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Biology of stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931568/a-cross-talk-between-neuronal-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-upa-and-astrocytic-upa-receptor-upar-promotes-astrocytic-activation-and-synaptic-recovery-in-the-ischemic-brain
#1
Ariel Diaz, Paola Merino, Luis Guillermo Manrique, Juan Pablo Ospina, Lihong Cheng, Fang Wu, Valerie Jeanneret, Manuel Yepes
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine proteinase that upon binding to its receptor (uPAR) catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin on the cell surface. Our previous studies indicate that uPA and uPAR expression increase in the ischemic brain during the recovery phase from an acute ischemic injury, and that uPA binding to uPAR promotes neurological recovery following an acute ischemic stroke. Here we used male mice genetically deficient on either uPA (uPA(-/-)), or uPAR (uPAR(-/-)), or with a 4 amino acids substitution into the growth factor domain of uPA that abrogates its binding to uPAR (Plat(GFDhu/GFDhu)) to investigate the mechanism whereby uPA promotes neurorepair in the ischemic brain...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930569/the-biology-of-the-platelet-with-special-reference-to-inflammation-wound-healing-and-immunity
#2
Alan T Nurden
While platelets have long been known to be essential for maintaining hemostasis in the vasculature, their role in tissue repair, inflammation and innate and adaptive immunity is a more recent science. The ability of platelets to attach to the vessel wall, form aggregates and promote fibrin formation, key elements of blood clotting, has been said to both favor and dampen inflammation, to fight infection and to assure an adequate immune response. To fulfill their different roles platelets often synchronize with leukocytes and cells of the immune system...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925023/fibrinolysis-from-blood-to-the-brain
#3
Robert L Medcalf
We all know about classical fibrinolysis, how plasminogen activation by either tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) or urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) promotes fibrin breakdown, and how this process was harnessed for the therapeutic removal of blood clots. While this is still perfectly true and still applicable to thromboembolic conditions today, another dimension to this system came to light over two decades ago that implicated the plasminogen activating system in a context far removed from the dissolution of blood clots...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913687/non-atherosclerotic-vascular-disease-in-women
#4
REVIEW
Lee Joseph, Esther S H Kim
Takayasu arteritis, fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), spontaneous arterial dissection, Raynaud's phenomenon, and chilblains are vascular conditions that are associated with an increased predisposition in women and are often underdiagnosed. Takayasu arteritis has an incidence rate of 2.6 cases per million individuals per year in the USA and predominantly affects women of childbearing age. HLA-B5 genetic locus is linked with Takayasu arteritis susceptibility. Methods to determine active disease are limiting; currently utilized clinical and imaging findings and laboratory tests are of limited value for this purpose...
September 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898650/wilhelm-hofmeister-and-the-foundations-of-plant-science
#5
EDITORIAL
Cyrus Martin
On January 12(th) 1877, the Grim Reaper visited Wilhelm Hofmeister (Figure 1) for the last time. Having recently witnessed the death of a wife, two daughters, and two sons (only two of his nine children survived him), the German botanist, perhaps succumbing to the weight of his own grief, suffered a series of strokes and then promptly died at the age of 52 in Lindenau, Germany. He has since faded into the dusty annals of 19(th) century botany, his contributions to our knowledge about plants, how they come into being, develop and interact with their environment, mostly forgotten...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890685/emg-based-continuous-and-simultaneous-estimation-of-arm-kinematics-in-able-bodied-individuals-and-stroke-survivors
#6
Jie Liu, Sang Hoon Kang, Dali Xu, Yupeng Ren, Song Joo Lee, Li-Qun Zhang
Among the potential biological signals for human-machine interactions (brain, nerve, and muscle signals), electromyography (EMG) widely used in clinical setting can be obtained non-invasively as motor commands to control movements. The aim of this study was to develop a model for continuous and simultaneous decoding of multi-joint dynamic arm movements based on multi-channel surface EMG signals crossing the joints, leading to application of myoelectrically controlled exoskeleton robots for upper-limb rehabilitation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886843/current-dataset-for-patent-foramen-ovale-closure-in-cryptogenic-stroke-randomized-clinical-trials-and-observational-studies
#7
REVIEW
Olufunso W Odunukan, Matthew J Price
Approximately one-third of all strokes have no apparent cause. A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in as many as 60% of these patients with cryptogenic strokes, which is significantly more frequent than that of the general population. The presumed biologic mechanisms of ischemic stroke in the setting of a PFO are paradoxic embolism from the peripheral venous system through this interatrial shunt or embolism from in situ thrombosis. In this review, the authors summarize and critically assess the contemporary studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of PFO closure for prevention of recurrent cryptogenic strokes...
October 2017: Interventional cardiology clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878265/o-glcnacylation-reduces-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-brain-injury
#8
Jin-Hua Gu, Jianhua Shi, Chun-Ling Dai, Jian-Bin Ge, Yang Zhao, Yanxing Chen, Qian Yu, Zheng-Hong Qin, Khalid Iqbal, Fei Liu, Cheng-Xin Gong
O-GlcNAcylation is a common posttranslational modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins with β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and regulates numerous biological processes. By using mouse models of cerebral ischemia induced by permanent and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we observed an initial elevation (~1.7-fold, 1-4 hours after ischemia) and then decline of O-GlcNAcylation during cerebral ischemia. We found that moderate increase (<3-fold) of brain O-GlcNAcylation by pharmacological means ameliorated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and the consequent motor and neurological deficits...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871447/determination-of-endogenous-inflammation-related-lipid-mediators-in-ischemic-stroke-rats-using-background-subtracting-calibration-curves-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Yang Yang, Qisheng Zhong, Canlong Mo, Hao Zhang, Ting Zhou, Wen Tan
Accurate and reliable quantification of endogenous lipid mediators in complex biological samples is a daunting challenge. In this study, a robust and direct endogenous quantitative method using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was first developed for the determination of endogenous lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats. Absolute quantification without surrogate matrix could be achieved by using background subtracting calibration curves, which were corrected and verified from standard curves constructed on original matrix...
September 4, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867036/-biological-monitoring-and-other-explorations-in-the-acute-phase-of-a-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-excluding-hemostasis
#10
G Favrais, S Nguyen The Tich
Neonatal monitoring and other explorations required just after neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) diagnosis remain elusive. This review attempts to propose guidelines on this topic. During neonatal period, three major contexts related to NAIS emerge: 1) Metabolic disorders including hypoglycemia; 2) Early post-natal infections; 3) Cardio-vascular anomalies. Different patient profiles have been defined (typical, atypical and at risk profiles). According to these profiles, a final decisional tree including biological monitoring and complementary explorations has been suggested to caregivers...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867034/-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-which-thrombotic-biological-risk-factors-to-investigate-and-which-practical-consequences
#11
T Perez, J B Valentin, E Saliba, Y Gruel
All biological risk factors that have been previously identified to increase the risk of thrombosis in adults, have also been studied in neonates with arterial Ischemic Stroke (NAIS), but most studies were retrospective and included relatively low numbers of affected children. We therefore could not suggest recommendations with a strong level of evidence and only expert proposals potentially useful for clinical practice will be presented in this text. Despite these limitations, the extensive analysis of published data supported that factor V Leiden (FVL) and increased levels of Lp(a) could be significant risk factors for NAIS...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865775/cardiac-clocks-and-preclinical-translation
#12
REVIEW
Priya Mistry, Austin Duong, Lorrie Kirshenbaum, Tami A Martino
Circadian rhythms are fundamentally important for cardiovascular health, including heart rate, blood pressure, and molecular gene and protein responses. Rhythms also play a direct role in the pathophysiology of heart disease, such as in the timing of onset and severity of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, ventricular arrhythmias, and stroke. Importantly, a flurry of new studies reveals translational applications for circadian biology to clinical medicine, and especially cardiology. Circadian medicine is a promising new approach that targets the heart's daily physiologic and molecular rhythms to benefit the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease...
October 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854438/down-regulation-of-lncrna-malat1-attenuates-neuronal-cell-death-through-suppressing-beclin1-dependent-autophagy-by-regulating-mir-30a-in-cerebral-ischemic-stroke
#13
Dong Guo, Ji Ma, Lei Yan, Tengfei Li, Zhiguo Li, Xinwei Han, Shaofeng Shui
BACKGROUND/AIMS: LncRNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) was reported to be highly expressed in an in vitro mimic of ischemic stroke conditions. However, the exact biological role of MALAT1 and its underlying mechanism in ischemic stroke remain to be elucidated. METHODS: The roles of MALAT1 and miR-30a on cell death and infarct volume and autophagy were evaluated in experimental ischemic stroke. The relationships between miR-30a and MALAT1, Beclin1 were confirmed by luciferase reporter assay...
August 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846206/recombinant-domain-v-of-human-perlecan-is-a-bioactive-vascular-proteoglycan
#14
Jelena Rnjak-Kovacina, Fengying Tang, Xiaoting Lin, John M Whitelock, Megan S Lord
The C-terminal domain V of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan perlecan plays unique and often divergent roles in a number of biological processes, including angiogenesis, vascular cell interactions, wound healing and autophagy. Recombinant forms of this domain (domain V) have been proposed as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer, stroke and the development of cardiovascular devices and bioartificial tissues. However, the effect of domain V appears to be related to the differences in domain V structure and function observed in different expression systems and environments and exactly how this occurs is not well understood...
August 28, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843264/active-expression-of-human-tissue-plasminogen-activator-t-pa-c-dna-from-pulmonary-metastases-in-the-methylotrophic-yeast-pichia-pastoris-km71h-strain
#15
Amir Hossein Mohseni, Mohammad Soleimani, Keivan Majidzadeh-A, Sedigheh Taghinezhad-S, Hossein Keyvani
Background: Human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a key protease of the trypsin family. It catalyzes the activation of zymogen plasminogen to the fibrin-degrading proteinase, plasmin, leading to digestion of fibrin clots. The recombinant enzyme produced by recombinant technology issued to dissolve blood clots in treatment of various human diseases such as coronary artery thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Pichia pastoris expression system is a unique system for the production of high level of recombinant proteins...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842481/protonation-dependent-stepped-rotation-of-the-f-type-atp-synthase-c-ring-observed-by-single-molecule-measurements
#16
Seiga Yanagisawa, Wayne D Frasch
The two opposed rotary molecular motors of the FOF1 ATP synthase work together to provide the majority of ATP in most biological organisms. Rotation occurs in 120° power strokes separated by dwells when F1 synthesizes or hydrolyzes ATP. FO and F1 complexes connect via a central rotor stalk and a peripheral stator stalk. A major unresolved question is the mechanism in which the interaction between subunit a and rotating subunit c-ring in the FO motor uses the flux of H(+) across the membrane to induce clockwise rotation against the force of counterclockwise rotation driven by the F1-ATPase...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840739/-rivaroxaban-in-high-risk-patients
#17
Jindřich Špinar, Lenka Špinarová
Blockade of factor Xa becomes a routine part of clinical practice instead of vitamin K blockade with warfarin, providing a more beneficial and safer effect. The main indications are prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in adults with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Rivaroxaban has the largest number of data across high risk patients. Rivaroxaban is an oral selective anti Xa inhibitor with well predictive pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It inhibits thrombin formation for 24 hours, is well absorbed and biological availability is 80-100 %...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829900/analysis-of-p53-gene-polymorphism-codon-72-in-symptomatic-patients-with-atherosclerosis
#18
M H Lagares, K S F Silva, A M Barbosa, D A Rodrigues, I R Costa, J V M Martins, M P Morais, F L Campedelli, K K V O Moura
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial pathological disease that alters the morphology and function of arterial walls. The atheroma growth leads to vessel hardening and lumen narrowing, limiting the blood flow. The atheroma plaque can eventually break, expose highly thrombogenic material and lead to platelet activation and subsequent formation of a thrombus that may block blood flow in loco, or even leading to obstruction of other vessels with a smaller diameter. This process is one of the main determinants of the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, such as coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829217/atlas-registration-for-edema-corrected-mri-lesion-volume-in-mouse-stroke-models
#19
Stefan Koch, Susanne Mueller, Marco Foddis, Thomas Bienert, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Felix Knab, Tracy D Farr, René Bernard, Monika Dopatka, André Rex, Ulrich Dirnagl, Christoph Harms, Philipp Boehm-Sturm
Lesion volume measurements with magnetic resonance imaging are widely used to assess outcome in rodent models of stroke. In this study, we improved a mathematical framework to correct lesion size for edema which is based on manual delineation of the lesion and hemispheres. Furthermore, a novel MATLAB toolbox to register mouse brain MR images to the Allen brain atlas is presented. Its capability to calculate edema-corrected lesion size was compared to the manual approach. Automated image registration performed equally well in in a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model (Pearson r = 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816346/homocysteine-lowering-interventions-for-preventing-cardiovascular-events
#20
REVIEW
Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ivan Solà, Dimitrios Lathyris, Mark Dayer
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease, which includes coronary artery disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Homocysteine is an amino acid with biological functions in methionine metabolism. A postulated risk factor for cardiovascular disease is an elevated circulating total homocysteine level. The impact of homocysteine-lowering interventions, given to patients in the form of vitamins B6, B9 or B12 supplements, on cardiovascular events has been investigated...
August 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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