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Catalina Sánchez-Mora, Delia Acevedo, Maria Amelia Porres, Ana María Chaqués, Javier Zapardiel, Aurelia Gallego-Cabrera, Jose María López, Jose María Maesa
OBJECTIVES: In this study we aim to compare UX2000 (Sysmex Corp, Japan) and SediMAX/AutionMax (Arkray Factory Inc., Japan), totally automatized analyzers, against Fuchs-Rosenthal counting chamber, the gold standard technique for sediment analysis. DESIGN AND METHODS: Urine samples of 1454 patients from three Spanish hospitals were assessed for red and white blood cells (RBC; WBC) using three different techniques: flow cytometry, image-based method and Fuchs-Rosenthal counting chamber...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
Liliana Scorzoni, Ana C A de Paula E Silva, Caroline M Marcos, Patrícia A Assato, Wanessa C M A de Melo, Haroldo C de Oliveira, Caroline B Costa-Orlandi, Maria J S Mendes-Giannini, Ana M Fusco-Almeida
The high rates of morbidity and mortality caused by fungal infections are associated with the current limited antifungal arsenal and the high toxicity of the compounds. Additionally, identifying novel drug targets is challenging because there are many similarities between fungal and human cells. The most common antifungal targets include fungal RNA synthesis and cell wall and membrane components, though new antifungal targets are being investigated. Nonetheless, fungi have developed resistance mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pump proteins and biofilm formation, emphasizing the importance of understanding these mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jennifer L Kalina, David S Neilson, Alexandra P Comber, Jennifer M Rauw, Abraham S Alexander, Joanna Vergidis, Julian J Lum
Prostate cancer patients often receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with radiation therapy (RT). Recent evidence suggests that both ADT and RT have immune modulatory properties. First, ADT can cause infiltration of lymphocytes into the prostate, although it remains unclear whether the influx of lymphocytes is beneficial, particularly with the advent of new classes of androgen blockers. Second, in rare cases, radiation can elicit immune responses that mediate regression of metastatic lesions lying outside the field of radiation, a phenomenon known as the abscopal response...
January 27, 2017: Cancers
Liam J Reynolds, Adam P Roberts, Muna F Anjum
Antibiotic resistance in human bacterial pathogens and commensals is threatening our ability to treat infections and conduct common medical procedures. As novel antibiotics are discovered and marketed it is important that we understand how resistance to them may arise and know what environments may act as reservoirs for such resistance genes. In this study a tetracycline and tigecycline resistant clone was identified by screening a human saliva metagenomic library in Escherichia coli EPI300 on agar containing 5 μg/ml tetracycline...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
A Schultz, S Mehta, C W Hu, F W Hoff, T M Horton, S M Kornblau, A A Qutub
Cancer metabolism differs remarkably from the metabolism of healthy surrounding tissues, and it is extremely heterogeneous across cancer types. While these metabolic differences provide promising avenues for cancer treatments, much work remains to be done in understanding how metabolism is rewired in malignant tissues. To that end, constraint-based models provide a powerful computational tool for the study of metabolism at the genome scale. To generate meaningful predictions, however, these generalized human models must first be tailored for specific cell or tissue sub-types...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
Inessa Semenenko, Emma Portnoy, Mohammed Aboukaoud, Serge Guzy, Miriam Shmuel, Gal Itzhak, Sara Eyal
Aim: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1; P-glycoprotein) has been associated with efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from tumor cells and with poor patient prognosis. This study evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive, non-radioactive near infrared (NIR) imaging methodology for detection of MDR1 functional activity in tumors. Methods: Initial accumulation assays were conducted in MDR1-overexpressing MDCK cells (MDCK-MDR1) and control MDCK cells (MDCK-CT) using the NIR dyes indocyanine green (ICG), IR-783, IR-775, rhodamine 800, XenoLight DiR, and Genhance 750, at 0...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ying Li, Sanjie Cao, Luhua Zhang, Gee W Lau, Yiping Wen, Rui Wu, Qin Zhao, Xiaobo Huang, Qigui Yan, Yong Huang, Xintian Wen
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a significant disease that causes serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Persistent infections caused by bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to treat because of the particular drug resistance of biofilm-dwelling cells. TolC, a key component of multidrug efflux pumps, are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) in many Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we identified two TolC-like proteins, TolC1 and TolC2, in A...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuan Chen, Enrico Dall Ara, Erika Sales, Krishnagoud Manda, Robert Wallace, Pankaj Pankaj, Marco Viceconti
Non-destructive 3D micro-computed tomography (microCT) based finite element (microFE) models are used to estimate bone mechanical properties at tissue level. However, their validation remains challenging. Recent improvements in the quantification of displacements in bone tissue biopsies subjected to staged compression, using refined Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) techniques, now provide a full field displacement information accurate enough to be used for microFE validation. In this study, three specimens (two humans and one bovine) were tested with two different experimental set-ups, and the resulting data processed with the same DVC algorithm...
January 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Elizabeth M Gordon, Debbie M Figueroa, Amisha V Barochia, Xianglan Yao, Stewart J Levine
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Michele C R de Freitas, Juliana A Resende, Alessandra B Ferreira-Machado, Guadalupe D R Q Saji, Ana T R de Vasconcelos, Vânia L da Silva, Marisa F Nicolás, Cláudio G Diniz
Bacteroides fragilis, member from commensal gut microbiota, is an important pathogen associated to endogenous infections and metronidazole remains a valuable antibiotic for the treatment of these infections, although bacterial resistance is widely reported. Considering the need of a better understanding on the global mechanisms by which B. fragilis survive upon metronidazole exposure, we performed a RNA-seq transcriptomic approach with validation of gene expression results by qPCR. Bacteria strains were selected after in vitro subcultures with subinhibitory concentration (SIC) of the drug...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Yang Mu, Lei Dai, Qijing Zhang
During transmission and intestinal colonization, Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne human pathogen, experiences oxidative stress. CosR, a response regulator in C. jejuni, modulates the oxidative stress response and represses expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. CmeABC, a key component in resistance to toxic compounds including antimicrobials and bile salts, is also under negative regulation by CmeR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator. How CosR and CmeR interact in binding to the cmeABC promoter and how CosR senses oxidative stress are still unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrzej Pacak, Maria Barciszewska-Pacak, Aleksandra Swida-Barteczka, Katarzyna Kruszka, Pawel Sega, Kaja Milanowska, Iver Jakobsen, Artur Jarmolowski, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
Phosphorus (P) in plants is taken from soil as an inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is one of the most important macroelements in growth and development. Plants actively react to Pi starvation by the induced expression of Pi transporters, MIR399, MIR827, and miR399 molecular sponge - IPS1 genes and by the decreased expression of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (PHOSPHATE2 - PHO2) and Pi sensing and transport SPX-MFS genes. The PHO2 protein is involved in the degradation of Pi transporters PHT1;1 (from soil to roots) and PHO1 (from roots to shoots)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Victoria Meza-Kubo, Alberto L Morán, Ivan Carrillo, Gilberto Galindo, Eloisa García-Canseco
The use of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies as a means to cope with problems that arise due to an increasing and aging population is becoming usual. AAL technologies are used to prevent, cure and improve the wellness and health conditions of the elderly. However, their adoption and use by older adults is still a major challenge. User Experience (UX) evaluations aim at aiding on this task, by identifying the experience that a user has while interacting with an AAL technology under particular conditions...
August 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Gang-Ming Xu
Cell-cell communications, known as quorum sensing (QS) in bacteria, involve the signal molecules as chemical languages and the corresponding receptors as transcriptional regulators. In Gram-negative bacteria, orphan LuxR receptors recognize signals more than just acylhomoserine lactones, and modulate interspecies and interkingdom communications. Whereas, in the Gram-positive Streptomyces, pseudo gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) receptors bind antibiotics other than GBL signals, and coordinate antibiotics biosynthesis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Annette Fagerlund, Solveig Langsrud, Even Heir, Maria I Mikkelsen, Trond Møretrø
Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Diane Lee, Paul W Hodges
Study Design Cross-sectional repeated measures. Background Rehabilitation of diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA) generally aims to reduce the inter-rectus distance (IRD). We tested the hypothesis that activation of the transversus abdominis (TrA) before a curl-up would reduce IRD narrowing, with less linea alba (LA) distortion/deformation, which may allow better force transfer between sides of the abdominal wall. Objectives This study investigated behavior of the LA and IRD during curl-ups performed naturally and with preactivation of the TrA...
July 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Leanne Currie
User-centered design (UX) is becoming a standard in software engineering and has tremendous potential in healthcare. The purpose of this tutorial will be to demonstrate and provide participants with practice in user-centred design methods that involve 'Gamestorming', a form of brainstorming where 'the rules of life are temporarily suspended'. Participants will learn and apply gamestorming methods including persona development via empathy mapping and methods to translate artefacts derived from participatory design sessions into functional and design requirements...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Chan-Gun Lee, Nhu-Ngoc Dao, Seonmin Jang, Deokhwan Kim, Yonghun Kim, Sungrae Cho
Sensor fusion techniques have made a significant contribution to the success of the recently emerging mobile applications era because a variety of mobile applications operate based on multi-sensing information from the surrounding environment, such as navigation systems, fitness trackers, interactive virtual reality games, etc. For these applications, the accuracy of sensing information plays an important role to improve the user experience (UX) quality, especially with gyroscopes and accelerometers. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed a novel mechanism to resolve the gyro drift problem, which negatively affects the accuracy of orientation computations in the indirect Kalman filter based sensor fusion...
2016: Sensors
Joon-Yung Cha, Mi R Kim, In J Jung, Sun B Kang, Hee J Park, Min G Kim, Dae-Jin Yun, Woe-Yeon Kim
Auxin, a phytohormone that affects almost every aspect of plant growth and development, is biosynthesized from tryptophan via the tryptamine, indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-pyruvic acid, and indole-3-acetaldoxime pathways. YUCCAs (YUCs), flavin monooxygenase enzymes, catalyze the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) to the auxin (indole acetic acid). Arabidopsis thaliana YUC6 also exhibits thiol-reductase and chaperone activity in vitro; these activities require the highly conserved Cys-85 and are essential for scavenging of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the drought tolerance response...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chunfeng Lian, Su Ruan, Thierry Denœux, Fabrice Jardin, Pierre Vera
As a vital task in cancer therapy, accurately predicting the treatment outcome is valuable for tailoring and adapting a treatment planning. To this end, multi-sources of information (radiomics, clinical characteristics, genomic expressions, etc) gathered before and during treatment are potentially profitable. In this paper, we propose such a prediction system primarily using radiomic features (e.g., texture features) extracted from FDG-PET images. The proposed system includes a feature selection method based on Dempster-Shafer theory, a powerful tool to deal with uncertain and imprecise information...
August 2016: Medical Image Analysis
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