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Transcranial electric stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194103/reassessment-of-non-monosynaptic-excitation-from-the-motor-cortex-to-motoneurons-in-single-motor-units-of-the-human-biceps-brachii
#1
Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Toshiki Tazoe, Masanori Sakamoto, Takashi Endoh, Satoshi Shibuya, Leonardo A Elias, Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
Corticospinal excitation is mediated by polysynaptic pathways in several vertebrates, including dexterous monkeys. However, indirect non-monosynaptic excitation has not been clearly observed following transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) in humans. The present study evaluated indirect motor pathways in normal human subjects by recording the activities of single motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. The pyramidal tract was stimulated with weak TES, CMS, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) contralateral to the recording side...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188627/dose-dependency-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-implications-for-neuroplasticity-induction-in-health-and-disease
#2
Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Brenton Hordacre
There has been a rapid growth in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to induce neuroplasticity and modulate human brain function over the past decade. An example of this is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which involves the application of weak electrical currents between at least two electrodes placed over the scalp. When applied to the primary motor cortex (M1), tDCS can induce lasting polarity-dependent changes in excitability, with facilitation following anodal stimulation and suppression following cathodal...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169833/measurements-and-models-of-electric-fields-in-the-in-vivo-human-brain-during-transcranial-electric-stimulation
#3
Yu Huang, Anli A Liu, Belen Lafon, Daniel Friedman, Michael Dayan, Xiuyuan Wang, Marom Bikson, Werner K Doyle, Orrin Devinsky, Lucas C Parra
Transcranial electric stimulation aims to stimulate the brain by applying weak electrical currents at the scalp. However, the magnitude and spatial distribution of electric fields in the human brain are unknown. We measured electric potentials intracranially in ten epilepsy patients and estimate electric fields across the entire brain by leveraging calibrated current-flow models. When stimulating at 2 mA, cortical electric fields reach 0.4 V/m, the lower limit of effectiveness in animal studies. When individual whole-head anatomy is considered, the predicted electric field magnitudes correlate with the recorded values in cortical (r=0...
February 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163679/a-phase-locking-analysis-of-neuronal-firing-rhythms-with-transcranial-magneto-acoustical-stimulation-based-on-the-hodgkin-huxley-neuron-model
#4
Yi Yuan, Na Pang, Yudong Chen, Yi Wang, Xiaoli Li
Transcranial magneto-acoustical stimulation (TMAS) uses ultrasonic waves and a static magnetic field to generate electric current in nerve tissues for the purpose of modulating neuronal activities. It has the advantage of high spatial resolution and penetration depth. Neuronal firing rhythms carry and transmit nerve information in neural systems. In this study, we investigated the phase-locking characteristics of neuronal firing rhythms with TMAS based on the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The simulation results indicate that the modulation frequency of ultrasound can affect the phase-locking behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161015/-electrophysiological-testing-in-spinal-cord-tumors
#5
REVIEW
N André-Obadia, F Mauguière
Evoked potentials (EPs) are useful to evaluate the functional impairment of motor and somatosensory pathways in spinal cord tumors. Conduction through pyramidal tracts is evaluated by motor EPs (MEPs) elicited by transcranial stimulation, magnetic for awake patients or electric in the operating room. Somatosensory EPs (SEPs) and laser EPs (LEPs) are complementary procedures to explore conduction in dorsal columns and spinothalamic tracts, respectively. MEPs as well as SEPs show conduction abnormalities in about 60% of cases with a sensitivity that increases up to 70% when both procedures are carried out...
February 1, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159637/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-responses-elicited-in-hindlimb-muscles-as-an-assessment-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-spino-muscular-circuitry-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Hayk A Petrosyan, Valentina Alessi, Sue A Sisto, Mark Kaufman, Victor L Arvanian
Electromagnetic stimulation applied at the cranial level, i.e. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is a technique for stimulation and neuromodulation used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in clinical and research settings. Although recordings of TMS elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEP) are an essential diagnostic tool for spinal cord injured (SCI) patients, they are reliably recorded from arm, and not leg muscles. Mid-thoracic contusion is a common SCI that results in locomotor impairments predominantly in legs...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156250/efficacy-of-deep-rtms-for-neuropathic-pain-in-the-lower-limb-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial-of-an-h-coil-and-figure-8-coil
#7
Takeshi Shimizu, Koichi Hosomi, Tomoyuki Maruo, Yuko Goto, Masaru Yokoe, Yu Kageyama, Toshio Shimokawa, Toshiki Yoshimine, Youichi Saitoh
OBJECTIVE Electrical motor cortex stimulation can relieve neuropathic pain (NP), but its use requires patients to undergo an invasive procedure. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) using a figure-8 coil can relieve NP noninvasively, but its ability to relieve lower limb pain is still limited. Deep rTMS using an H-coil can effectively stimulate deep brain regions and has been widely used for the treatment of various neurological diseases; however, there have been no clinical studies comparing the effectiveness of figure-8 coils and H-coils...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137971/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-attenuates-neuronal-adaptation
#8
Kohitij Kar, Jacob Duijnhouwer, Bart Krekelberg
: We previously showed that brief application of 2 mA (peak-to-peak) transcranial currents alternating at 10 Hz significantly reduces motion adaptation in humans. This is but one of many behavioral studies showing that weak currents applied to the scalp modulate neural processing. Transcranial stimulation has been shown to improve perception, learning, and a range of clinical symptoms. Few studies, however, have measured the neural consequences of transcranial current stimulation. We capitalized on the strong link between motion perception and neural activity in the middle temporal (MT) area of the macaque monkey to study the neural mechanisms that underlie the behavioral consequences of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128430/-the-neural-networks-of-facial-expression
#9
REVIEW
F Gordillo, L Mestas, G Castillo, M A Perez, R M Lopez, J M Arana
INTRODUCTION: Face perception involves a broad network of connections between cortical and subcortical regions for the exchange and synchronization of information using white matter fibers. This precise communication system can be affected by the structures and the pathways that connect them. AIMS: To establish the neural substrate underlying the perception of facial expression and to analyze the different factors involved in modulating the integrity of this neural network, with the aim being to introduce improvements into rehabilitation programs...
February 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120082/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-in-spine-surgery-a-significant-tool-for-neuronal-protection-and-functional-restoration
#10
Antonino Scibilia, Giovanni Raffa, Vincenzo Rizzo, Angelo Quartarone, Massimiliano Visocchi, Antonino Germanò, Francesco Tomasello
Although there is recent evidence for the role of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in spine surgery, there are no uniform opinions on the optimal combination of the different tools. At our institution, multimodal IONM (mIONM) approach in spine surgery involves the evaluation of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) with electrical transcranial stimulation, including the use of a multipulse technique with multiple myomeric registration of responses from limbs, and a single-pulse technique with D-wave registration through epi- and intradural recording, and free running and evoked electromyography (frEMG and eEMG) with bilateral recording from segmental target muscles...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107684/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-targeting-the-right-fusiform-gyrus-selectively-increases-working-memory-for-faces
#11
Tad T Brunyé, Joseph M Moran, Amanda Holmes, Caroline R Mahoney, Holly A Taylor
The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann's Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0...
January 17, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089855/peripheral-electrical-stimulation-increases-corticomotor-excitability-and-enhances-the-rate-of-visuomotor-adaptation
#12
Simon J Summers, Siobhan M Schabrun, Welber Marinovic, Lucy S Chipchase
Peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) modulates corticomotor excitability but its effect on motor performance has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess whether increases and/or decreases in corticomotor excitability, induced by PES, influenced motor performance using a visuomotor adaptation task. Three PES interventions (motor stimulation, sensory stimulation or sham) were delivered to the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) in 30 healthy participants matched for age, gender and handedness...
January 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088661/reduced-cortical-voluntary-activation-during-bilateral-knee-extension
#13
Luc Girompaire, Baptiste Morel, Thomas Lapole
INTRODUCTION: Reduced neural drive is mainly thought to explain the bilateral deficit phenomenon, i.e. the difference in maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) between unilateral and bilateral contractions. The aim of the present study was to further document if bilateral knee extension is associated with changes in voluntary activation level assessed by both peripheral nerve electrical stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. METHODS: Fourteen subjects performed unilateral and bilateral knee extensions with both superimposed femoral electrical nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation in order to assess voluntary activation (VAFNES) and cortical voluntary activation (VATMS), respectively...
January 12, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072813/a-case-report-on-red-ear-syndrome-with-tinnitus-successfully-treated-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#14
Peter M Kreuzer, Veronika Vielsmeier, Timm B Poeppl, Berthold Langguth
BACKGROUND: The red ear syndrome represents a rare symptom complex consisting of auricular erythema associated with painful and burning sensations. It has been described in combination with tinnitus rarely. It has been hypothesized to be etiologically related to altered trigeminal afferent input, temporomandibular disorders, and thalamic dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: The initial objective of applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) in a case of red ear syndrome in combination with tinnitus was the alleviation of the phantom sounds...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064022/stimulus-uncertainty-enhances-long-term-potentiation-like-plasticity-in-human-motor-cortex
#15
Martin V Sale, Abbey S Nydam, Jason B Mattingley
Plasticity can be induced in human cortex using paired associative stimulation (PAS), which repeatedly and predictably pairs a peripheral electrical stimulus with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral motor region. Many studies have reported small or inconsistent effects of PAS. Given that uncertain stimuli can promote learning, the predictable nature of the stimulation in conventional PAS paradigms might serve to attenuate plasticity induction. Here, we introduced stimulus uncertainty into the PAS paradigm to investigate if it can boost plasticity induction...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059664/navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-glioma-removal-prognostic-value-in-motor-function-recovery-from-postsurgical-neurological-deficits
#16
Tomokazu Takakura, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Manabu Tamura, Takashi Maruyama, Masayuki Nitta, Chiharu Niki, Takakazu Kawamata
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) as a prognostic predictor for upper-extremity motor functional recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits. METHODS Preoperative and postoperative nTMS studies were prospectively applied in 14 patients (mean age 39 ± 12 years) who had intraparenchymal brain neoplasms located within or adjacent to the motor eloquent area in the cerebral hemisphere. Mapping by nTMS was done 3 times, i...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049075/abnormal-brain-oscillations-persist-after-recovery-from-bipolar-depression
#17
P Canali, S Casarotto, M Rosanova, G Sferrazza-Papa, A G Casali, O Gosseries, M Massimini, E Smeraldi, C Colombo, F Benedetti
When directly perturbed in healthy subjects, premotor cortical areas generate electrical oscillations in the beta range (20-40Hz). In schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (BD), these oscillations are markedly reduced, in terms of amplitude and frequency. However, it still remains unclear whether these abnormalities can be modulated over time, or if they can be still observed after treatment. Here, we employed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with EEG to assess the frontal oscillatory activity in eighteen BD patients before/after antidepressant treatments (sleep deprivation and light therapy), relative to nine healthy controls...
December 27, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045856/a-multiparametric-alarm-criterion-for-motor-evoked-potential-monitoring-during-spine-deformity-surgery
#18
Martín J Segura, María E Talarico, Mariano A Noel
PURPOSE: This is a pilot study to compare changes in the amplitude, area below the curve, number of phases, duration, and latency of the intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP) for early detection of impending spinal cord injury. An empirical ratio calculated by a combination of the above-mentioned parameters was also assessed. METHODS: Intraoperative TcMEP recordings from five patients presenting with neuromuscular kyphoscoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, achondroplasia and lumbar kyphosis, congenital kyphosis, and achondroplasia with cervical instability were reviewed...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045854/the-percentage-of-amplitude-decrease-warning-criteria-for-transcranial-mep-monitoring
#19
Henricus L Journée, Hanneke I Berends, Moyo C Kruyt
Muscle motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) became a standard technique for monitoring the motor functions of the brain and spinal cord at risk during spinal and brain surgery. However, a wide range of criteria based on the percentage of amplitude decrease is used in practice. A survey of the current literature on clinical outcome parameters reveals a variety of percentages in a range of 30% to 100% (50% to 100% spinal procedures) with no consensus. The interpretation of muscle MEPs is hampered by their sensitivity to many interfering factors...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045853/intraoperative-neuromonitoring-and-alarm-criteria-for-judging-mep-responses-to-transcranial-electric-stimulation-the-threshold-level-method
#20
Blair Calancie
The motor evoked potential (MEP) is used in the operating room to gauge-and ultimately protect-the functional integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST). However, there is no consensus as to how to best interpret the MEP for maximizing its sensitivity and specificity to CST compromise. The most common way is to use criteria associated with response magnitude (response amplitude; waveform complexity, etc.). With this approach, should an MEP in response to a fixed stimulus intensity diminish below some predetermined cutoff, suggesting CST dysfunction, then the surgical team is warned...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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