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Transcranial electric stimulation

Anna Wexler
Several recent articles have called for the regulation of consumer transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) devices, which provide low levels of electrical current to the brain. However, most of the discussion to-date has focused on ethical or normative considerations; there has been a notable absence of scholarship regarding the actual legal framework in the United States. This article aims to fill that gap by providing a pragmatic analysis of the consumer tDCS market and relevant laws and regulations...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Wing Ting To, Jan Ost, John Hart, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Research has suggested that functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients involve auditory as well as non-auditory brain areas. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the auditory cortex, has demonstrated modulation of brain activity to transiently suppress tinnitus symptoms...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
David E Vance, Pariya L Fazeli, Shameka L Cody, Tyler R Bell, Caitlin Northcutt Pope
For centuries, since the advent of harnessing magnetic and electrical energies, humans have been applying such energies to various body parts, including the brain, with the goal of improving health. Advancements over the past two decades in the production and affordability of such devices that precisely deliver such energies have resulted in novel therapeutic uses. One technique in particular, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), uses electrodes placed on the scalp to deliver a low electrical current to various areas on the surface of the neocortex...
2016: Nursing: Research and Reviews
Pedro Shiozawa, July Silveira Gomes, Daniella Valverde Ducos, Henrique Teruo Akiba, Álvaro Machado Dias, Alisson Paulino Trevizol, Ricardo R Uchida, Natasza Orlov, Quirino Cordeiro
Introduction: We report a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) combined with cognitive training in schizophrenia. Method: We assessed psychotic symptoms in nine patients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). All evaluations were scored at baseline, at the end of the intervention protocol, and during a 4-week follow-up. The tDCS protocol consisted of 10 consecutive sessions over 5-day periods...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Mads Jochumsen, Imran K Niazi, Nada Signal, Rasmus W Nedergaard, Kelly Holt, Heidi Haavik, Denise Taylor
Learning new motor skills has been correlated with increased cortical excitability. In this study, different location of electrical stimulation (ES), nerve, or muscle, was paired with voluntary movement to investigate if ES paired with voluntary movement (a) would increase the excitability of cortical projections to tibialis anterior and (b) if stimulation location mattered. Cortical excitability changes were quantified using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at varying intensities during four conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
R Abend, I Jalon, G Gurevitch, R Sar-El, T Shechner, D S Pine, T Hendler, Y Bar-Haim
Research associates processes of fear conditioning and extinction with treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Manipulation of these processes may therefore be beneficial for such treatment. The current study examines the effects of electrical brain stimulation on fear extinction processes in healthy humans in order to assess its potential relevance for treatment enhancement. Forty-five participants underwent a 3-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Electrical stimulation targeting the medial prefrontal cortex was applied during the extinction-learning phase (Day 2)...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Nico Sollmann, Moritz F Goblirsch-Kolb, Sebastian Ille, Vicki M Butenschoen, Tobias Boeckh-Behrens, Bernhard Meyer, Florian Ringel, Sandro M Krieg
BACKGROUND: For the navigation of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), various techniques are available. Yet, there are two basic principles underlying them all: electric-field-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (En-TMS) and line-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (Ln-TMS). The current study was designed to compare both methods. METHODS: To explore whether there is a difference in clinical applicability, workflow, and mapping results of both techniques, we systematically compared motor mapping via En-TMS and Ln-TMS in 12 patients suffering from brain tumors...
October 8, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
T R J Nicholson, V Voon
Functional neurologic disorder (FND), also known as conversion disorder, is common and often associated with a poor prognosis. It has been relatively neglected by research and as such there is a conspicuous lack of evidence-based treatments. Physical and psychologic therapies are the main treatment modalities, over and above reassurance and sensitive explanation of the diagnosis. However there are two other historic treatments that have seen a recent resurgence of interest and use. The first is electric stimulation, which was initially pioneered with direct stimulation of nerves but now used indirectly (and therefore noninvasively) in the form of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ryosuke Tomio, Takenori Akiyama, Masahiro Toda, Takayuki Ohira, Kazunari Yoshida
OBJECTIVE Transcranial motor evoked potential (tMEP) monitoring is popular in neurosurgery; however, the accuracy of tMEP can be impaired by craniotomy. Each craniotomy procedure and changes in the CSF levels affects the current spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of several craniotomies on tMEP monitoring by using C3-4 transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). METHODS The authors used the finite element method to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by TES, using realistic 3D head models developed from T1-weighted MR images...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Miroslaw Brys, Michael D Fox, Shashank Agarwal, Milton Biagioni, Geraldine Dacpano, Pawan Kumar, Elizabeth Pirraglia, Robert Chen, Allan Wu, Hubert Fernandez, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Jau-Shin Lou, Zachary Gray, David K Simon, Alessandro Di Rocco, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether multifocal, high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of motor and prefrontal cortex benefits motor and mood symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Patients with PD and depression were enrolled in this multicenter, double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group study of real or realistic (electric) sham rTMS. Patients were randomized to 1 of 4 groups: bilateral M1 ( + sham dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC]), DLPFC ( + sham M1), M1 + DLPFC, or double sham...
October 5, 2016: Neurology
Mayank V Jog, Robert X Smith, Kay Jann, Walter Dunn, Belen Lafon, Dennis Truong, Allan Wu, Lucas Parra, Marom Bikson, Danny J J Wang
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies mA currents at the scalp to modulate cortical excitability. Here, we present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, which detects magnetic fields induced by tDCS currents. This technique is based on Ampere's law and exploits the linear relationship between direct current and induced magnetic fields. Following validation on a phantom with a known path of electric current and induced magnetic field, the proposed MRI technique was applied to a human limb (to demonstrate in-vivo feasibility using simple biological tissue) and human heads (to demonstrate feasibility in standard tDCS applications)...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mark P Jackson, Asif Rahman, Belen Lafon, Gregory Kronberg, Doris Ling, Lucas C Parra, Marom Bikson
The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of animal research using direct current stimulation (DCS) to our understanding of the physiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We comprehensively address experimental methodology in animal studies, broadly classified as: (1) transcranial stimulation; (2) direct cortical stimulation in vivo and (3) in vitro models. In each case advantages and disadvantages for translational research are discussed including dose translation and the overarching "quasi-uniform" assumption, which underpins translational relevance in all animal models of tDCS...
September 10, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Kenichi Sugawara, Shigeo Tanabe, Tomotaka Suzuki, Toshio Higashi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurophysiological triggers underlying muscle relaxation from the contracted state, and to examine the mechanisms involved in this process and their subsequent modification by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to produce motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in 23 healthy participants, wherein motor cortex excitability was examined at the onset of voluntary muscle relaxation following a period of voluntary tonic muscle contraction...
September 25, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Andreas Bungert, André Antunes, Svenja Espenhahn, Axel Thielscher
Much of our knowledge on the physiological mechanisms of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) stems from studies which targeted the human motor cortex. However, it is still unclear which part of the motor cortex is predominantly affected by TMS. Considering that the motor cortex consists of functionally and histologically distinct subareas, this also renders the hypotheses on the physiological TMS effects uncertain. We use the finite element method (FEM) and magnetic resonance image-based individual head models to get realistic estimates of the electric field induced by TMS...
September 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Ryosuke Tomio, Takenori Akiyama, Takayuki Ohira, Kazunari Yoshida
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the most effective electrode montage to elicit lower-extremity transcranial motor evoked potentials (LE-tMEPs) using a minimum stimulation current. METHODS A realistic 3D head model was created from T1-weighted images. Finite element methods were used to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by transcranial electrical stimulation via 4 electrode montage models. The stimulation threshold level of LE-tMEPs in 52 patients was also studied in a practical clinical setting to determine the effects of each electrode montage...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Antonella Conte, Daniele Belvisi, Nicoletta Manzo, Matteo Bologna, Francesca Barone, Matteo Tartaglia, Neeraj Upadhyay, Alfredo Berardelli
The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) is the shortest interval at which an individual recognizes paired stimuli as separate in time. We investigated whether and how voluntary movement modulates STDT in healthy subjects. In 17 healthy participants, we tested STDT during voluntary index-finger abductions at several time-points after movement onset and during motor preparation. We then tested whether voluntary movement-induced STDT changes were specific for the body segment moved, depended on movement kinematics, on the type of movement or on the intensity for delivering paired electrical stimuli for STDT To understand the mechanisms underlying STDT modulation, we also tested STDT during motor imagery and after delivering repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit excitability changes in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1)...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Surjo R Soekadar, Jim Don Herring, David McGonigle
Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) of the brain has attracted an increased interest in recent years. Yet, despite remarkable research efforts to date, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of tES' effects are still incompletely understood. This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the state-of-the-art in studies combining tES and neuroimaging, while introducing most recent insights and outlining future prospects related to this new and rapidly growing field. The findings reported here combine methodological advancements with insights into the underlying mechanisms of tES itself...
October 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Jose Martin Rabey, Evgenia Dobronevsky
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia among the elderly. Common treatments available and non-pharmacological interventions have their limitations, and new therapeutic approaches are critically needed. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that generates an electric current-inducing modulation in cortical excitability. The previous clinical trials showed that combinations of rTMS and cognitive training (rTMS-COG), as provided by the NeuroAD medical device system, offer a novel, safe, and effective method improving mild-to-moderate AD patients...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Jichao Ye, Mengjun Ma, Zhongyu Xie, Peng Wang, Yong Tang, Lin Huang, Keng Chen, Liangbin Gao, Yanfeng Wu, Huiyong Shen, Yuanshan Zeng
Nonhuman primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) have been widely used in evaluation of the efficacy and safety of experimental restorative interventions before clinical trials. However, no objective methods are currently available for the evaluation of neural function in nonhuman primates. In our long-term clinical practice, we have used evoked potential (EP) for neural function surveillance during operation and accumulated extensive experience. In the present study, a nonhuman primate model of SCI was established in 6 adult cynomologus monkeys through spinal cord contusion injury at T8-T9...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jakob Škarabot, Ruben Perellón Alfonso, Neil Cronin, Jure Bon, Vojko Strojnik, Janne Avela
PURPOSE: Interhemispheric inhibition may play a role in the expression of bilateral deficit in force (BLD). This study investigated whether the degree of BLD is reflected in the nature of interhemispheric interaction during unilateral and bilateral contractions. METHODS: Subjects divided into three groups, 'bilateral' (n = 7), 'unilateral' (n = 5) and 'control' (n = 8), performed unilateral and bilateral maximal voluntary isometric knee extensions while receiving electrical stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the target and ipsilateral muscles...
September 14, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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