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Biology of stroke

Kirk B Roberson, Melanie Potiaumpai, Kayla Widdowson, Annmarie Jaghab, Sean Chowdhari, Catherine Armitage, Afton D Seeley, Kevin A Jacobs, Joseph F Signorile
The presence of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) infers an increased risk for cardiovascular incidence and mortality, and is associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Although the effects of exercise on biomarkers, HRQoL, and future risk have been studied; no study has measured the effects on all three components. The present study compared the effects of steady-state, moderate-intensity treadmill training (TM) and high-velocity circuit resistance training (HVCRT) on biological markers, HRQoL, and overall CVD risk in adults with CMS and CVD risk factors...
March 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Young Hee Nam, Colleen M Brensinger, Warren B Bilker, Charles E Leonard, Scott E Kasner, Tilo Grosser, Xuanwen Li, Sean Hennessy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the comparative safety of individual NSAIDs when given concomitantly with clopidogrel. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims from five US states during 1999-2010, supplemented with Medicare claims for dual-enrollees. The exposure of interest was the first concomitant use of clopidogrel and one of the 10 selected NSAIDs after a 1-year baseline period. The outcomes were: all-cause mortality; acute myocardial infarction (AMI)/ischemic stroke; and gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB)/intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)...
2018: PloS One
Cheng Sun, Lining Huang, Zhenglong Li, Kaiming Leng, Yi Xu, Xingming Jiang, Yunfu Cui
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are a portion of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), have manifested a paramount role in the pathophysiology of human diseases, particularly in pathogenesis and progression of disease. Myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT), which was recently found to demonstrate aberrant expression in various diseases, such as myocardial infarction, schizophrenia, ischemic stroke, diabetic complications, age-related cataract and cancers, is a novel disease-related lncRNA...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yu Mao, Qiuyue Kong, Rongrong Li, Xiaojin Zhang, Yali Gui, Yuehua Li, Chuanfu Li, Yanlin Zhao, Li Liu, Zhengnian Ding
Heat shock protein A12A (HSPA12A) is a newly discovered member of the Hsp70 family. The biological characteristics and functional roles of HSPA12A are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of HSPA12A on ischaemic stroke in mice. Ischaemic stroke was induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 h followed by blood reperfusion. We observed that HSPA12A was highly expressed in brain neurons, and neuronal HSPA12A expression was downregulated by ischaemic stroke and stroke-associated risk factors (aging, obesity and hyperglycaemia)...
March 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Paula S Nurius, Anjum Hajat
Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Carolina Soriano-Tárraga, Eva Giralt-Steinhauer, Marina Mola-Caminal, Angel Ois, Ana Rodríguez-Campello, Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Israel Fernández-Cadenas, Natalia Cullell, Jaume Roquer, Jordi Jiménez-Conde
Age and stroke severity are the main mortality predictors after ischemic stroke. However, chronological age and biological age are not exactly concordant. Age-related changes in DNA methylation in multiple CpG sites across the genome can be used to estimate biological age, which is influenced by lifestyle, environmental factors, and genetic variation. We analyzed the impact of biological age on 3-month mortality in ischemic stroke. We assessed 594 patients with acute ischemic stroke in a cohort from Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and validated the results in an independent cohort...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
R Shyama Prasad Rao, Ning Zhang, Dong Xu, Ian Max Møller
Motivation: Oxidative stress and protein damage have been associated with over 200 human ailments including cancer, stroke, neuro-degenerative diseases, and aging (Fedorova et al., 2014. Mass Spectrom. Rev., 33, 79-97). Protein carbonylation, a chemically diverse oxidative post-translational modification (PTM), is widely considered as the biomarker for oxidative stress and protein damage. Despite their importance and extensive studies, no database/resource on carbonylated proteins/sites exists...
March 2, 2018: Bioinformatics
Clinton G Lauritsen, Abigail L Chua, Stephanie J Nahas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Menopause is a life-changing event in numerous ways. Many women with migraine hold hope that the transition to the climacteric state will coincide with a cessation or improvement of migraine. This assumption is based mainly on common lay perceptions as well as assertions from many in the healthcare community. Unfortunately, evidence suggests this is far from the rule. Many women turn to a general practitioner or a headache specialist for prognosis and management. A natural instinct is to manipulate the offending agent, but in some cases, this approach backfires, or the concern for adverse events outweighs the desire for a therapeutic trial, and other strategies must be pursued...
March 6, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Woo Suk Tae, Byung Joo Ham, Sung Bom Pyun, Shin Hyuk Kang, Byung Jo Kim
Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relatively new neuroimaging modality...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Dian Peng, Bin Cao, Ying-Jun Zhou, Ya-Qiu Long
The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a highly reserved G-protein coupled 7-transmembrane (TM) chemokine receptor which consists of 352 amino acids. CXCR4 has only one endogenous chemokine ligand of CXCL12, besides several other natural nonchemokine ligands such as extracellular ubiquitin and noncognate ligand of MIF. CXCR4 strongly binds to CXCL12 and the resulting CXCLl2/CXCR4 axis is the molecular basis of their various biological functions, which include: (1) mediating immune and inflammatory response; (2) regulation of hematopoietic stem cell migration and homing; (3) an essential co-receptor for HIV entry into host cells; (4) participation in the process of embryonic development; (5) malignant tumor invasion and metastasis; (6) myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and acute kidney injury...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Jieli Chen
Stroke is a global health concern and it is imperative that therapeutic strategies with wide treatment time frames be developed to improve neurological outcome in patients. Patients with diabetes mellitus who suffer a stroke have worse neurological outcomes and long-term functional recovery than nondiabetic stroke patients. Diabetes induced vascular damage and enhanced inflammatory milieu likely contributes to worse post stroke outcomes. Diabetic stroke patients have an aggravated pathological cascade, and treatments that benefit nondiabetic stroke patients do not necessarily translate to diabetic stroke patients...
March 2, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Mona N Bahouth, R F Gottesman, S L Szanton
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hydration status at the time of stroke has been acknowledged as an important determinant in early stroke recovery. However, the diagnosis of dehydration, or more accurately, a volume-contracted state, at the time of stroke is challenging since there are currently no consensus diagnostic criteria. In this systematic review, we gather the available evidence about diagnosis and treatment of dehydration after stroke. METHODS: Studies of hospitalized ischemic stroke patients that reported rates of dehydration from January 1997 to March 2017 were screened for inclusion via a systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Scopus using keywords hydration, dehydration, hemodilution, viscosity, volume status, and thirst...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Fiona Henderson, Philippa J Hart, Jesus M Pradillo, Michael Kassiou, Lidan Christie, Kaye J Williams, Herve Boutin, Adam McMahon
RATIONALE: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Understanding the recovery process post-stroke is essential; however, longer-term recovery studies are lacking. In-vivo Positron emission tomography (PET) can image biological recovery processes, but is limited by spatial resolution and its targeted nature. Untargeted mass spectrometry imaging offers high spatial resolution, providing an ideal ex-vivo tool for brain recovery imaging. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to image a rat brain 48 hours after ischaemic stroke to locate the infarcted regions of the brain...
February 27, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Monika Marcinkowska, Magdalena Kotańska, Agnieszka Zagórska, Joanna Śniecikowska, Monika Kubacka, Agata Siwek, Adam Bucki, Maciej Pawłowski, Marek Bednarski, Jacek Sapa, Małgorzata Starek, Monika Dąbrowska, Marcin Kołaczkowski
Despite the substantial clinical success of aspirin and clopidogrel in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, up to 40% of patients remain resistant to the available antiplatelet treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent clinical need to develop novel antiplatelet agents with a novel mechanism of action. Recent studies revealed that potent alpha 2B-adrenergic receptor (alpha 2B-ARs) antagonists could constitute alternative antiplatelet therapy. We have synthesized a series of N-arylpiperazine derivatives of 4,4-dimethylisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione as potential alpha 2B receptor antagonists...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Warner A Oldenburg, Tariq Almerey, Mahmoud Selim, Houssam Farres, Albert G Hakaim
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have shown that patch angioplasty following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) reduces the risk of stroke and restenosis when compared with primary closure. Biological, synthetic, or vein patches have been traditionally used in CEA. This paper reports the early and long term outcomes of bovine pericardium (BP) for patch angioplasty in CEA. . METHODS: Retrospective, consecutive analysis of 874 patients who underwent CEA during the past 17 years at Mayo Clinic Florida was performed...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio, Carl J Lavie
Coffee, a complex brew containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, exerts potent effects on long-term human health. Recently, a plethora of studies have been published focusing on health outcomes associated with coffee intake. An inverse association between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality has been seen consistently in large prospective studies. Habitual coffee consumption is also associated with lower risks for cardiovascular (CV) death and a variety of adverse CV outcomes, including coronary heart disease (CHD), congestive heart failure (HF), and stroke; coffee's effects on arrhythmias and hypertension are neutral...
February 20, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Dafin F Muresanu, Dana Slavoaca, Antox Alvarez, Volker Homberg, Ovidiu Bajenaru, Alla Guekht, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Livia Popa, Johannes Vester, Ioana Muresanu, Codruta Birle, Maria Balea
Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia, with clinical features that depend on neural substrates affected by the vascular lesions. Like most neurological disorders, it involves alterations that range from the molecular level to neuronal networks. Such alterations begin as compensatory mechanisms that reshape every subsystem involved in the brain's homeostasis. Although there have been recent huge advances in understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction, a suitable therapeutic approach to vascular dementia remains elusive...
February 19, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Qiang Hao, Xiao-Lin Chen, Li Ma, Tong-Tong Wang, Yue Hu, Yuan-Li Zhao
In this study, we successfully established a stable method for the isolation of endothelial cells (ECs) from human cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cAVM) tissues. Despite human cAVM tissues having a minor population of ECs, they play an important role in the manifestation and development of cAVM as well as in hemorrhagic stroke and thrombogenesis. To characterize and understand the biology of ECs in human cAVM (cAVM-ECs), methods for the isolation and purification of these cells are necessary. We have developed this method to reliably obtain pure populations of ECs from cAVMs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Christopher Matthew Kroninger
Interest in biological locomotion and what advantages the principles governing it might offer in the design of manmade vehicles prompts one to consider the power requirements of flapping relative to rotary propulsion. The amount of work performed on the fluid surrounding a thrusting surface (wing or blade) is reflected in the kinetic energy of the wake. Consideration of the energy in the wake is sufficient to define absolute minimum limitations on the power requirement to generate a particular thrust. This work applies wake solutions to compare the minimum inviscid propulsive power requirement of wings flapping and in rotation at wing loading conditions reflective of hover through a state of lightly-loaded cruise...
February 20, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Pascale Salameh, Rita Farah, Souheil Hallit, Rouba Karen Zeidan, Mirna N Chahine, Roland Asmar, Hassan Hosseini
Stroke is a disease related to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. Some studies have linked self-reported indoor and outdoor pollution to stroke and mini-stroke, while some others showed no association. Our objective was to assess this association in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern developing country. A national cross-sectional study was conducted all over Lebanon. In addition to self-reported items of pollution exposure, we assessed potential predictors of stroke and mini-stroke, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health information, and biological measurements...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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