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Functional electric stimulation

Hui Ren, Nigel P Birch, Vinod Suresh
Robust and reproducible in vitro models are required for investigating the pathways involved in fluid homeostasis in the human alveolar epithelium. We performed functional and phenotypic characterisation of ion transport in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines NCI-H441 and A549 to determine their similarity to primary human alveolar type II cells. NCI-H441 cells exhibited high expression of junctional proteins ZO-1, and E-cadherin, seal-forming claudin-3, -4, -5 and Na+-K+-ATPase while A549 cells exhibited high expression of pore-forming claudin-2...
2016: PloS One
Carola Vogel, Roman Rukwied, Lenka Stockinger, Marcus Schley, Martin Schmelz, Wolfgang Schleinzer, Christoph Konrad
: At-level and above-level hypersensitivity was assessed in patients with chronic complete thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Patients were classified by somatosensory mapping (brush, cold, pinprick) and assigned into two groups, i.e. patients i) with at-level hypersensitivity (SCIHs, n=8) and ii) without at-level hypersensitivity (SCINHs, n=7). Gender and age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Quantitative sensory testing (QST), electrically- and histamine-induced pain and itch, laser Doppler imaging and laser-evoked potentials (LEP) were recorded at-level and above-level in SCI-patients...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Florian Husmann, Martin Gube, Sabine Felser, Matthias Weippert, Anett Mau-Moeller, Sven Bruhn, Martin Behrens
PURPOSE: Despite growing interest in task-dependent alterations of central and peripheral fatigue following endurance exercise, little is known about the impact of rowing on quadriceps muscle fatigue. This study aimed to investigate central and peripheral mechanisms of fatigue following a 2000-m rowing time-trial. METHODS: Eight competitive rowers (4 males, 4 females, 20 ± 4 years) performed a 2000-m time-trial on an indoor rower and a control condition (sitting)...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Marta Franceschi, Lucia Seminara, Strahinja Dosen, Matjia Strbac, Maurizio Valle, Dario Farina
Myoelectric prostheses are successfully controlled using muscle electrical activity, thereby restoring lost motor functions. However, the somatosensory feedback from the prosthesis to the user is still missing. The sensory substitution methods described in the literature comprise mostly simple position and force sensors combined with discrete stimulation units. The present study describes a novel system for sophisticated electrotactile feedback integrating advanced distributed sensing (electronic skin) and stimulation (matrix electrodes)...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Guorui Jin, Jun Li, Kai Li
Photosensitive semiconducting polymer (SP) combined with light stimulation has shown the capability in promoting the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). However, the high cytotoxicity of the used SP hindered its further application in bioactive scaffolds. In this contribution, we designed and synthesized a SP, poly (N,N-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PDBTT) with low cytotoxicity and strong absorbance in red and near-infrared region (600-1200nm)...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Nando Dulal Das, Guo Nan Yin, Min Ji Choi, Kang-Moon Song, Jin-Mi Park, Anita Limanjaya, Kalyan Ghatak, Nguyen Nhat Minh, Jiyeon Ock, Soo-Hwan Park, Ho Min Kim, Ji-Kan Ryu, Jun-Kyu Suh
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic erectile dysfunction is a disease mostly of vascular origin and men with diabetic erectile dysfunction respond poorly to oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic factor that plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. AIM: To determine the effectiveness of recombinant human (rh)-HGF in restoring erectile function in diabetic mice. METHODS: Four groups of mice were used: control non-diabetic mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice receiving two successive intracavernous injections of phosphate buffered saline (days -3 and 0), a single intracavernous injection of rh-HGF (day 0), or two successive intracavernous injections of rh-HGF (days -3 and 0)...
November 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Domenico Intiso, Andrea Santamato, Filomena Di Rienzo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether electrical stimulation (ES) as an adjunct to BTX-A boosts botulinum activity and whether the combined therapeutic procedure is more effective than BTX-A alone in reducing spasticity in adult subjects. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and CINAHL from January 1966 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Only randomized controlled studies (RCT) involving the combination of BTX-A and ES were considered...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Panagiotis Kokotis, Martin Schmelz, Aikaterini E Papagianni, Thomas Zambelis, Nikos Karandreas
INTRODUCTION: In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP) the impairment of unmyelinated nerve fibers appears unexpected. The measurement of the electrically induced axon flare reflex is a clinical test to assess the peripheral C-nociceptor function. In this study we compared the flare area in patients suffering from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy with healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 18 patients fulfilling the criteria for CIDP (11 male, mean age 51...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Nirod Kumar Sarangi, K G Ayappa, Sandhya S Visweswariah, Jaydeep Kumar Basu
Cell membranes are believed to be highly complex dynamical systems having compositional heterogeneity involving several types of lipids and proteins as the major constituents. This dynamical and compositional heterogeneity is suggested to be critical to the maintenance of active functionality and response to chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal stresses. However, delineating the various factors responsible for the spatio-temporal response of actual cell membranes to stresses can be quite challenging...
October 20, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wing Ting To, Jan Ost, John Hart, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Research has suggested that functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients involve auditory as well as non-auditory brain areas. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the auditory cortex, has demonstrated modulation of brain activity to transiently suppress tinnitus symptoms...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Pekka Hautasaari, Andrej M Savić, Otto Loberg, Eini Niskanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala, Ina M Tarkka
Associations between long-term physical activity and cortical function and brain structure are poorly known. Our aim was to assess whether brain functional and/or structural modulation associated with long-term physical activity is detectable using a discordant monozygotic male twin pair design. Nine monozygotic male twin pairs were carefully selected for an intrapair difference in their leisure-time physical activity of at least three years duration (mean age 34 ± 1 years). We registered somatosensory mismatch response (SMMR) in EEG to electrical stimulation of fingers and whole brain MR images...
October 19, 2016: Brain Topography
Cyril G Eleftheriou, Jonas B Zimmermann, Henrik D Kjeldsen, Moshe David-Pur, Yael Hanein, Evelyne Sernagor
The choice of electrode material is of paramount importance in neural prosthetic devices. Electrodes must be biocompatible yet able to sustain repetitive current injections in a highly corrosive environment. We explored the suitability of carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes to stimulate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a mouse model of outer retinal degeneration. We investigated morphological changes at the bio-hybrid interface and changes in RGC responses to electrical stimulation following prolonged in vitro coupling to CNT electrodes...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Tatsuya Kondo, Rieko Goto, Kaoru Ono, Sayaka Kitano, Mary Ann Suico, Miki Sato, Motoyuki Igata, Junji Kawashima, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Takeshi Matsumura, Hirofumi Kai, Eiichi Araki
Activation of heat shock response (HSR) improves accumulated visceral adiposity and metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. To identify the optimal intervention strategy of the activation of the HSR provided by mild electrical stimulation (MES) with heat shock (HS) in type 2 diabetes. This study was a prospective, frequency-escalating, randomized, open-label, triple-arm trial in Japan. A total of 60 obese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized into three groups receiving two, four, or seven treatments per week for 12 weeks...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rachelle T Hassarati, L John R Foster, Rylie A Green
The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yan Yin, Hong Xiao, Jirimutuya Han, Weiyi Zhang, Jianguo Cheng, Tao Zhu
BACKGROUND: It has been observed that patients with liver dysfunction need lower dose anesthetic compared patients with normal liver function. The minimum amount of volatile anesthetic to achieve an optimal depth of anesthesia for these patients is still unclear. In this study, Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of the sevoflurane was determined using an electric stimulation and the effect of severity of liver dysfunction on the MAC was observed in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery were divided into the following groups: group N (normal liver function), group A (Child-Pugh grade A) and group B (Child-Pugh grade B-C)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Sophie Saxton, Sarah Withers, Jacqueline Ohanian, Anthony Heagerty
OBJECTIVE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anti-contractile effect vital to regulating blood pressure. Evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous stimulation of PVAT triggers the release of anti-contractile factors via activation of β3-adrenoceptors. Therefore it was decided to examine β3-adrenoceptor function in obesity. DESIGN AND METHOD: Electrical field stimulation (EFS) of healthy and obese mouse mesenteric arteries (<200 μm, +/-PVAT) were characterised using wire myography (0...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anthony Heagerty
There is now a considerable body of evidence to suggest that the fat cells that surround blood vessels (perivascular adipose tissue, PVAT) can influence profoundly arterial tone by releasing vasodilator adipokines which can act locally in a paracrine fashion. In healthy lean individuals the primary vasodilator released appears to be adiponectin and there is a complex interation between autonomic nerve firing in PVAT and the release of nitric oxide from adipocytes and an increased bioavailability of adiponectin...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ashraf Raslan, Gerd Fabian Volk, Martin Möller, Vincent Stark, Nikolas Eckhardt, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To examine by intraoperative electric stimulation which peripheral facial nerve (FN) branches are functionally connected to which facial muscle functions. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center prospective clinical study. METHODS: Seven patients whose peripheral FN branching was exposed during parotidectomy under FN monitoring received a systematic electrostimulation of each branch starting with 0.1 mA and stepwise increase to 2 mA with a frequency of 3 Hz...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Michael P Saddoris
Repeated self-administration of cocaine is associated with impairments in motivated behaviors as well as alterations in both dopamine (DA) release and neural signaling within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These impairments are present even after several weeks of abstinence from drug taking, suggesting that the self-administration experience induces long-lasting neuroplastic alterations in the mesolimbic DA circuit. To understand these changes at the terminal level, rats were allowed to self-administer either cocaine intravenously (∼1 mg/kg per infusion) or water to a receptacle (control) in 2-h sessions over 14 days, followed by 30 days of enforced abstinence...
September 2016: ENeuro
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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