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Hepatic regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445529/ductular-reaction-correlates-with-fibrogenesis-but-does-not-contribute-to-liver-regeneration-in-experimental-fibrosis-models
#1
András Rókusz, Dániel Veres, Armanda Szücs, Edina Bugyik, Miklós Mózes, Sándor Paku, Péter Nagy, Katalin Dezső
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ductular reaction is a standard component of fibrotic liver tissue but its function is largely unknown. It is supposed to interact with the matrix producing myofibroblasts and compensate the declining regenerative capacity of hepatocytes. The relationship between the extent of fibrosis-ductular reaction, proliferative activity of hepatocytes and ductular reaction were studied sequentially in experimental hepatic fibrosis models. METHODS: Liver fibrosis/cirrhosis was induced in wild type and TGFβ overproducing transgenic mice by carbon tetrachloride and thioacetamide administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423321/hepatocellular-carcinomas-originate-predominantly-from-hepatocytes-and-benign-lesions-from-hepatic-progenitor-cells
#2
Krishna S Tummala, Marta Brandt, Ana Teijeiro, Osvaldo Graña, Robert F Schwabe, Cristian Perna, Nabil Djouder
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive primary liver cancer. However, its origin remains a debated question. Using human data and various hepatocarcinogenesis mouse models, we show that, in early stages, transformed hepatocytes, independent of their proliferation status, activate hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) expansion. Genetic lineage tracing of HPCs and hepatocytes reveals that, in all models, HCC originates from hepatocytes. However, whereas in various models tumors do not emanate from HPCs, tracking of progenitors in a model mimicking human hepatocarcinogenesis indicates that HPCs can generate benign lesions (regenerative nodules and adenomas) and aggressive HCCs...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420441/autologous-bone-marrow-derived-cell-transplantation-in-decompensated-alcoholic-liver-disease-what-is-the-impact-on-liver-histology-and-gene-expression-patterns
#3
Nicolas Lanthier, Nathalie Lin-Marq, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Sophie Clément, Nicolas Goossens, Laurent Spahr
BACKGROUND: Liver stem cell therapy (SCT) has been suggested as a promising means to improve liver regeneration in advanced liver disease. However, data from trials are heterogeneous, with no systematic histological evaluation. The aim of this study is to specifically analyze the effect of autologous SCT on liver regeneration and on gene expression changes. METHODS: Individuals in the randomized controlled trial of SCT in alcoholic hepatitis with paired liver biopsies were included (n = 58)...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417185/combined-preoperative-portal-and-hepatic-vein-embolization-biembolization-to-improve-liver-regeneration-before-major-liver-resection-a-preliminary-report
#4
Bertrand Le Roy, Antoine Perrey, Mikael Fontarensky, Johan Gagnière, Armand Abergel, Bruno Pereira, Celine Lambert, Louis Boyer, Denis Pezet, Pascal Chabrot, Emmanuel Buc
BACKGROUND: Insufficient volume of the future liver remnant (FLR) is a major cause of non-resectable disease in patients presenting with primary or metastatic liver tumours. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combined preoperative portal and hepatic vein embolization (biembolization) before extended right liver resections. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed in a tertiary centre between 2014 and 2015. Combined right portal and hepatic vein embolization (biembolization) was proposed, as an alternative to ALPPS procedure, for all patients with primary or metastatic liver tumour, before right extended hepatectomy...
April 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411944/differentiation-of-amniotic-epithelial-cells-into-various-liver-cell-types-and-potential-therapeutic-applications
#5
Maura Fanti, Roberto Gramignoli, Monica Serra, Erika Cadoni, Stephen C Strom, Fabio Marongiu
The aim of Regenerative Medicine is to replace or regenerate human cells, tissues or organs in order to restore normal function. Among all organs, the liver is endowed with remarkable regenerative capacity. Nonetheless, there are conditions in which this ability is impaired, and the use of isolated cells, including stem cells, is being considered as a possible therapeutic tool for the management of chronic hepatic disease. Placenta holds great promise for the field of regenerative medicine. It has long been used for the treatment of skin lesions and in ophthalmology, due to its ability to modulate inflammation and promote healing...
March 30, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411170/the-critical-role-of-phosphatidylcholine-and-phosphatidylethanolamine-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jelske N van der Veen, John P Kennelly, Sereana Wan, Jean E Vance, Dennis E Vance, René L Jacobs
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) are the most abundant phospholipids in all mammalian cell membranes. In the 1950s, Eugene Kennedy and co-workers performed groundbreaking research that established the general outline of many of the pathways of phospholipid biosynthesis. In recent years, the importance of phospholipid metabolism in regulating lipid, lipoprotein and whole-body energy metabolism has been demonstrated in numerous dietary studies and knockout animal models. The purpose of this review is to highlight the unappreciated impact of phospholipid metabolism on health and disease...
April 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408101/a-new-technique-for-accelerated-liver-regeneration-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#7
Kasper Jarlhelt Andersen, Anders Riegels Knudsen, Betina Norman Jepsen, Michelle Meier, Anders Patrik Alexander Gunnarsson, Uffe Birk Jensen, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Frank Viborg Mortensen
BACKGROUND: Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is used to accelerate growth of the future liver remnant. We investigated alternative methods for increasing the future liver remnant. METHODS: A total of 152 rats were randomized as follows: (1) sham; (2) portal vein ligation; (3) portal vein ligation/surgical split (ALPPS); (4) portal vein ligation/split of the liver with a radiofrequency ablation needle; (5) portal vein ligation/radiofrequency ablation of the deportalized liver (portal vein ligation/radiofrequency ablation necrosis in the deportalized liver); (6) portal vein ligation/radiofrequency ablation of the future liver remnant (portal vein ligation/radiofrequency ablation-future liver remnant); and (7) controls...
April 10, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404920/noncanonical-wnt-signaling-plays-an-important-role-in-modulating-canonical-wnt-regulated-stemness-proliferation-and-terminal-differentiation-of-hepatic-progenitors
#8
Jiaming Fan, Qiang Wei, Junyi Liao, Yulong Zou, Dongzhe Song, Dongmei Xiong, Chao Ma, Xue Hu, Xiangyang Qu, Liqun Chen, Li Li, Yichun Yu, Xinyi Yu, Zhicai Zhang, Chen Zhao, Zongyue Zeng, Ruyi Zhang, Shujuan Yan, Tingting Wu, Xingye Wu, Yi Shu, Jiayan Lei, Yasha Li, Wenwen Zhang, Rex C Haydon, Hue H Luu, Ailong Huang, Tong-Chuan He, Hua Tang
The liver provides vital metabolic, exocrine and endocrine functions in the body as such pathological conditions of the liver lead to high morbidity and mortality. The liver is highly regenerative and contains facultative stem cells that become activated during injury to replicate to fully recover mass and function. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of liver progenitor cells during liver regeneration. However, possible roles of noncanonical Wnts in liver development and regeneration remain undefined...
February 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404203/antifibrotics-in-chronic-liver-disease-tractable-targets-and-translational-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Prakash Ramachandran, Neil C Henderson
Chronic liver disease prevalence is increasing globally. Iterative liver damage, secondary to any cause of liver injury, results in progressive fibrosis, disrupted hepatic architecture, and aberrant regeneration, which are defining characteristics of liver cirrhosis. Liver transplantation is an effective treatment for end-stage liver disease; however, demand greatly outweighs donor organ supply, and in many parts of the world liver transplantation is unavailable. Hence, effective antifibrotic therapies are urgently required...
December 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403210/molecular-adsorbent-recirculating-system-mars-in-acute-liver-injury-and-graft-dysfunction-results-from-a-case-control-study
#10
Hans U Gerth, Michele Pohlen, Gerold Thölking, Hermann Pavenstädt, Marcus Brand, Christian Wilms, Anna Hüsing-Kabar, Dennis Görlich, Iyad Kabar, Hartmut H J Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The primary therapeutic goals in the treatment of liver injury are to support liver regeneration or bridge the gap to liver transplantation (LT). Molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) therapy has shown beneficial effects for specific symptoms of liver failure; however, general survival advantages have not yet been demonstrated. AIM: We studied the effects of MARS therapy compared to standard medical treatment (SMT) in two patient cohorts: in patients with an acute liver injury and in those with graft dysfunction (GD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377509/genetic-tracing-of-hepatocytes-in-liver-homeostasis-injury-and-regeneration
#11
Yue Wang, Xiuzhen Huang, Lingjuan He, Wenjuan Pu, Yan Li, Qiaozhen Liu, Yi Li, Libo Zhang, Wei Yu, Huan Zhao, Yingqun Zhou, Bin Zhou
The liver possesses a remarkable capacity to regenerate after damage. There is a heated debate on the origin of new hepatocytes following injuries in adult liver. Hepatic stem/progenitor cells have been proposed to produce functional hepatocytes after injury. Recent studies have argued against this model and suggested that pre-existing hepatocytes, rather than stem cells, contribute new hepatocytes. This hepatocyte-to-hepatocyte model is mainly based on labeling of hepatocytes with Cre-recombinase delivered by adeno-associated virus (AAV)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375406/hot-topics-in-primary-care-diagnosis-of-cirrhosis-and-evaluation-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-common-errors-and-their-significance-for-the-pcp
#12
REVIEW
Steven L Flamm
Cirrhosis has become the focus of greater attention in recent years largely because of the increasing prevalence of 2 of its most common causes: chronic viral hepatitis and steatohepatitis (a subset of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]). Cirrhosis is the result of progressive destruction and regeneration of the liver parenchyma due to chronic liver disease (CLD).
April 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374452/the-impact-of-cortisol-in-steatotic-and-non-steatotic-liver-surgery
#13
María Eugenia Cornide-Petronio, Esther Bujaldon, Mariana Mendes-Braz, Cindy G Avalos de León, Mónica B Jiménez-Castro, Ana I Álvarez-Mercado, Jordi Gracia-Sancho, Juan Rodés, Carmen Peralta
The intent of this study was to examine the effects of regulating cortisol levels on damage and regeneration in livers with and without steatosis subjected to partial hepatectomy under ischaemia-reperfusion. Ultimately, we found that lean animals undergoing liver resection displayed no changes in cortisol, whereas cortisol levels in plasma, liver and adipose tissue were elevated in obese animals undergoing such surgery. Such elevations were attributed to enzymatic upregulation, ensuring cortisol production, and downregulation of enzymes controlling cortisol clearance...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373874/immunoregulatory-role-of-nk-cells-in-tissue-inflammation-and-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Annie Tosello-Trampont, Fionna A Surette, Sarah E Ewald, Young S Hahn
NK cells represent an important first line of defense against viral infection and cancer and are also involved in tissue homeostasis. Studies of NK cell activation in the last decade have revealed that they are able to respond to the inflammatory stimuli evoked by tissue damage and contribute to both progression and resolution of diseases. Exacerbation of the inflammatory response through interactions between immune effector cells facilitates the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) into steatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373408/met-in-lung-cancer-biomarker-selection-based-on-scientific-rationale
#15
REVIEW
Ravi Salgia
MET or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor pathway signaling mediates wound healing and hepatic regeneration, with pivotal roles in embryonic, neuronal, and muscle development. However, dysregulation of MET signaling mediates proliferation, apoptosis, and migration and is implicated in a number of malignancies. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), aberrant MET signaling can occur through a number of mechanisms that collectively represent a significant proportion of patients. These include MET or HGF protein overexpression, MET gene amplification, MET gene mutation or fusion/rearrangement, or aberrations in downstream signaling or regulatory components...
April 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373218/hepatic-stellate-cells-limit-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-through-the-orphan-receptor-endosialin
#16
Carolin Mogler, Courtney König, Matthias Wieland, Anja Runge, Eva Besemfelder, Dorde Komljenovic, Thomas Longerich, Peter Schirmacher, Hellmut G Augustin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common and deadliest cancers worldwide. A major contributor to HCC progression is the cross talk between tumor cells and the surrounding stroma including activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Activation of HSC during liver damage leads to upregulation of the orphan receptor endosialin (CD248), which contributes to regulating the balance of liver regeneration and fibrosis. Based on the established role of endosialin in regulating HSC/hepatocyte cross talk, we hypothesized that HSC-expressed endosialin might similarly affect cell proliferation during hepatocarcinogenesis...
April 3, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361320/liver-regeneration-using-cultured-liver-bud
#17
Keisuke Sekine, Takanori Takebe, Hideki Taniguchi
Here, we describe a protocol to develop a three-dimensional (3D) liver bud-like tissue from human iPSCs in vitro. This method mainly consists of two parts: (1) hepatic endoderm (HE) differentiation from human iPSCs in 2D culture and (2) co-culturing iPSC-HE with endothelial and mesenchymal cells. First, iPSCs were differentiated into definitive endoderm (DE) cells, and the DE cells were differentiated into HE cells, which were then co-cultured with endothelial cells and mesenchymal cells on Matrigel-coated plastic plates or micropattern plates...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351772/28-day-repeated-dose-response-study-of-diglycolic-acid-renal-and-hepatic-effects
#18
Robert L Sprando, Miriam E Mossoba, Thomas Black, Zachary Keltner, Sanah Vohra, Nicholas Olejnik, Howard Toomer, Cynthia Stine, Eric Evans, Jessica L Sprando, Martine Ferguson
The acute oral toxicity of diglycolic acid (DGA) was evaluated. Groups of female rats (n = 8 rats/group) received 28 consecutive daily single doses of 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0, 30.0, 100.0 or 300.0 mg DGA/kg body weight by gastric intubation. One group of animals served as vehicle control. Tissues and blood serum were collected at necropsy on day 29. Select organs were weighed and fixed in formalin for histopathological analysis. Animals from the 300 mg/kg bw dose group were removed from the study after 5 consecutive days of treatment as a consequence of adverse treatment related effects...
March 25, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345165/interleukin-1-inhibition-facilitates-recovery-from-liver-injury-and-promotes-regeneration-of-hepatocytes-in-alcoholic-hepatitis-in-mice
#19
Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyogyosi, Shashi Bala, Timea Csak, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammation and impaired hepatocyte regeneration contribute to liver failure in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Interleukin (IL)-1 is a key inflammatory cytokine in the pathobiology of AH. The role of IL-1 in liver regeneration in the recovery phase of alcohol-induced liver injury is unknown. METHODS: Here we tested IL-1 receptor antagonist to block IL-1 signaling in a mouse model of acute-on-chronic liver injury on liver inflammation and hepatocyte regeneration in AH...
March 26, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343696/hypothermic-perfusion-with-retrograde-outflow-during-right-hepatectomy-is-safe-and-feasible
#20
Megan J Reiniers, Pim B Olthof, Rowan F van Golen, Michal Heger, Adriaan A van Beek, Ben Meijer, René Leen, André B P van Kuilenburg, Banafsche Mearadji, Roelof J Bennink, Joanne Verheij, Thomas M van Gulik
BACKGROUND: In situ hypothermic perfusion during liver resection performed under vascular inflow occlusion decreases hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, but technical limitations have restricted its widespread use. In situ hypothermic perfusion with retrograde outflow circumvents these impediments and thus could extend the applicability of in situ hypothermic perfusion. The safety and feasibility of in situ hypothermic perfusion with retrograde outflow were analyzed in selected patients undergoing right (extended) hepatectomy and compared to intermittent vascular inflow occlusion, the gold standard method, in this randomized pilot study...
March 23, 2017: Surgery
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