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Functional electric stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529939/naturally-engineered-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes
#1
REVIEW
Gaetano J Scuderi, Jonathan Butcher
Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529730/effect-of-low-versus-high-frequency-stimulation-on-freezing-of-gait-and-other-axial-symptoms-in-parkinson-patients-with-bilateral-stn-dbs-a-mini-review
#2
REVIEW
Tao Xie, Mahesh Padmanaban, Lisa Bloom, Ellen MacCracken, Breanna Bertacchi, Abraham Dachman, Peter Warnke
Some studies have shown that low frequency stimulation (LFS, most commonly 60 Hz), compared to high frequency stimulation (HFS, most commonly 130 Hz), has beneficial effects, short-term or even long-term, on improving freezing of gait (FOG) and other axial symptoms, including speech and swallowing function, in Parkinson disease (PD) patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). However, other studies failed to confirm this. It seems not clear what determines the difference in response to LFS...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527228/efficacy-of-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-for-preventing-quadriceps-muscle-wasting-in-patients-with-moderate-or-severe-acute-stroke-a-pilot-study
#3
Masafumi Nozoe, Masashi Kanai, Hiroki Kubo, Yuka Takeuchi, Miki Kobayashi, Miho Yamamoto, Asami Furuichi, Makoto Yamazaki, Shinichi Shimada, Kyoshi Mase
BACKGROUND: Stroke-related muscle wasting is one of the factors leading to long-term disability and functional dependency. No study has reported an effective therapeutic intervention for such muscle wasting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on quadriceps muscle mass preservation in patients with acute moderate or severe stroke by using ultrasonography (US). METHODS: Twenty patients with acute, moderate, or severe stroke (age: 68±11 years) were divided into usual care group (control group) and intervention groups (NMES group), respectively...
May 19, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526693/a-simple-laboratory-exercise-with-rat-isolated-esophagus-and-stomach-fundus-to-reveal-functional-differences-between-striated-and-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Francisco José Batista-Lima, Kalinne Kelly Lima Gadelha, Daniel Maia Oliveira, Thiago Brasileiro Vasconcelos, Teresinha Silva Brito, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães
This study describes an undergraduate student laboratory activity using isolated preparations from rat gastrointestinal tissues that possess contractile profiles typically exhibited by striated and smooth muscle cells. While students are introduced to an ex vivo methodology, they can compare differences in trace experiments, twitch aspects, phasic and tonic properties, force-frequency relationships, and pharmacological responsiveness of esophageal (striated) and fundic (smooth muscle) segments. Muscle strips were subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) applied by platinum electrodes immersed in the physiological solution...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526124/is-the-routine-use-of-a-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycle-for-lower-limb-movement-standard-of-care-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-rehabilitation
#5
EDITORIAL
Argyrios Stampas, Henry S York, Michael W O'Dell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525560/activity-dependent-gene-expression-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#6
Qiang Wang, William B Titlow, Declan A McClintock, Arnold J Stromberg, Timothy S McClintock
Activity-dependent processes are important to olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in several ways, such as cell survival and the specificity of axonal convergence. The identification of activity-dependent mRNAs has contributed to our understanding of OSN axon convergence, but has revealed surprisingly little about other processes. Published studies of activity-dependent mRNAs in olfactory mucosae overlap poorly, but by combining these agreements with meta-analysis of existing data we identify 443 mRNAs that respond to methods that alter OSN activity...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525544/bistability-causality-and-complexity-in-cortical-networks-an-in-vitro-perturbational-study
#7
Mattia D'Andola, Beatriz Rebollo, Adenauer G Casali, Julia F Weinert, Andrea Pigorini, Rosa Villa, Marcello Massimini, Maria V Sanchez-Vives
Measuring the spatiotemporal complexity of cortical responses to direct perturbations provides a reliable index of the brain's capacity for consciousness in humans under both physiological and pathological conditions. Upon loss of consciousness, the complex pattern of causal interactions observed during wakefulness collapses into a stereotypical slow wave, suggesting that cortical bistability may play a role. Bistability is mainly expressed in the form of slow oscillations, a default pattern of activity that emerges from cortical networks in conditions of functional or anatomical disconnection...
May 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524753/continuous-mapping-of-the-corticospinal-tracts-in-intramedullary-spinal-cord-tumor-surgery-using-an-electrified-ultrasonic-aspirator
#8
Ori Barzilai, Zvi Lidar, Shlomi Constantini, Khalil Salame, Yifat Bitan-Talmor, Akiva Korn
Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) represent a rare entity, accounting for 4%-10% of all central nervous system tumors. Microsurgical resection of IMSCTs is currently considered the primary treatment modality. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has been shown to aid in maximizing tumor resection and minimizing neurological morbidity, consequently improving patient outcome. The gold standard for IONM to date is multimodality monitoring, consisting of both somatosensory evoked potentials, as well as muscle-based transcranial electric motor evoked potentials (tcMEPs)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522768/a-model-for-in-vivo-analysis-of-sudomotor-sympathetic-c-fiber-activation-and-human-sweat-gland-output
#9
Gary W Mack
Quantitative assessment of small fiber peripheral neuropathy often involves an evaluation of the interaction between the C-fiber sudomotor nerve and local sweat rate (SR). Typically, some sort of quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) is performed to aid in diagnosing small fiber dysfunction. The currently used QSART demonstrates only moderate test-retest reliability and therefore limits its usefulness in tracking small fiber dysfunction. A new experimental model to examine small C-fiber function in the skin using intradermal electrical stimulation and simultaneous monitoring of SR is proposed...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516033/the-impact-of-large-structural-brain-changes-in-chronic-stroke-patients-on-the-electric-field-caused-by-transcranial-brain-stimulation
#10
Sena Minjoli, Guilherme B Saturnino, Jakob Udby Blicher, Charlotte J Stagg, Hartwig R Siebner, André Antunes, Axel Thielscher
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) are two types of non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (TBS). They are useful tools for stroke research and may be potential adjunct therapies for functional recovery. However, stroke often causes large cerebral lesions, which are commonly accompanied by a secondary enlargement of the ventricles and atrophy. These structural alterations substantially change the conductivity distribution inside the head, which may have potentially important consequences for both brain stimulation methods...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514771/istaroxime-a-potential-anticancer-drug-in-prostate-cancer-exerts-beneficial-functional-effects-in-healthy-and-diseased-human-myocardium
#11
Markus Wallner, Mounir Khafaga, Ewald Kolesnik, Aris Vafiadis, Gerold Schwantzer, Deborah M Eaton, Pero Curcic, Martin Köstenberger, Igor Knez, Peter P Rainer, Martin Pichler, Burkert Pieske, Dirk Von Lewinski
The current gold standard for prostate cancer treatment is androgen deprivation therapy and antiandrogenic agents. However, adverse cardiovascular events including heart failure can limit therapeutic use. Istaroxime, which combines Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA) inhibition with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) stimulation, has recently shown promising anti-neoplastic effects in prostate cancer (PC) models and may also improve cardiac function. Considering the promising anticancer effects of istaroxime, we aimed to assess its functional effects on human myocardium...
April 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509762/beetroot-juice-increases-human-muscle-force-without-changing-ca2-handling-proteins
#12
Jamie Whitfield, Daniel Gamu, George J F Heigenhauser, Luc J C van Loon, Lawrence L Spriet, A Russell Tupling, Graham P Holloway
Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3) supplementation improves skeletal muscle (SkM) contractile efficiency, and while rodent literature has suggested improvements in calcium handling or redox modifications as likely explanations, the direct mechanism-of-action in humans remains unknown. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 7-d of beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on SkM contractile characteristics and function. METHODS: Recreationally active males (n=8) underwent transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation of the vastus lateralis for evaluation of contractile characteristics before (pre) and after (post) 7-d of BRJ supplementation (280 mL/day, ~26 mmol NO3)...
May 15, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506694/optogenetics-gets-to-the-heart-a-guiding-light-beyond-defibrillation
#13
REVIEW
Claudia Crocini, Cecilia Ferrantini, Francesco S Pavone, Leonardo Sacconi
Optogenetics provides a tool for controlling the electrical activity of excitable cells by means of the interaction of light with light-gated ion channels. Despite the fact that optogenetics has been intensively utilized in the neurosciences, it has been more rarely employed as an instrument for studying cardiac pathophysiology. However, the advantages of optical approaches to perturb cardiac electrical activity are numerous, especially when the spatio-temporal qualities of light are utterly exploited. Here, we review the main breakthroughs employing optogenetics to perturb cardiac pathophysiology and attempt a comparison of methods and procedures that have employed optogenetics in the heart...
May 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506488/perioperative-functional-neuroimaging-of-gliomas-in-eloquent-brain-areas
#14
C Mellerio, S Charron, S Lion, P Roca, G Kuchcinski, L Legrand, M Edjlali, O Naggara, J-F Meder, J Pallud, C Oppenheim
Surgical resection of gliomas involving eloquent brain areas must be maximal in order to improve patients' survival, and safe to prevent postoperative impairments. Therefore, the precise spatial relationship between the lesion and eloquent brain areas needs to be established. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are robust methods with increasing indications in neurosurgery for past decade. The aim of this review article is not only to pinpoint the major limitations of these methods in order to avoid erroneous conclusions, but also to detail practical aspects associated with the main paradigms routinely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to discuss recent validation of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging results with direct electrical stimulation during awake surgery...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506487/a-review-of-monopolar-motor-mapping-and-a-comprehensive-guide-to-continuous-dynamic-motor-mapping-for-resection-of-motor-eloquent-brain-tumors
#15
P Schucht, K Seidel, A Jilch, J Beck, A Raabe
Monopolar mapping of motor function differs from the most commonly used method of intraoperative mapping, i.e. bipolar direct electrical stimulation at 50-60Hz (Penfield technique mapping). Most importantly, the monopolar probe emits a radial, homogenous electrical field different to the more focused inter-tip bipolar electrical field. Most users combine monopolar stimulation with the short train technique, also called high frequency stimulation, or train-of-five techniques. It consists of trains of four to nine monopolar rectangular electrical pulses of 200-500μs pulse length with an inter stimulus interval of 2-4msec...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506485/surgery-for-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumors-and-gangliogliomas-in-eloquent-areas-functional-results-and-seizure-control
#16
B Devaux, F Chassoux, E Landré, B Turak, A Laurent, M Zanello, C Mellerio, P Varlet
INTRODUCTION: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors and gangliogliomas are developmental glioneuronal tumors usually revealed by partial epilepsy. High epileptogenicity, childhood epilepsy onset, drug-resistance, temporal location, and seizure freedom after complete resection are common characteristics of both tumors. We report the specificity of surgical management, functional results and seizure outcome in cases of a tumor location in eloquent areas. METHODS: Among 150 patients (88 males, 3-55 years) operated on for refractory epilepsy due to a glioneuronal tumor (1990-2015), 30 (20%, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors=21; gangliogliomas=9) had a tumor located in an eloquent cortex (sensory-motor, insular or language areas)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506484/a-surgical-approach-to-the-anatomo-functional-structure-of-language
#17
REVIEW
E Mandonnet
INTRODUCTION: Language is the most widely mapped cognitive function during brain surgery. Intraoperative language functional mapping using direct electrical stimulation under awake conditions is currently the gold standard technique for establishing the causal link between an area and a deficit that would be caused by its resection. It is also a powerful tool to investigate the anatomical correlates of current neuropsychological models of language. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this article is to reexamine the anatomo-functional structure of language that could be inferred from data obtained in direct electrical stimulation studies during awake surgery...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506482/technical-principles-of-direct-bipolar-electrostimulation-for-cortical-and-subcortical-mapping-in-awake-craniotomy
#18
J Pallud, E Mandonnet, R Corns, E Dezamis, E Parraga, M Zanello, G Spena
INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative application of electrical current to the brain is a standard technique during brain surgery for inferring the function of the underlying brain. The purpose of intraoperative functional mapping is to reliably identify cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in eloquent functions, especially motor, sensory, language and cognitive functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this article is to review the rationale and the electrophysiological principles of the use of direct bipolar electrostimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping under awake conditions...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506003/synergy-effects-of-combined-multichannel-emg-triggered-electrical-stimulation-and-mirror-therapy-in-subacute-stroke-patients-with-severe-or-very-severe-arm-hand-paresis
#19
Thomas Schick, Hans-Peter Schlake, Juliane Kallusky, Günter Hohlfeld, Maria Steinmetz, Florian Tripp, Karsten Krakow, Michaela Pinter, Christian Dohle
BACKGROUND: Neurorehabilitation requires the development of severity-dependent and successful therapies for arm/hand rehabilitation in stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of adding mirror therapy to bilateral EMG-triggered multi-channel electrostimulation for the treatment of severe arm/hand paresis in stroke patients. METHODS: The subjects of this randomized, controlled, multicentre study were stroke patients who had suffered their first insult between 1 and 6 months before study start and had severe or very severe arm/hand paresis, as classified by Fugl-Meyer-Assessment...
May 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503316/recovery-of-supraspinal-control-of-leg-movement-in-a-chronic-complete-flaccid-paraplegic-man-after-continuous-low-frequency-pelvic-nerve-stimulation-and-fes-assisted-training
#20
Marc Possover, Axel Forman
INTRODUCTION: More than 30 years ago, functional electrical stimulation (FES) was developed as an orthotic system to be used for rehabilitation for SCI patients. In the present case report, FES-assisted training was combined with continuous low-frequency stimulation of the pelvic somatic nerves in a SCI patient. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on unexpected findings in a 41-year-old man with chronic complete flaccid paraplegia, since he was 18 years old, who underwent spinal stem cell therapy and a laparoscopic implantation of neuroprosthesis (LION procedure) in the pelvic lumbosacral nerves...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
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