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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732340/vascular-regulation-of-glioma-stem-like-cells-a-balancing-act
#1
REVIEW
Lucy J Brooks, Simona Parrinello
Glioblastoma (GBM) are aggressive and therapy-resistant brain tumours driven by glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSC behaviour is controlled by the microenvironment, or niche, in which the cells reside. It is well-established that the vasculature is a key component of the GSC niche, which drives maintenance in the tumour bulk and invasion at the margin. Emerging evidence now indicates that the specific properties of the vasculature within these two regions impose different functional states on resident GSCs, generating distinct subpopulations...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731286/impact-of-fluorine-atoms-on-perylene-diimide-derivative-for-fullerene-free-organic-photovoltaics
#2
Liang Zhao, Hua Sun, Xiaoyuan Liu, Changmei Liu, Haiquan Shan, Jiuxu Xia, Zongxiang Xu, Fei Chen, Zhi-Kuan Chen, Wei Huang
The incorporation of fluorine atoms in organic semiconducting materials has attracted much attention recently due to its unique function to manipulate the molecular packing, film morphology and molecular energy levels. In this work, two perylenediimide (PDI) derivatives FPDI-CDTph and FPDI-CDTph2F were designed and synthesized to investigate the impact of fluorination on non-fullerene acceptors. Both FPDI-CDTph and FPDI-CDTph2F exhibited strong and broad absorption profiles, suitable lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels, and good electron transport ability...
June 14, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730873/physiological-traits-determining-yield-tolerance-of-wheat-to-foliar-diseases
#3
Femke van den Berg, Neil Paveley, I J Bingham, Frank van den Bosch
Tolerance is defined as the ability of one cultivar to yield more than another cultivar, under similar disease severity. If both cultivars suffer an equal loss in healthy (green) leaf area duration (HAD) over the grain filling period due to disease presence, then the yield loss per unit HAD loss is smaller for a more tolerant cultivar. Little is understood of what physiological and developmental traits of cultivars determine disease tolerance. In this study we use a mathematical model of wheat to investigate the effect of a wide range of wheat phenotypes on tolerance...
July 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729823/administration-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-attenuates-early-brain-injury-via-akt-pathway-activation
#5
Dongdong Sun, Gang Gu, Jianhao Wang, Yan Chai, Yueshan Fan, Mengchen Yang, Xin Xu, Weiwei Gao, Fei Li, Dongpei Yin, Shuai Zhou, Xin Chen, Jianning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of trauma-induced mortality and disability, and emerging studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of TBI. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been reported to act as an ER stress inhibitor and chemical chaperone and to have the potential to attenuate apoptosis and inflammation. To study the effects of TUDCA on brain injury, we subjected mice to TBI with a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729658/differential-control-of-dntp-biosynthesis-and-genome-integrity-maintenance-by-the-dutpase-superfamily-enzymes
#6
Rita Hirmondo, Anna Lopata, Eva Viola Suranyi, Beata G Vertessy, Judit Toth
dUTPase superfamily enzymes generate dUMP, the obligate precursor for de novo dTTP biosynthesis, from either dUTP (monofunctional dUTPase, Dut) or dCTP (bifunctional dCTP deaminase/dUTPase, Dcd:dut). In addition, the elimination of dUTP by these enzymes prevents harmful uracil incorporation into DNA. These two beneficial outcomes have been thought to be related. Here we determined the relationship between dTTP biosynthesis (dTTP/dCTP balance) and the prevention of DNA uracilation in a mycobacterial model that encodes both the Dut and Dcd:dut enzymes, and has no other ways to produce dUMP...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729445/preferential-disruption-of-prefrontal-gabaergic-function-by-nanomolar-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-7nach-negative-modulator-kynurenic-acid
#7
Eden Flores-Barrera, Daniel R Thomases, Daryn K Cass, Ajay Bhandari, Robert Schwarcz, John P Bruno, Kuei Y Tseng
Increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to contribute to the development of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Although this view is consistent with pre-clinical studies showing a negative impact of prefrontal KYNA elevation on executive function, the mechanism underlying such a disruption remains unclear. Here we measured changes in local field potential responses to ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, and conducted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to reveal how nanomolar concentrations of KYNA alter synaptic transmission in the PFC of male adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729444/an-atoh1-s193a-phospho-mutant-allele-causes-hearing-deficits-and-motor-impairment
#8
Wei Rose Xie, Hsin-I Jen, Michelle L Seymour, Szu-Ying Yeh, Fred A Pereira, Andrew K Groves, Tiemo J Klisch, Huda Y Zoghbi
Atoh1 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is essential for the genesis, survival, and maturation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations, including those involved in proprioception, interoception, balance, respiration, and hearing. Such diverse functions require fine regulation at the transcriptional and protein levels. Here we show that serine 193 (S193) is phosphorylated in Atoh1's bHLH domain in vivo Knock-in mice of both sexes bearing a GFP-tagged phospho-dead S193A allele on a null background (Atoh1(S193A/lacZ) ) exhibit mild cerebellar foliation defects, motor impairments, and also partial pontine nucleus migration defects, cochlear hair cell degeneration, and profound hearing loss...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729416/cib2-negatively-regulates-oncogenic-signaling-in-ovarian-cancer-via-sphingosine-kinase-1
#9
Wenying Zhu, Kate E Jarman, Noor A Lokman, Heidi A Neubauer, Lorena T Davies, Briony L Gliddon, Houng Taing, Paul A B Moretti, Martin K Oehler, Melissa R Pitman, Stuart M Pitson
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is a key regulator of the cellular balance between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival sphingolipids. Oncogenic signaling by SK1 relies on its localization to the plasma membrane, which is mediated by the calcium and integrin binding protein CIB1 via its Ca(2+)-myristoyl switch function. Here we show that another member of the CIB family, CIB2, plays a surprisingly opposite role to CIB1 in the regulation of SK1 signalling. CIB2 bound SK1 on the same site as CIB1, yet it lacks the Ca(2+)-myristoyl switch function...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729326/associations-between-physical-function-and-depression-in-nursing-home-residents-with-mild-and-moderate-dementia-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Linda Aimée Hartford Kvæl, Astrid Bergland, Elisabeth Wiken Telenius
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study is to describe depression and physical function in nursing home residents with dementia, as well as to examine the associations between depression and balance function, lower limb muscle strength, mobility and activities of daily living. The secondary aim is to examine the differences in physical function between the groups classified as depressed and not depressed. DESIGN: The study has a cross-sectional design. SETTING: A convenience sample of 18 nursing homes in, and around, Oslo, Norway, participated...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728765/sense-of-coherence-and-parenting-representation-among-parents-of-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#11
Alon Goldberg, Miri Scharf, Hadas Wiseman
INTRODUCTION: This study examines the association between parental sense of coherence (SOC) and maternal and paternal representations of parents of adolescents diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (IDDM). METHOD: Seventy five mothers and fathers of adolescents (age 13-18) diagnosed with IDDM, were recruited. Data were gathered from a demographic and SOC questionnaires, and the Parenting Representations Interview (PRI-A). RESULTS: A significant association was found between mothers' and fathers' SOC and a more balanced description of parenting, and positive correlations between mothers' and fathers' SOC and their representations of the self as parent, representations of the adolescent, and relationships representations...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728460/acute-effects-of-moderate-alcohol-consumption-on-postural-stability-in-older-adults
#12
Helen Z Wu, Lisa C Barry, Yinghui Duan, Richard W Bohannon, Jonathan M Covault, James J Grady
This study involved healthy community-living older adults in an investigation of the association between moderate alcohol consumption (AC) and acute changes in postural stability and whether the association differed according to pre-AC balance skills. Thirty-nine moderate drinkers aged ≥ 65 years (62% women; mean age: 73.9 ± 6.1 years) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol (0.4 g/kg; administered as two drinks). Breath alcohol concentration and postural stability were measured at five time points (pre-AC and 40, 80, 120, and 160 minutes post-AC)...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727789/lumpgem-systematic-generation-of-subnetworks-and-elementally-balanced-lumped-reactions-for-the-biosynthesis-of-target-metabolites
#13
Meric Ataman, Vassily Hatzimanikatis
In the post-genomic era, Genome-scale metabolic networks (GEMs) have emerged as invaluable tools to understand metabolic capabilities of organisms. Different parts of these metabolic networks are defined as subsystems/pathways, which are sets of functional roles to implement a specific biological process or structural complex, such as glycolysis and TCA cycle. Subsystem/pathway definition is also employed to delineate the biosynthetic routes that produce biomass building blocks. In databases, such as MetaCyc and SEED, these representations are composed of linear routes from precursors to target biomass building blocks...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727674/the-community-balance-and-mobility-scale-a-valid-assessment-tool-of-balance-in-cardiac-rehabilitation-patients
#14
Luke Martelli, Dave Saraswat, Gail Dechman, Nicholas B Giacomantonio, Scott A Grandy
PURPOSE: Many patients participating in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs have decreased balance. This is a concern, as it may affect their ability to optimally perform physical exercise in CR and thus decrease CR efficacy. Despite this concern, balance is typically not assessed as part of CR intake. This may be attributable to the fact that a suitable balance assessment tool has not been identified for higher-functioning CR patients. A potential solution to this issue is using the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CBMS), which has been used to assess balance in higher-functioning clinical populations; however, its use in a CR population has never been investigated...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727278/phylogeny-determines-flower-size-dependent-sex-allocation-at-flowering-in-a-hermaphroditic-family
#15
A L Teixido, B Guzmán, V G Staggemeier, F Valladares
1.In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favor female function. Although floral traits are thought to be strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family...
July 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726991/high-sulfate-water-consumption-determines-intake-and-metabolic-responses-to-protein-supplementation-in-lambs-consuming-low-quality-forage
#16
A López, J I Arroquy, A V Juárez Sequeira, N DiLorenzo, M C Barrionuevo, R A Distel
Twenty Hampshire lambs (31 ± 4 kg BW) in individual metabolism cages were used in a 10-treatment by 2-period ( = 4) trial to evaluate the interaction between protein supplementation and sulfate water on intake and metabolic responses when lambs were fed low-quality grass hay (; 6.4% CP, 79.5% NDF). The treatment structure was a 2 × 5 factorial: 2 water qualities (WQ; low-sulfate [LS] and high-sulfate [HS]; 442 and 8,358 mg/kg total dissolved solids, respectively) and 5 soybean meal levels (SBM; 0%, 0.25%, 0...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725997/mitotic-spindle-kinetochore-fibers-hold-on-tight-to-interpolar-bundles
#17
REVIEW
Iva M Tolić
When a cell starts to divide, it forms a spindle, a micro-machine made of microtubules, which separates the duplicated chromosomes. The attachment of microtubules to chromosomes is mediated by kinetochores, protein complexes on the chromosome. Spindle microtubules can be divided into three major classes: kinetochore microtubules, which form k-fibers ending at the kinetochore; interpolar microtubules, which extend from the opposite sides of the spindle and interact in the middle; and astral microtubules, which extend towards the cell cortex...
July 19, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725185/reticular-formation-and-pain-the-past-and-the-future
#18
REVIEW
Isabel Martins, Isaura Tavares
The involvement of the reticular formation (RF) in the transmission and modulation of nociceptive information has been extensively studied. The brainstem RF contains several areas which are targeted by spinal cord afferents conveying nociceptive input. The arrival of nociceptive input to the RF may trigger alert reactions which generate a protective/defense reaction to pain. RF neurons located at the medulla oblongata and targeted by ascending nociceptive information are also involved in the control of vital functions that can be affected by pain, namely cardiovascular control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724975/theoretical-study-of-superionic-phase-transition-in-li2s
#19
Sara Panahian Jand, Qian Zhang, Payam Kaghazchi
We have studied temperature-induced superionic phase transition in Li2S, which is one of the most promising Li-S battery cathode material. Concentration of ionic carriers at low and high temperature was evaluated from thermodynamics of defects (using density functional theory) and detailed balance condition (using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD)), respectively. Diffusion coefficients were also obtained using AIMD simulations. Calculated ionic conductivity shows that superionic phase transition occurs at T = 900 K, which is in agreement with reported experimental values...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724967/a-balancing-act-rna-binding-protein-hur-ttp-axis-in-endometriosis-patients
#20
Kasra Khalaj, Soo Hyun Ahn, Mallikarjun Bidarimath, Yasmin Nasirzadeh, Sukhbir S Singh, Asgerally T Fazleabas, Steven L Young, Bruce A Lessey, Madhuri Koti, Chandrakant Tayade
Endometriosis, a major reproductive pathology affecting 8-10% of women is characterized by chronic inflammation and immune dysfunction. Human antigen R (HuR) and Tristetraprolin (TTP) are RNA binding proteins that competitively bind to cytokines involved in inflammation including: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 6 (IL-6) among others, and stabilize and destabilize them, respectively. The aim of this study was to examine RNA binding protein (RNABP) HuR/TTP axis in endometriosis patients compared to menstrual stage matched healthy fertile controls in hopes of better understanding their contribution to the pathogenesis of endometriosis...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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