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Hepatic regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236612/determining-the-effects-of-geraniol-on-liver-regeneration-via-the-nuclear-factor-kb-pathway-after-partial-hepatectomy
#1
Emre Ceyhan, Mediha Canbek
Context • Nuclear factor kB (NF-κB) is a dimeric transcription factor that is involved in the regulation of regenerative and apoptosic genes and plays a key role in liver regeneration after a partial hepatectomy (PH). Complementary medicine is used to treat various diseases and can be obtained from a large number of plants that are found in nature. One such plant is geraniol, and no studies have yet occurred assessing its in vivo effects on liver regeneration. Objective • The current study intended to assess the effects of geraniol on liver regeneration after a 70% PH in rats...
February 27, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219950/nutritional-modulation-of-mouse-and-human-liver-bud-growth-through-a-branched-amino-acid-metabolism
#2
Hiroyuki Koike, Ran-Ran Zhang, Yasuharu Ueno, Keisuke Sekine, Yun-Wen Zheng, Takanori Takebe, Hideki Taniguchi
Liver bud progenitors experience a transient amplification during early organ growth phase, yet the responsible mechanism was not fully understood. Collective evidence highlighted the specific requirements in stem cell metabolism for expanding organ progenitors during organogenesis and regeneration. Here, transcriptome analyses showed progenitors of mouse and human liver bud growth stage specifically expressed branched chain aminotransferase1 gene, a known breakdown enzyme of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) for energy generation...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216578/tumor-microenvironment-a-paradigm-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Maryam Tahmasebi Birgani, Vinicio Carloni
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Different etiological factors such as hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol and diabetes cause liver injury followed by inflammation, necrosis and hepatocytes proliferation. Continuous cycles of this destructive-regenerative process culminates in liver cirrhosis which is characterized by regenerating nodules that progress to dysplastic nodules and ultimately HCC. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms, and there are only limited therapeutic options...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214206/involvement-of-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-the-cell-cycle-progression-and-proliferation-of-hepatic-oval-cells
#4
Prabodh Risal, Nirajan Shrestha, Lokendra Chand, Karl G Sylvester, Yeon Jun Jeong
Liver regenerates remarkably after toxic injury or surgical resection. In the case of failure of resident hepatocytes to restore loss, repopulation is carried out by induction, proliferation, and differentiation of the progenitor cell. Although, some signaling pathways have been verified to contribute oval cell-mediated liver regeneration, role of Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1(Pin1) in the oval cells proliferation is unknown. In the present study, we evaluate the role of Pin1 in oval cells proliferation...
January 18, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209134/first-clinical-experience-in-14-patients-treated-with-advos-a-study-on-feasibility-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-new-type-of-albumin-dialysis
#5
Wolfgang Huber, Benedikt Henschel, Roland Schmid, Ahmed Al-Chalabi
BACKGROUND: Liver failure (LF) is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased cost and substantial mortality. Due to the limited number of donor organs, extracorporeal liver support is suggested as an appealing concept to "bridge to transplant" or to avoid transplant in case of recovery. ADVanced Organ Support (ADVOS) is a new type of albumin dialysis, that provides rapid regeneration of toxin-binding albumin by two purification circuits altering the binding capacities of albumin by biochemical (changing of pH) and physical (changing of temperature) modulation of the dialysate...
February 16, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201844/the-role-of-akt-in-chronic-liver-disease-and-liver-regeneration
#6
Manuel Morales-Ruiz, Ansgar Santel, Jordi Ribera, Wladimiro Jiménez
The liver is continuously exposed to diverse insults, which may culminate in pathological processes causing liver disease. An effective therapeutic strategy for chronic liver disease should control the causal factors of the disease and stimulate functional liver regeneration. Preclinical studies have shown that interventions aimed at maintaining Akt activity in a dysfunctional liver meet most of the criteria. Although the central function of Akt is cell survival, other cellular aspects such as glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, cell-cycle progression, and lipid metabolism have been shown to be prominent functions of Akt in the context of hepatic physiology...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186674/mechanism-of-impairment-on-liver-regeneration-in-elderly-patients-the-role-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-function
#7
REVIEW
Yu Saito, Yuji Morine, Mitsuo Shimada
Japan, along with most other countries in the world, is facing an increasingly aging population with a prolonged life expectancy. Concurrently, the need for medical intervention including hepatectomy, has also increased for the elderly. Though surgical outcomes for older patients are reported to be comparable with those for younger patients, additional care in the selection of older patients for hepatectomy is considered necessary. Although the effect of aging on human liver regeneration is not fully understood, the regeneration of liver tissue after hepatectomy in elderly patients is shown to be generally worse than in younger patients and to date the mechanisms involved in the impairment of liver regeneration have not been fully clarified...
February 10, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174669/cell-therapy-for-liver-disease-using-bioimaging-rats
#8
REVIEW
Junko Haga, Shin Enosawa, Eiji Kobayashi
Advances in stem cell research suggest that cell therapy is a potential alternative to liver transplantation. The use of individualized and minimally invasive cell therapy is desirable to avoid rejection and reduce patient burden. While allo-hepatocyte transplantation has been performed for metabolic hepatic disease, auto-bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has shifted toward mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation for liver cirrhosis. In this article, an overview of cell transplantation research for liver disease is provided through our recent rat studies...
January 8, 2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152052/choline-and-methionine-differentially-alter-methyl-carbon-metabolism-in-bovine-neonatal-hepatocytes
#9
Tawny L Chandler, Heather M White
Intersections in hepatic methyl group metabolism pathways highlights potential competition or compensation of methyl donors. The objective of this experiment was to examine the expression of genes related to methyl group transfer and lipid metabolism in response to increasing concentrations of choline chloride (CC) and DL-methionine (DLM) in primary neonatal hepatocytes that were or were not exposed to fatty acids (FA). Primary hepatocytes isolated from 4 neonatal Holstein calves were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24 h before treatment with CC (61, 128, 2028, and 4528 μmol/L) and DLM (16, 30, 100, 300 μmol/L), with or without a 1 mmol/L FA cocktail in a factorial arrangement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135758/the-diversity-and-plasticity-of-adult-hepatic-progenitor-cells-and-their-niche
#10
REVIEW
Jiamei Chen, Long Chen, Mark A Zern, Neil D Theise, Ann Mae Diehl, Ping Liu, Yuyou Duan
The liver is a unique organ for homoeostasis with regenerative capacities. Hepatocytes possess a remarkable capacity to proliferate upon injury; however, in more severe scenarios liver regeneration is believed to arise from at least one, if not several facultative hepatic progenitor cell compartments. Newly identified pericentral stem/progenitor cells residing around the central vein is responsible for maintaining hepatocyte homoeostasis in the uninjured liver. In addition, hepatic progenitor cells have been reported to contribute to liver fibrosis and cancers...
January 30, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129776/administration-of-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-restores-liver-regeneration-and-improves-liver-function-in-obese-mice-with-hepatic-steatosis-after-partial-hepatectomy
#11
Fernando Ezquer, Javiera Bahamonde, Ya-Lin Huang, Marcelo Ezquer
BACKGROUND: The liver has the remarkable capacity to regenerate in order to compensate for lost or damaged hepatic tissue. However, pre-existing pathological abnormalities, such as hepatic steatosis (HS), inhibits the endogenous regenerative process, becoming an obstacle for liver surgery and living donor transplantation. Recent evidence indicates that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) administration can improve hepatic function and increase the potential for liver regeneration in patients with liver damage...
January 28, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127210/vanishing-bile-duct-syndrome-in-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Mena Bakhit, Thomas R McCarty, Sunhee Park, Basile Njei, Margaret Cho, Raffi Karagozian, AnnMarie Liapakis
Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) has been described in different pathologic conditions including infection, ischemia, adverse drug reactions, autoimmune diseases, allograft rejection, and humoral factors associated with malignancy. It is an acquired condition characterized by progressive destruction and loss of the intra-hepatic bile ducts leading to cholestasis. Prognosis is variable and partially dependent upon the etiology of bile duct injury. Irreversible bile duct loss leads to significant ductopenia, biliary cirrhosis, liver failure, and death...
January 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120397/the-linear-ubiquitin-chain-assembly-complex-acts-as-a-liver-tumor-suppressor-and-inhibits-hepatocyte-apoptosis-and-hepatitis
#13
Yutaka Shimizu, Nieves Peltzer, Alexandra Sevko, Elodie Lafont, Aida Sarr, Helena Draberova, Henning Walczak
: Linear ubiquitination is a key post-translational modification that regulates immune signaling and cell death pathways, notably TNFR1 signaling. The only known enzyme complex capable of forming linear ubiquitin chains under native conditions to date is the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), of which the catalytic core component is HOIP. To understand the underlying mechanisms of maintenance of liver homeostasis and the role of linear ubiquitination specifically in liver parenchymal cells, we investigated the physiological role of HOIP in the liver parenchyma...
January 24, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119353/fibroblast-growth-factor-15-19-fgf15-19-protects-from-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-development-of-an-fgf19-based-chimeric-molecule-to-promote-fatty-liver-regeneration
#14
Gloria Alvarez-Sola, Iker Uriarte, M Ujue Latasa, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Raquel Urtasun, Maria Elizalde, Marina Barcena-Varela, Maddalen Jiménez, Haisul C Chang, Roberto Barbero, Victoria Catalán, Amaia Rodríguez, Gema Frühbeck, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Francesc Villarroya, Carlos M Rodriguez-Ortigosa, Fernando J Corrales, Jesus Prieto, Pedro Berraondo, Carmen Berasain, Matias A Avila
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19), an enterokine that regulates synthesis of hepatic bile acids (BA), has been proposed to influence fat metabolism. Without FGF15/19, mouse liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) is severely impaired. We studied the role of FGF15/19 in response to a high fat diet (HFD) and its regulation by saturated fatty acids. We developed a fusion molecule encompassing FGF19 and apolipoprotein A-I, termed Fibapo, and evaluated its pharmacological properties in fatty liver regeneration...
January 24, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115164/inhibition-of-glutathione-production-by-l-s-r-buthionine-sulfoximine-activates-hepatic-ascorbate-synthesis-a-unique-anti-oxidative-stress-mechanism-in-mice
#15
Miao Yu, Ying Liu, Yajun Duan, Yuanli Chen, Jihong Han, Lei Sun, Xiaoxiao Yang
Glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate, the cytoplasmic antioxidants, can regenerate and replace each other in scavenging reactive oxygen species reaction. Mice, but not guinea pigs, produce ascorbate endogenously. l-Buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (L-S,R-BSO) substantially inhibited GSH production at a greater degree and caused a higher toxicity to guinea pigs than mice, implying that mice may have an additional protective mechanism against oxidative stress injury. Indeed, administration of L-S,R-BSO to mice inhibited tissue GSH production while increasing ascorbate levels...
January 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102609/immunogenicity-of-hepatic-differentiated-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promoted-by-porcine-decellularized-liver-scaffolds
#16
Yi Li, Qiong Wu, Yujia Wang, Li Li, Fei Chen, Yujun Shi, Hong Bu, Ji Bao
Cell-based approaches, including hepatocyte transplantation and tissue-engineered livers, offer promising alternatives and are expected to help support patients with liver diseases until liver transplantation or recovery via regeneration of the damaged liver. However, the success of cell therapies remains dependent on how well the cells are accepted after transplantation and is directly related to their degree of immunogenicity. In this study, hepatic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) was induced in the traditional monolayer (2D) culture and newly established three-dimensional (3D) aggregation culture with the porcine decellularized liver scaffold (DLS) system (3D-DLS)...
January 19, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100026/mir-203-inhibits-augmented-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-residual-in-the-promoted-regenerating-liver
#17
Xiao-Bo Zheng, Xiao-Bo Chen, Liang-Liang Xu, Ming Zhang, Lei Feng, Peng-Sheng Yi, Jian-Wei Tang, Ming-Qing Xu
Liver resection is still the most commonly used therapeutic option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at present, and liver regeneration promotes HCC growth in the regenerating liver. The higher recurrence/metastasis of HCC is the main cause of death for HCC patients after liver resection. However, it remains unclear how to abolish the augmented growth and metastasis of the possible residual HCC induced by the promoted liver regeneration after liver resection. In this study, a rat model with liver cirrhosis and diffused HCC was established by Diethylnitrosamine administration, recombinant miR-203 adenovirus was administered to induce hepatic miR-203 overexpression and 30% partial hepatectomy (PH) was followed, then the effect of miR-203 on the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of the residual HCC in the remnant cirrhotic liver with promoted regeneration was investigated...
January 18, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086800/relevance-of-fxr-p62-sqstm1-pathway-for-survival-and-protection-of-mouse-hepatocytes-and-liver-especially-with-steatosis
#18
Sanae Haga, Yimin, Michitaka Ozaki
BACKGROUND: Liver injury and regeneration involve complicated processes and are affected by various physio-pathological conditions. Surgically, severe liver injury after surgical resection often leads to fatal liver failure, especially with some underlying pathological conditions such as steatosis. Therefore, protection from the injury of hepatocytes and liver is a serious concern in various clinical settings. METHODS: We studied the effects of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) on cell survival and steatosis in mouse hepatocytes (AML12 mouse liver cells) and investigated their molecular mechanisms...
January 13, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064552/the-novel-role-of-%C3%AE-aescin-in-attenuating-ccl4-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#19
Harsimran Singh, Shabir Sidhu, Kanwaljit Chopra, M U Khan
CONTEXT: β-Aescin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antiedematous properties. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of β-aescin in CCl4-induced liver damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into six groups: normal control, CCl4 control, silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o) and β-aescin (0.9, 1.8 and 3.6 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment for 14 d. CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063746/canine-idiopathic-chronic-hepatitis
#20
REVIEW
Nick Bexfield
The World Small Animal Veterinary Association's Liver Standardization Group produced standardized criteria for the histologic diagnosis of canine chronic hepatitis (CH). They define CH by the presence of hepatocellular apoptosis or necrosis, a variable mononuclear or mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, regeneration, and fibrosis. There are variations in histologic appearance between breeds. Hepatic copper accumulation is an important cause of canine CH. However, where copper accumulation has been ruled out, dogs are said to have idiopathic CH...
January 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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