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Transcranial electric stimulation

Moniek A M Munneke, Chantal D Bakker, Eline A Goverde, Jaco W Pasman, Dick F Stegeman
After stroke, motor pathways are often affected, leading to paresis. It remains difficult to reliably predict motor recovery of the upper extremity, for which transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may add to clinical examination. Placement of the surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes in TMS is essential for information about specific muscle groups and corticospinal pathways. This study primarily aimed to determine the optimal sEMG electrode positions for recording activity of forearm flexor and extensor muscles...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Chong Liao, Song Wu, Yue-Jia Luo, Qing Guan, Fang Cui
Social decision-making engages traditional decision-making processes (e.g. valuation), as well as social cognition processes (e.g. inferring the affective and mental states of another person). Neuroimaging and neuro-stimulation studies have suggested the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a variety of social decision-making tasks. Yet no study has investigated the effect of the cortical excitability of mPFC in the decision-making of costly helping behavior. Here, we used tDCS to demonstrate the causal relationship between the cortical excitability of mPFC and costly helping decision-making...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task...
March 13, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Neil E O'Connell, Louise Marston, Sally Spencer, Lorraine H DeSouza, Benedict M Wand
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2010, Issue 9, and last updated in 2014, Issue 4. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and reduced impedance non-invasive cortical electrostimulation (RINCE)...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
V S Klimov, V V Kel'makov, N V Chishchina, A V Evsyukov
AIM: The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for predicting changes in the neurological status of patients with cervical spinal cord tumors in the early postoperative period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 74 patients with intradural cervical spinal cord tumors who were operated on using motor evoked potential monitoring in the period from 2013 to 2016. There were 29 (39%) males and 46 (61%) females...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
A V Dolzhich, S E Avetisov
PURPOSE: to assess the neurophysiological effect and clinical effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation in combination with drug therapy in amblyopic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 32 healthy children in the age of 5-12 years and 97 patients of the same age with refractive strabismic amblyopia. All study subjects underwent standard examination including ophthalmological (visometry, refractometry in normal conditions and in cycloplegia, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, type of vision), neurophysiological methods (determination of retinal electric sensitivity threshold, electric lability of optic nerve, amplitude and latency period of visual evoked potentials, electroencephalogram wave amplitudes, localization of peak electrical activity area of the cerebral cortex), assessment of neuropsychic development and estimation of mental development coefficient with age tests...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Gábor Csifcsák, Nya Mehnwolo Boayue, Oula Puonti, Axel Thielscher, Matthias Mittner
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC) has been widely used to improve symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the effects of different stimulation protocols in the entire frontal lobe have not been investigated in a large sample including patient data. METHODS: We used 38 head models created from structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 19 healthy adults and 19 MDD patients and applied computational modeling to simulate the spatial distribution of tDCS-induced electric fields (EFs) in 20 frontal regions...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jacqueline A Palmer, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
BACKGROUND: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) combining repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) can induce neuroplastic adaptations in the human brain and enhance motor learning in neurologically-intact individuals. However, the extent to which PAS is an effective technique for inducing associative plasticity and improving motor function in individuals post-stroke is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of a single session of PAS to modulate corticomotor excitability and motor skill performance in individuals post-stroke...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Won Hee Lee, Nigel I Kennedy, Marom Bikson, Sophia Frangou
We use auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) to illustrate the challenges in defining and assessing target engagement in the context of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for psychiatric disorders. We defined the target network as the cluster of regions of interest (ROIs) that are consistently implicated in AVH based on the conjunction of multimodal meta-analytic neuroimaging data. These were prescribed in the New York Head (a population derived model) and head models of four single individuals. We appraised two potential measures of target engagement, tDCS-induced peak electric field strength and tDCS-modulated volume defined as the percentage of the volume of the AVH network exposed to electric field magnitude stronger than the postulated threshold for neuronal excitability...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Nadia Bolognini, Carlo Miniussi
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) are noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) tools that are now widely used in neuroscientific research in humans. The fact that both TMS and tES are able to modulate brain plasticity and, in turn, affect behavior is opening up new horizons in the treatment of brain circuit and plasticity disorders. In the present chapter, we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of NIBS, describing the electromagnetic and physical foundations of TMS and tES, as well as the current knowledge of the neurophysiologic basis of their effects on brain activity and plasticity...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jesper D Nielsen, Kristoffer H Madsen, Oula Puonti, Hartwig R Siebner, Christian Bauer, Camilla Gøbel Madsen, Guilherme B Saturnino, Axel Thielscher
Anatomically realistic volume conductor models of the human head are important for accurate forward modeling of the electric field during transcranial brain stimulation (TBS), electro- (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In particular, the skull compartment exerts a strong influence on the field distribution due to its low conductivity, suggesting the need to represent its geometry accurately. However, automatic skull reconstruction from structural magnetic resonance (MR) images is difficult, as compact bone has a very low signal in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Gorana Pobric, Johan Hulleman, Michal Lavidor, Gail Silipo, Stephanie Rohrig, Elisa Dias, Daniel C Javitt
Schizophrenia (Sz) is a mental health disorder characterized by severe cognitive, emotional, social, and perceptual deficits. Visual deficits are found in tasks relying on the magnocellular/dorsal stream. In our first experiment we established deficits in global motion processing in Sz patients compared to healthy controls. We used a novel task in which background optic flow produces a distortion of the apparent trajectory of a moving stimulus, leading control participants to provide biased estimates of the true motion trajectory under conditions of global stimulation...
March 7, 2018: Brain Topography
Zachary Yaple, Roman Vakhrushev
Performance in the attentional blink task has been demonstrated to be directly influenced by alpha and beta neural oscillatory activity. In two experiments we stimulated the right parietal cortex and left frontal cortex with transcranial alternating current stimulation. For the first experiment we targeted only the right parietal cortex and found a non-significant increase in performance from 20 Hz stimulation. In the second experiment we applied two stimulators to the right parietal and left frontal cortex and found a significant increase in performance from 20 Hz tACS with a phase difference of 180°...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Lari M Koponen, Jaakko O Nieminen, Tuomas P Mutanen, Risto J Ilmoniemi
State-of-the-art noninvasive electromagnetic recording techniques allow observing neuronal dynamics down to the millisecond scale. Direct measurement of faster events has been limited to in vitro or invasive recordings. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a new paradigm for transcranial magnetic stimulation. We adjusted the stimulation waveform on the microsecond scale, by varying the duration between the positive and negative phase of the induced electric field, and studied corresponding changes in the elicited motor responses...
March 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Hikari Kirimoto, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Naufumi Otsuru, Koya Yamashiro, Hideaki Onishi, Ippei Nojima, Antonio Oliviero
Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) is a novel and inexpensive, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technique. Here, we performed non-invasive modulation of intra-epidermal electrical stimulation-evoked potentials (IES-EPs) by applying tSMS or sham stimulation over the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory (S1) cortices in 18 healthy volunteers for 15 min. We recorded EPs after IES before, right after, and 10 min after tSMS. The IES-EP amplitude was significantly reduced immediately after tSMS over M1, whereas tSMS over S1 and sham stimulation did not affect the IES-EP amplitude...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Christopher W Sundberg, Andrew Kuplic, Hamidollah Hassanlouei, Sandra K Hunter
The mechanisms for the age-related increase in fatigability during high-velocity contractions in old and very old adults ({greater than or equal to}80 yrs) are unresolved. Moreover, whether the increased fatigability with advancing age and the underlying mechanisms differ between men and women are not known. The purpose of this study was to quantify the fatigability of knee extensor muscles and identify the mechanisms of fatigue in 30 young (22.6 {plus minus} 0.4 yrs; 15 men), 62 old (70.5 {plus minus} 0.7 yrs; 33 men), and 12 very old (86...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Belen Lafon, Simon Henin, Yu Huang, Daniel Friedman, Lucia Melloni, Thomas Thesen, Werner Doyle, György Buzsáki, Orrin Devinsky, Lucas C Parra, Anli Liu
It has come to our attention that we did not specify whether the stimulation magnitudes we report in this Article are peak amplitudes or peak-to-peak. All references to intensity given in mA in the manuscript refer to peak-to-peak amplitudes, except in Fig. 2, where the model is calibrated to 1 mA peak amplitude, as stated. In the original version of the paper we incorrectly calibrated the computational models to 1 mA peak-to-peak, rather than 1 mA peak amplitude. This means that we divided by a value twice as large as we should have...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Joanna L Bowtell, Magni Mohr, Jonathan Fulford, Sarah R Jackman, Georgios Ermidis, Peter Krustrup, Katya N Mileva
Background: Caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise performance and capacity. The mechanisms remain unclear but are suggested to relate to adenosine receptor antagonism, resulting in increased central motor drive, reduced perception of effort, and altered peripheral processes such as enhanced calcium handling and extracellular potassium regulation. Our aims were to investigate how caffeine (i) affects knee extensor PCr kinetics and pH during repeated sets of single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure and (ii) modulates the interplay between central and peripheral neural processes...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Ramesh Naidu Annavarapu, Srujana Kathi, Vamsi Krishna Vadla
The aim of this article is to highlight current approaches for imaging elderly brain, indispensable for cognitive neuroscience research with emphasis on the basic physical principles of various non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. The first part of this article presents a quick overview of the primary non-invasive neuroimaging modalities used by cognitive neuroscientists such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), Profusion imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) along with tractography and connectomics...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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