context of other cerebellar diseases. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 80 MS patients with Kurtzke cerebellar functional system score (C-FSS) greater than zero and slight pyramidal involvement...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141655/long-term-balancing-selection-contributes-to-adaptation-in-arabidopsis-and-its-relatives
#12
Qiong Wu, Ting-Shen Han, Xi Chen, Jia-Fu Chen, Yu-Pan Zou, Zi-Wen Li, Yong-Chao Xu, Ya-Long Guo
BACKGROUND: In contrast to positive selection, which reduces genetic variation by fixing beneficial alleles, balancing selection maintains genetic variation within a population or species and plays crucial roles in adaptation in diverse organisms. However, which genes, genome-wide, are under balancing selection and the extent to which these genes are involved in adaptation are largely unknown. RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide scan for genes under balancing selection across two plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana and its relative Capsella rubella, which diverged about 8 million generations ago...
November 15, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141551/noninvasive-cerebellar-stimulation-as-a-complement-tool-to-pharmacotherapy
#13
Roberta Ferrucci, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Fabiana Ruggiero, Alberto Priori
Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by balance and coordination disturbance, dysarthria, dyssynergia and adyadococinesia, caused by a dysfunction in the cerebellum. In recent years there has been growing interest in discovering therapeutical strategy for specific forms of cerebellar ataxia. Together with pharmacological studies, there has been growing interest in non-invasive cerebellar stimulation techniques to improve ataxia and limb coordination. Both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive techniques to modulate cerebro and cerebellar cortex excitability using magnetic or electric fields...
November 14, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141275/roles-of-the-declive-folium-and-tuber-cerebellar-vermian-lobules-in-sportspeople
#14
In Sung Park, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
The cerebellum plays vital roles in balance control and motor learning, including in saccadic adaptation and coordination. It consists of the vermis and two hemispheres and is anatomically separated into ten lobules that are designated as I-X. Although neuroimaging and clinical studies suggest that functions are compartmentalized within the cerebellum, the function of each cerebellar lobule is not fully understood. Electrophysiological and lesion studies in animals as well as neuroimaging and lesion studies in humans have revealed that vermian lobules VI and VII (declive, folium, and tuber) are critical for controlling postural balance, saccadic eye movements, and coordination...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141211/lateral-preoptic-control-of-the-lateral-habenula-through-convergent-glutamate-and-gaba-transmission
#15
David J Barker, Jorge Miranda-Barrientos, Shiliang Zhang, David H Root, Hui-Ling Wang, Bing Liu, Erin S Calipari, Marisela Morales
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a brain structure that participates in cognitive and emotional processing and has been implicated in several mental disorders. Although one of the largest inputs to the LHb originates in the lateral preoptic area (LPO), little is known about how the LPO participates in the regulation of LHb function. Here, we provide evidence that the LPO exerts bivalent control over the LHb through the convergent transmission of LPO glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) onto single LHb neurons...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141180/motor-neuron-migration-and-positioning-mechanisms-new-roles-for-guidance-cues
#16
REVIEW
Minkyung Kim, Brielle Bjorke, Grant S Mastick
Motor neurons differentiate from progenitor cells and cluster as motor nuclei, settling next to the floor plate in the brain stem and spinal cord. Although precise positioning of motor neurons is critical for their functional input and output, the molecular mechanisms that guide motor neurons to their proper positions remain poorly understood. Here, we review recent evidence of motor neuron positioning mechanisms, highlighting situations in which motor neuron cell bodies can migrate, and experiments that show that their migration is regulated by axon guidance cues...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141136/systemic-mrna-delivery-to-the-lungs-by-functional-polyester-based-carriers
#17
Yunfeng Yan, Hu Xiong, Xinyi Zhang, Qiang Cheng, Daniel John Siegwart
Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently come into focus as an emerging therapeutic class with great potential for protein replacement therapy, cancer immunotherapy, regenerative medicine, vaccines, and gene editing. However, the lack of effective and safe delivery methods impedes the broad application of mRNA-based therapeutics. Here, we report a robust approach to develop efficient polymeric delivery carriers for mRNA. Lead polyesters were identified by in vitro screening of a 480-member combinatorially modified poly(trimethylolpropane allyl ether-co-suberoyl chloride) library for the delivery of luciferase encoding mRNA (Luc mRNA) to IGROV1 cells...
November 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140826/effects-of-integrating-rhythmic-arm-swing-into-robot-assisted-walking-in-patients-with-subacute-stroke-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#18
Tae-Woo Kang, Duck-Won Oh, Ji-Hyun Lee, Heon-Seock Cynn
This study aimed to identify the effects of rhythmic arm swing during robot-assisted walking training on balance, gait, motor function, and activities of daily living among patients with subacute stroke. Twenty patients with subacute stroke were recruited, and thereafter randomly allocated to either the experimental group that performed the robot-assisted walking training with rhythmic arm swing, or the control group that performed the training in arm fixation. In total, 30 training sessions were carried out...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140136/salt-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration-enhances-fluid-retention-more-than-salt-or-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration
#19
Eric D B Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A Savoie, Jonathan Gosselin
Hyperhydration has been demonstrated to improve work capacity and cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions, enhance orthostatic tolerance, slow or neutralize bone demineralization and decrease post-dive bubble formation. Adding sodium or glycerol to a hyperhydration solution optimizes fluid retention. Sodium and glycerol produce their effect through different physiological mechanisms. If combined into a hyperhydration solution their impact on fluid retention could potentially be greater than their singular effect...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139651/the-risk-for-fall-and-functional-dependence-in-polish-adults-60%C3%A2-87-years-old
#20
Jaroslaw Domaradzki, Slawomir Koziel, Zofia Ignasiak, Teresa Sławińska, Anna Skrzek, Małgorzata Kołodziej
The constantly rising percentage of the elderly (60+), who are particularly at risk of the dangerous consequence of falls, results not only in the loss of independence in daily life, but also in a serious threat to health and life. Therefore, many authors emphasize the necessity of conducting prophylaxis and prevention among senior citizens. The most important aspect of fall prophylaxis is care about the optimum level of agility. Exercise should focus on increasing muscular strength, balance and dexterity. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between functional fitness and the risk for falls of older people in the light of maintaining physical independence...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
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