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Biology of stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155848/an-electronic-health-record-based-model-predicts-statin-adherence-ldl-cholesterol-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-united-states-military-health-system
#1
Joseph E Lucas, Taylor C Bazemore, Celan Alo, Patrick B Monahan, Deepak Voora
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (or "statins") are important and commonly used medications to lower cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease. Nearly half of patients stop taking statin medications one year after they are prescribed leading to higher cholesterol, increased cardiovascular risk, and costs due to excess hospitalizations. Identifying which patients are at highest risk for not adhering to long-term statin therapy is an important step towards individualizing interventions to improve adherence. Electronic health records (EHR) are an increasingly common source of data that are challenging to analyze but have potential for generating more accurate predictions of disease risk...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150739/cell-therapy-in-stroke-cautious-steps-towards-a-clinical-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Olivier Detante, Keith Muir, Jukka Jolkkonen
In the future, stroke patients may receive stem cell therapy as this has the potential to restore lost functions. However, the development of clinically deliverable therapy has been slower and more challenging than expected. Despite recommendations by STAIR and STEPS consortiums, there remain flaws in experimental studies such as lack of animals with comorbidities, inconsistent approaches to experimental design, and concurrent rehabilitation that might lead to a bias towards positive results. Clinical studies have typically been small, lacking control groups as well as often without clear biological hypotheses to guide patient selection...
November 17, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138211/transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber-and-identification-of-hypoxia-tolerance-genes
#3
Bang Xiao, Li Li, Chang Xu, Shanmin Zhao, Lifang Lin, Jishuai Cheng, Wenjing Yang, Wei Cong, Guanghan Kan, Shufang Cui
The naked mole rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is a small rodent species found in regions of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. It has a high tolerance for hypoxia and is thus, considered one of the most important natural models for studying hypoxia tolerance mechanisms. The various mechanisms underlying the NMR's hypoxia tolerance are beginning to be understood at different levels of organization, and next-generation sequencing methods promise to expand this understanding to the level of gene expression. In this study, we examined the sequence and transcript abundance data of the muscle transcriptome of NMRs exposed to hypoxia using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system to clarify the possible genomic adaptive responses to the hypoxic underground surroundings...
November 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137382/circulating-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-and-incidence-of-stroke-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#4
Bo Yang, Xiao-Li Ren, Hong Huang, Xiao-Juan Guo, Ai-Guo Ma, Duo Li
Background: Circulating long-chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can provide objective measures that reflect both dietary consumption and relevant biological processes. Nevertheless, prospective cohort studies on circulating LC n-3 PUFA in relation to incidence of stroke have yielded inconsistent results. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the association. Results: A total of 2,836 stroke events occurred among 20,460 individuals aged 35-79 yr from 10 prospective cohort studies...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128343/post-stroke-depression-mechanisms-and-pharmacological-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Antonio Moretti
Depression, the most frequent psychiatric disorder following ischaemic stroke, negatively affects survivals' functional outcome, response to rehabilitation and quality of life. Approximately, one-third of them are affected by post-stroke depression (PSD), making it a serious social and public health problem and anti-depressant preventive and curative therapies worth investigating. However, a two-way association between depression and stroke has been also established: stroke increases the risk of PSD, but depression is an independent risk factor for stroke...
November 8, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128115/chronic-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-adverse-events-and-potential-biological-mechanisms-a-translational-analysis
#6
Farid Kheloufi, Diane Frankel, Elise Kaspi, Marion Lepelley, Michel Mallaret, Quentin Boucherie, Patrice Roll, Joelle Micallef
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most frequently prescribed drugs. Even if PPI are usually considered as safe, there is a growing concern for a range of adverse effects of chronic PPI therapy often in the absence of appropriate indications. We propose, after a summary of renal, cardiovascular and neurological complications (dementia, chronic kidney disease, myocardial infarction and stroke), an integrative overview of the potential biological mechanisms involved. Eleven positive pharmacoepidemiological studies, mainly based on health insurance database linkage to hospital database, reported an increased risk of complications associated to PPI use and often a graded association suggesting also a possible dose-response relationship...
October 14, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123153/a-genome-wide-association-study-links-small-vessel-ischemic-stroke-to-autophagy
#7
Tsong-Hai Lee, Tai-Ming Ko, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Yeu-Jhy Chang, Liang-Suei Lu, Chien-Hung Chang, Kuo-Lun Huang, Ting-Yu Chang, Jiann-Der Lee, Ku-Chou Chang, Jen-Tsung Yang, Ming-Shien Wen, Chao-Yung Wang, Ying-Ting Chen, Tsai-Chuan Chen, Shu-Yu Chou, Ming-Ta Michael Lee, Yuan-Tsong Chen, Jer-Yuarn Wu
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can serve as strong evidence in correlating biological pathways with human diseases. Although ischemic stroke has been found to be associated with many biological pathways, the genetic mechanism of ischemic stroke is still unclear. Here, we performed GWAS for a major subtype of stroke-small-vessel occlusion (SVO)-to identify potential genetic factors contributing to ischemic stroke. GWAS were conducted on 342 individuals with SVO stroke and 1,731 controls from a Han Chinese population residing in Taiwan...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117490/mechanical-or-biologic-prostheses-for-aortic-valve-and-mitral-valve-replacement
#8
Andrew B Goldstone, Peter Chiu, Michael Baiocchi, Bharathi Lingala, William L Patrick, Michael P Fischbein, Y Joseph Woo
BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing aortic-valve or mitral-valve replacement, either a mechanical or biologic prosthesis is used. Biologic prostheses have been increasingly favored despite limited evidence supporting this practice. METHODS: We compared long-term mortality and rates of reoperation, stroke, and bleeding between inverse-probability-weighted cohorts of patients who underwent primary aortic-valve replacement or mitral-valve replacement with a mechanical or biologic prosthesis in California in the period from 1996 through 2013...
November 9, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106659/biological-and-psychological-factors-associated-with-smoking-abstinence-six-years-post-stroke
#9
Rosa Suñer-Soler, Armand Grau-Martín, Mikel Terceno, Yolanda Silva, Antoni Davalos, Juan Manuel Sánchez, Silvia Font-Mayolas, Eugenia Gras, Joana Rodrigo, Martha Kazimierczak, Carmen Malagón, Joaquín Serena
Introduction: Tobacco use is a public health problem causing high morbidity and mortality, including stroke. This study evaluates predictive factors of smoking cessation in the long term after stroke. Methods: We followed a cohort of 110 consecutive smokers with stroke for up to 6 years. Sociodemographic variables, stroke severity, insular involvement, stage of change in smoking habit before stroke and disruption of addiction variable (smoking cessation, absence of relapses, having stopped smoking without difficulties and not having had urge) were evaluated...
July 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103865/human-endothelial-cell-collection-from-the-middle-cerebral-artery-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#10
Sunil A Sheth, Abhishek Verma, Konark Malhotra, Xiannan Tang, Satoshi Tateshima, Reza Jahan, Jason D Hinman
BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment for large-vessel acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has rapidly emerged. However, the understanding of the complex biology involving endothelial cells (ECs) remains scarce. METHODS: Using stent retrievers during endovascular thrombectomy (ET) in patients with AIS, ECs were segregated, centrifuged in a dissociation buffer, and suspended in endothelial specific antibody solution. Subsequently, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and microscopic analyses were performed...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102661/cerebrovascular-gene-expression-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-after-transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion
#11
Anne-Sofie Grell, Maryam Mostajeran, Simona Denise Frederiksen, Lars Edvinsson, Saema Ansar
Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, which is one of the leading global causes of death. In the search for new and effective therapeutic targets in stroke research, we need to understand the influence of hypertension in the vasculature following stroke. We used Affymetrix whole-transcriptome expression profiling as a tool to address gene expression differences between the occluded and non-occluded middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), to provide clues about the pathological mechanisms set in play after stroke...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100048/novel-candidate-genes-of-the-park7-interactome-as-mediators-of-apoptosis-and-acetylation-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-in-silico-analysis
#12
George D Vavougios, Sotirios G Zarogiannis, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis, Dimos Dimitrios Mitsikostas, Georgios Hadjigeorgiou
BACKGROUND: currently only 4 studies have explored the potential role of PARK7's dysregulation in MS pathophysiology Currently, no study has evaluated the potential role of the PARK7 interactome in MS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the differential expression of PARK7 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclears (PBMCs) donated from MS versus healthy patients using data mining techniques. METHODS: The PARK7 interactome data from the GDS3920 profile were scrutinized for differentially expressed genes (DEGs); Gene Enrichment Analysis (GEA) was used to detect significantly enriched biological functions...
October 24, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098188/translating-endocannabinoid-biology-into-clinical-practice-cannabidiol-for-stroke-prevention
#13
REVIEW
Eugene L Scharf
Introduction: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates functions throughout human physiology, including neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, autonomic, metabolic, and inflammatory states. The complex cellular interactions regulated by the ECS suggest a potential for vascular disease and stroke prevention by augmenting central nervous and immune cell endocannabinoid signaling. Discussion: The endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) plays a central role in augmenting these processes in cerebrovascular and neurometabolic disease...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097777/low-dose-nitrite-improves-reoxygenation-following-renal-ischemia-in-rats
#14
Kathleen Cantow, Bert Flemming, Mechthild Ladwig-Wiegard, Pontus B Persson, Erdmann Seeliger
In hypoxic and acidic tissue environments, nitrite is metabolised to nitric oxide, thus, bringing about novel therapeutic options in myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, stroke, and hypertension. Following renal ischemia, reperfusion of the kidney remains incomplete and tissue oxygenation is reduced for several minutes to hours. Thus, in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, providing nitrite may have outstanding therapeutic value. Here we demonstrate nitrite's distinct potential to rapidly restore tissue oxygenation in the renal cortex and medulla after 45 minutes of complete unilateral kidney ischemia in the rat...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094038/intracorporeal-heat-distribution-from-fully-implantable-energy-sources-for-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-computational-proof-of-concept-study
#15
Jacopo Biasetti, Aliaksei Pustavoitau, Pier Giorgio Spazzini
Mechanical circulatory support devices, such as total artificial hearts and left ventricular assist devices, rely on external energy sources for their continuous operation. Clinically approved power supplies rely on percutaneous cables connecting an external energy source to the implanted device with the associated risk of infections. One alternative, investigated in the 70s and 80s, employs a fully implanted nuclear power source. The heat generated by the nuclear decay can be converted into electricity to power circulatory support devices...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093276/alpha-2-macroglobulin-as-a-promising-biological-marker-of-endothelial-function
#16
Ryo Shimomura, Tomohisa Nezu, Naohisa Hosomi, Shiro Aoki, Takamichi Sugimoto, Naoto Kinoshita, Mutsuko Araki, Tetsuya Takahashi, Hirofumi Maruyama, Masayasu Matsumoto
AIMS: Alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2MG) is thought to be associated with inflammatory reactions and procoagulant properties that might cause ischemic stroke. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in atherosclerosis development and in the occurrence of cardiovascular events. In this study, we investigated whether serum α2MG levels, endothelial function, and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number were associated in patients with chronic stroke or cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Patients with a history of stroke or any established cardiovascular risk factors were enrolled in this study (n=102; 69 men, 70...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072508/the-aquaporin-4-water-channel-as-a-potential-drug-target-in-neurological-disorders
#17
Alan S Verkman, Alex J Smith, Puay-Wah Phuan, Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Marc O Anderson
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water transporting protein expressed at the plasma membrane of astrocytes throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Analysis of AQP4 knockout mice has suggested its broad involvement in brain water balance, neuroexcitation, glial scarring, neuroinflammation, and even neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Broad clinical utility of AQP4 modulators has been speculated. Area covered: This review covers the biology of AQP4, evidence for its roles in normal CNS function and neurological disorders, and progress in AQP4 drug discovery...
December 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061565/cardiovascular-health-in-african-americans-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#18
REVIEW
Mercedes R Carnethon, Jia Pu, George Howard, Michelle A Albert, Cheryl A M Anderson, Alain G Bertoni, Mahasin S Mujahid, Latha Palaniappan, Herman A Taylor, Monte Willis, Clyde W Yancy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management...
October 23, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057207/harnessing-epicardial-progenitor-cells-and-their-derivatives-for-rescue-and-repair-of-cardiac-tissue-after-myocardial-infarction
#19
Krithika S Rao, Jeffrey L Spees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic heart disease and stroke lead to the greatest number of deaths worldwide. Despite decreased time to intervention and improvements in the standard of care, 1 out of 5 patients that survive a myocardial infarction (MI) still face long-term chronic heart failure and a 5-year mortality rate of about 50%. Based on their multi-potency for differentiation and paracrine activity, epicardial cells and their derivatives have potential to rescue jeopardized tissue and/or promote cardiac regeneration...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055405/traumatic-brain-injury-diabetic-neuropathy-and-altered-psychiatric-health-the-fateful-triangle
#20
Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Batoul Dia, Khalil Choucair, Stephanie A Eid, Farah Najdi, Lama Baki, Farid Talih, Assaad A Eid, Firas Kobeissy
Traumatic brain injury is a detrimental medical condition particularly when accompanied by diabetes. There are several comorbidities going along with diabetes including, but not limited to, kidney failure, obesity, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, stroke, neuropathies and amputations. Unlike diabetes type 1, diabetes type 2 is more common in adults who simultaneously suffer from other comorbid conditions making them susceptible to repetitive fall incidents and sustaining head trauma...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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