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Biology of stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926465/freestyle-stentless-bioprosthesis-for-aortic-valve-therapy-17-year-clinical-results
#1
Juergen Ennker, Markus Meilwes, Joern Pons-Kuehnemann, Bernd Niemann, Philippe Grieshaber, Ina C Ennker, Andreas Boening
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve replacement with stentless bioprostheses has been shown to produce lower aortic gradients than stented bioprostheses, thus facilitating left ventricular mass regression and preventing heart failure. We sought to determine the long-term results of stentless biological aortic valve replacement over a 17-year follow-up. METHODS: Between 1996 and 2012, 2551 patients underwent isolated aortic valve replacement with a stentless prosthesis (Medtronic Freestyle) at a single center...
November 2016: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922817/ischemic-stroke-patients-are-biologically-older-than-their-chronological-age
#2
Carolina Soriano-Tárraga, Eva Giralt-Steinhauer, Marina Mola-Caminal, Rosa M Vivanco-Hidalgo, Angel Ois, Ana Rodríguez-Campello, Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Sergi Sayols-Baixeras, Roberto Elosua, Jaume Roquer, Jordi Jiménez-Conde
Ischemic stroke is associated with aging. It is possible to predict chronological age by measuring age-related changes in DNA methylation from multiple CpG sites across the genome, known as biological age. The difference between biological age and actual chronological age would indicate an individual's level of aging. Our aim was to determine the biological age of ischemic stroke patients and compare their aging with controls of the same chronological age. A total of 123 individuals, 41 controls and 82 patients with ischemic stroke were paired by chronological age, ranging from 39 to 82 years...
August 25, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921034/crowdsourcing-precision-cerebrovascular-health-imaging-and-cloud-seeding-a-million-brains-initiative%C3%A2
#3
David S Liebeskind
Crowdsourcing, an unorthodox approach in medicine, creates an unusual paradigm to study precision cerebrovascular health, eliminating the relative isolation and non-standardized nature of current imaging data infrastructure, while shifting emphasis to the astounding capacity of big data in the cloud. This perspective envisions the use of imaging data of the brain and vessels to orient and seed A Million Brains Initiative™ that may leapfrog incremental advances in stroke and rapidly provide useful data to the sizable population around the globe prone to the devastating effects of stroke and vascular substrates of dementia...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910074/evolutional-characterization-of-photochemically-induced-stroke-in-rats-a-multimodality-imaging-and-molecular-biological-study
#4
Nai-Wei Liu, Chien-Chih Ke, Yonghua Zhao, Yi-An Chen, Kim-Chuan Chan, David Tat-Wei Tan, Jhih-Shian Lee, You-Yin Chen, Tun-Wei Hsu, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Chi-Wei Chang, Bang-Hung Yang, Wen-Sheng Huang, Ren-Shyan Liu
Photochemically induced cerebral ischemia is an easy-manipulated, reproducible, relatively noninvasive, and lesion controllable model for translational study of ischemic stroke. In order to longitudinally investigate the characterization of the model, magnetic resonance imaging, (18)F-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography, fluorescence, and bioluminescence imaging system were performed in correlation with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry examinations of glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD68, NeuN, von willebrand factor, and α-smooth muscle actin in the infarct zone...
December 1, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904473/perspectives-on-the-role-of-pannexin-1-in-neural-precursor-cell-biology
#5
REVIEW
Juan C Sanchez-Arias, Leigh E Wicki-Stordeur, Leigh Anne Swayne
We recently reported that targeted deletion of Pannexin 1 in neural precursor cells of the ventricular zone impairs the maintenance of these cells in healthy and stroke-injured brain. Here we frame this exciting new finding in the context of our previous studies on Pannexin 1 in neural precursors as well as the close relationship between Pannexin 1 and purinergic receptors established by other groups. Moreover, we identify important gaps in our understanding of Pannexin 1 in neural precursor cell biology in terms of the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional/behavioural outcomes...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896432/repression-of-telomere-associated-genes-by-microglia-activation-in-neuropsychiatric-disease
#6
Golo Kronenberg, Ria Uhlemann, Johanna Schöner, Stephanie Wegner, Valérie Boujon, Nikolas Deigendesch, Matthias Endres, Karen Gertz
Microglia senescence may promote neuropsychiatric disease. This prompted us to examine the relationship between microglia activation states and telomere biology. A panel of candidate genes associated with telomere maintenance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cell-cycle regulation were investigated in M1- and M2-polarized microglia in vitro as well as in MACS-purified CD11b+ microglia/brain macrophages from models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and chronic stress. M1 polarization, ischemia, and Alzheimer pathology elicited a strikingly similar transcriptomic profile with, in particular, reduced expression of murine Tert...
November 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895004/predictors-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-poststroke-in-a-middle-eastern-bahrain-cohort-a-proposed-case-control-comparison
#7
Claire Donnellan, Mona Al Banna, Noor Redha, Adel Al Jishi, Isa Al Sharoqi, Safa Taha, Moiz Bakhiet, Fatema Abdulla, Patrick Walsh
BACKGROUND: Poststroke dementia and cognitive impairment are associated with poor long-term outcomes after stroke. The contribution of genetic factors such as the presence of apolipoprotein (ApoE) ɛ4 allele and its association with cognitive impairment poststroke remains inconclusive, particularly in Middle Eastern regions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine all correlates and potential predictors of cognitive impairment including self-awareness and regulation deficits in stroke patients and compare these functions with healthy older adults from a Middle Eastern population...
November 28, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889229/brown-propolis-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-induced-oxidative-damage-via-affecting-antioxidant-enzyme-system-in-mice
#8
Gholamreza Bazmandegan, Mohammad Taher Boroushaki, Ali Shamsizadeh, Fatemeh Ayoobi, Elham Hakimizadeh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in ischemic brain injury. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are the enzymes underlying the endogenous antioxidant mechanisms affected by stroke and are considered as oxidative stress biomarkers. Brown propolis (BP) is a bioactive natural product with a set of biological activities that in turn may differ depending on the area from which the substance is originated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water-extracted brown propolis (WEBPs), from two regions of Iran, against cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative injury in a mouse model of stroke...
November 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#9
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881526/towards-the-genetic-basis-of-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-the-beast-consortium-a-study-protocol
#10
Ioana Cotlarciuc, Thomas Marjot, Muhammad S Khan, Sini Hiltunen, Elena Haapaniemi, Tiina M Metso, Jukka Putaala, Susanna M Zuurbier, Matthijs C Brouwer, Serena M Passamonti, Paolo Bucciarelli, Emanuela Pappalardo, Tasmin Patel, Paolo Costa, Marina Colombi, Patrícia Canhão, Aleksander Tkach, Rosa Santacroce, Maurizio Margaglione, Giovanni Favuzzi, Elvira Grandone, Donatella Colaizzo, Kostas Spengos, Antonio Arauz, Amanda Hodge, Reina Ditta, Stephanie Debette, Marialuisa Zedde, Guillaume Pare, José M Ferro, Vincent Thijs, Alessandro Pezzini, Jennifer J Majersik, Ida Martinelli, Jonathan M Coutinho, Turgut Tatlisumak, Pankaj Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare cerebrovascular condition accounting for <1% of all stroke cases and mainly affects young adults. Its genetic aetiology is not clearly elucidated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To better understand the genetic basis of CVT, we have established an international biobank of CVT cases, Biorepository to Establish the Aetiology of Sinovenous Thrombosis (BEAST) which aims to recruit highly phenotyped cases initially of European descent and later from other populations...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870410/sex-differences-in-neuroinflammation-and-neuroprotection-in-ischemic-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Monica S Spychala, Pedram Honarpisheh, Louise D McCullough
Stroke is not only a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide it also disproportionally affects women. There are currently over 500,000 more women stroke survivors in the US than men, and elderly women bear the brunt of stroke-related disability. Stroke has dropped to the fifth leading cause of death in men, but remains the third in women. This review discusses sex differences in common stroke risk factors, the efficacy of stroke prevention therapies, acute treatment responses, and post-stroke recovery in clinical populations...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869707/ex-vivo-characterization-of-bioimpedance-spectroscopy-of-normal-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-rabbit-brain-tissue-at-frequencies-from-10-hz-to-1-mhz
#12
Lin Yang, Ge Zhang, Jiali Song, Meng Dai, Canhua Xu, Xiuzhen Dong, Feng Fu
Stroke is a severe cerebrovascular disease and is the second greatest cause of death worldwide. Because diagnostic tools (CT and MRI) to detect acute stroke cannot be used until the patient reaches the hospital setting, a portable diagnostic tool is urgently needed. Because biological tissues have different impedance spectra under normal physiological conditions and different pathological states, multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (MFEIT) can potentially detect stroke. Accurate impedance spectra of normal brain tissue (gray and white matter) and stroke lesions (ischemic and hemorrhagic tissue) are important elements when studying stroke detection with MFEIT...
November 18, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857725/blood-micrornas-as-potential-diagnostic-and-prognostic-markers-in-cerebral-ischemic-injury
#13
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
MicroRNAs are a family of small, genome-encoded endogenous RNAs that are transcribed but are not translated into proteins. They serve essential roles in virtually every aspect of brain function, including neurogenesis, neural development, and cellular responses leading to changes in synaptic plasticity. They are also implicated in neurodegeneration and neurological disorders, in responses to hypoxia and ischemia, and in ischemic tolerance induced by ischemic preconditioning. In recent developments, miRNA expression profiling has been examined in stroke, and these studies indicate that miRNAs have emerged as key mediators in ischemic stroke biology...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852306/positive-emotion-inducement-modulates-cardiovascular-responses-caused-by-mental-work
#14
Xinxin Liu, Kazuma Ishimatsu, Midori Sotoyama, Kazuyuki Iwakiri
BACKGROUND: Positive emotion is considered as an important factor related to health-relevant biological processes, including cardiovascular responses. To explore the possibility of using positive emotion as a tool to manage cardiovascular response of white-collar workers, we examined the influence on cardiovascular response of positive emotion inducement before a mental work. METHOD: Seventeen healthy males participated and performed a 10-min, PC-based Stroop color word task as their mental work...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847565/proteomic-analysis-of-a-rat-cerebral-ischemic-injury-model-after-human-cerebral-endothelial-cell-transplantation
#15
Tae-Min Choi, Misun Yun, Jung-Kil Lee, Jong-Tae Park, Man-Seok Park, Hyung-Seok Kim
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral endothelial cells have unique biological features and are fascinating candidate cells for stroke therapy. METHODS: In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of human cerebral endothelial cell (hCMEC/D3) transplantation in a rat stroke model, we performed proteomic analysis using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Protein expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844279/lncrna-n1lr-enhances-neuroprotection-against-ischemic-stroke-probably-by-inhibiting-p53-phosphorylation
#16
Zhuomin Wu, Ping Wu, Xialin Zuo, Na Yu, Yixin Qin, Qian Xu, Shuai He, Bohong Cen, Wenjie Liao, Aimin Ji
In recent years, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to have critical roles in a broad range of cell biological processes. However, the activities of lncRNAs during ischemic stroke remain largely unknown. In this study, we carried out a genome-wide lncRNA microarray analysis in rat brains with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The results revealed the differential expression of a subset of lncRNAs. Through the construction of lncRNA-mRNA co-expression networks, we identified lncRNA-N1LR as a novel I/R-induced lncRNA...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837475/pericytes-in-brain-injury-and-repair-after-ischemic-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Wei Cai, Huan Liu, Jingyan Zhao, Lily Y Chen, Jun Chen, Zhengqi Lu, Xiaoming Hu
Pericytes are functional components of the neurovascular unit (NVU). They provide support to other NVU components and maintain normal physiological functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The brain ischemia and reperfusion result in pathological alterations in pericytes. The intimate anatomical and functional interactions between pericytes and other NVU components play pivotal roles in the progression of stroke pathology. In this review, we depict the biology and functions of pericytes in the normal brain and discuss their effects in brain injury and repair after ischemia/reperfusion...
November 12, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826911/imaging-high-risk-atherosclerotic-plaques-with-pet
#18
REVIEW
Shawnbir Gogia, Yannick Kaiser, Ahmed Tawakol
Atherosclerotic disease, a primary cause of stroke and myocardial infarction, is the most common underlying cause of death worldwide. While atherosclerosis was formerly considered to be a relatively inert structural abnormality, decades of research have since shown that it is a biologically active process, driven by active inflammation. In concert with this conceptual shift, newer strategies to image vascular lesions have evolved. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been validated as a non-invasive tool to characterize atherosclerotic inflammation...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822362/does-case-misclassification-threaten-the-validity-of-studies-investigating-the-relationship-between-neck-manipulation-and-vertebral-artery-dissection-stroke-yes
#19
Jessica K Paulus, David E Thaler
BACKGROUND: For patients and health care providers who are considering spinal manipulative therapy of the neck, it is crucial to establish if it is a trigger for cervical artery dissection and/or stroke, and if it is, the magnitude of the risk. DISCUSSION: We discuss the biological plausibility of how neck manipulation could cause cervical artery dissection. We also discuss how case misclassification threatens the validity of influential published studies that have investigated the relationship between neck manipulation and dissection...
2016: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822340/stem-progenitor-cells-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-new-insights-for-clinical-applications
#20
REVIEW
Miruna Mihaela Micheu, Ana-Maria Rosca, Oana-Claudia Deleanu
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a widespread disorder, characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep, mostly as a result of complete or partial pharyngeal obstruction. Due to the occurrence of frequent and regular hypoxic events, patients with OSAS are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic disorders, occupational errors, motor vehicle accidents and even death. Thus, OSAS has severe consequences and represents a significant economic burden. However, some of the consequences, as well as their costs can be reduced with appropriate detection and treatment...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
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