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Hepatic regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625139/targeting-cholinergic-system-to-modulate-liver-injury
#1
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Vikrant P Rachakonda, Sandeep Khurana
Over the past few decades, evidence accumulated to indicate that parasympathetic innervation regulates liver injury and regeneration. Liver derives its parasympathetic input via vagus nerve. In animal models, vagus nerve stimulation and transection are frequently used to determine the impact of parasympathetic input on liver injury responses. Such strategies provide limited understanding of post-neuronal mechanisms involved in regulation of liver injury. The hepatic branch of vagus nerve releases acetylcholine (ACh), which activates muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in hepatocytes as well as non-parenchymal cells to modulate cellular functions...
June 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624210/low-dose-gene-therapy-for-murine-pku-using-episomal-naked-dna-vectors-expressing-pah-from-its-endogenous-liver-promoter
#2
Hiu Man Grisch-Chan, Andrea Schlegel, Tanja Scherer, Gabriella Allegri, Raphael Heidelberger, Panagiota Tsikrika, Marco Schmeer, Martin Schleef, Cary O Harding, Johannes Häberle, Beat Thöny
Limited duration of transgene expression, insertional mutagenesis, and size limitations for transgene cassettes pose challenges and risk factors for many gene therapy vectors. Here, we report on physiological expression of liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) by delivery of naked DNA/minicircle (MC)-based vectors for correction of homozygous enu2 mice, a model of human phenylketonuria (PKU). Because MC vectors lack a defined size limit, we constructed a MC vector expressing a codon-optimized murine Pah cDNA that includes a truncated intron and is under the transcriptional control of a 3...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623383/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-biological-activities-and-biotechnological-applications-of-eclipta-prostrata
#3
REVIEW
Ill-Min Chung, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Ji-Hee Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Muthu Thiruvengadam
Eclipta prostrata belongs to a family of medicinal plants (Asteraceae) and plays a role in the treatment of several diseases, including infectious hepatitis, snake venom poisoning, gastritis, and respiratory diseases such as a cough and asthma. A number of compounds, including thiophene derivatives, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, polypeptides, and coumestans, have been isolated from E. prostrata. The plant functional compounds can act as reducing agent in the field of nanoparticle synthesis...
June 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620644/topical-application-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-ameliorated-liver-parenchyma-damage-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-an-animal-model
#4
Ping Kuen Lam, Charing Ching Ning Chong, Anthony Wing Ip Lo, Anthony Wing Hung Chan, Cindy See Wai Tong, Don Wai Ching Chin, Kenneth Hoi Kin Wong, Richard Kwong Wai Choy, Andrew Kai-Yip Fung, Yi Xiang Wang, Ka Fai To, Paul Bo San Lai
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is commonly encountered after liver surgery. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of topically applied adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADMSCs) on hepatic IRI in a rat model. METHODS: ADMSCs from transgenic green fluorescent protein Sprague-Dawley rats were topically applied to the liver surface of Sprague-Dawley rats after hepatic IRI and fixed in position by fibrin glue (group A, n = 24). An equivalent amount of ADMSCs were administered through the portal (group B, n = 24) or tail vein (group C, n = 24)...
June 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620221/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-as-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-for-liver-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Guohua Lou, Zhi Chen, Min Zheng, Yanning Liu
The administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapy for liver disease holds great promise. MSCs can differentiate into hepatocytes, reduce liver inflammation, promote hepatic regeneration and secrete protective cytokines. However, the risks of iatrogenic tumor formation, cellular rejection and infusional toxicity in MSC transplantation remain unresolved. Accumulating evidence now suggests that a novel cell-free therapy, MSC-secreted exosomes, might constitute a compelling alternative because of their advantages over the corresponding MSCs...
June 16, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612274/fine-structure-of-the-midgut-epithelium-in-the-millipede-telodeinopus-aoutii-myriapoda-diplopoda-with-special-emphasis-on-epithelial-regeneration
#6
M M Rost-Roszkowska, M Kszuk-Jendrysik, A Marchewka, I Poprawa
The midgut of millipedes is composed of a simple epithelium that rests on a basal lamina, which is surrounded by visceral muscles and hepatic cells. As the material for our studies, we chose Telodeinopus aoutii (Demange, 1971) (Kenyan millipede) (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida), which lives in the rain forests of Central Africa. This commonly reared species is easy to obtain from local breeders and easy to culture in the laboratory. During our studies, we used transmission and scanning electron microscopes and light and fluorescent microscopes...
June 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599486/knockout-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-10-suppresses-hepatic-cell-proliferation-in-a-partially-hepatectomized-mouse-model
#7
Seung-Ho Heo, Eui-Suk Jeong, Kyoung-Sun Lee, Jin-Hee Seo, Woon-Kyu Lee, Yang-Kyu Choi
The liver has marked regenerative capabilities, and numerous signaling pathways are involved in liver regeneration. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad pathway, which is also involved in liver regeneration, regulates numerous biological processes. Krüppel-like factor 10 (KLF10) has been reported to activate the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway; however, the exact functions of KLF10 under various pathophysiological conditions remain unclear. In the present study, the role of KLF10 in liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PH) was investigated using KLF10-knockout (KO) mice...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588200/fluorometric-evaluation-of-cyp3a4-expression-using-improved-transgenic-heparg-cells-carrying-a-dual-colour-reporter-for-cyp3a4-and-cyp3a7
#8
Takafumi Ueyama, Saori Tsuji, Takemi Sugiyama, Masako Tada
Primary human hepatocytes are necessary to evaluate cytotoxicity, drug metabolism, and drug-drug interactions for candidate compounds in early-phase drug discovery and development. However, these analyses are often hampered by limited resources and functional or genetic variation among lots. HepaRG human hepatocellular carcinoma cells can differentiate into mature hepatocyte-like cells (HepLCs) that possess similar metabolic activity to human hepatocytes. We previously established transgenic HepaRG cells carrying a dual reporter that express red fluorescent protein (RFP) under the transcriptional regulation of CYP3A7 in the hepatoblast-like cell state and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 following HepLC differentiation...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587348/hepatoprotective-effects-of-litchi-litchi-chinensis-procyanidin-a2-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-in-icr-mice
#9
Lih-Geeng Chen, Cheng-Wei Chang, Jwu-Guh Tsay, Brian Bor-Chun Weng
Drug tolerance, lacking liver regenerative activity and inconclusive inhibition of steatosis and cirrhosis by silymarin treatment during chronic liver injury have increased the demand for novel alternative or synergistic treatments for liver damage. Litchi fruit is abundant in polyphenolic compounds and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatments that include the strengthening of hepatic and pancreatic functions. Unique polyphenolic compounds obtained from litchi pericarp extract (LPE) were studied in vitro and in vivo for hepatoprotection...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586545/multifaceted-therapeutic-benefits-of-factors-derived-from-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-for-acute-liver-failure-in-rats
#10
Yoshihiro Matsushita, Masatoshi Ishigami, Kohki Matsubara, Megumi Kondo, Hirotaka Wakayama, Hidemi Goto, Minoru Ueda, Akihito Yamamoto
In acute liver failure (ALF), a poorly controlled innate immune response causes massive hepatic destruction, which elicits a systemic inflammatory response, progressive multiple organ failure and ultimate sudden death. Although the liver has inherent tissue-repairing activities, its regeneration during ALF fails, and orthotopic liver transplantation is the only curative approach. Here we show that a single intravenous administration of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) or of SHED-derived serum-free conditioned medium (SHED-CM) into the d-galactosamine-induced rat model of ALF markedly improved the condition of the injured liver and the animals' survival rate...
June 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585106/portal-vein-embolization-reduces-postoperative-hepatic-insufficiency-associated-with-postchemotherapy-hepatic-atrophy
#11
Kiyohiko Omichi, Suguru Yamashita, Jordan M Cloyd, Junichi Shindoh, Takashi Mizuno, Yun Shin Chun, Claudius Conrad, Thomas A Aloia, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Ching-Wei D Tzeng
BACKGROUND: The risk of postoperative hepatic insufficiency (PHI) is increased among patients with significant postchemotherapy hepatic atrophy. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the liver regeneration stimulated by portal vein embolization (PVE) can protect against PHI. METHODS: Clinicopathological features of 177 patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy followed by PVE and hepatectomy were reviewed. Degree of atrophy was defined as the ratio of percentage difference in total liver volume (estimated by manual volumetry) to standardized liver volume...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583205/human-liver-mesenchymal-stem-progenitor-cells-inhibit-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#12
Mustapha Najimi, Silvia Berardis, Hoda El-Kehdy, Valérie Rosseels, Jonathan Evraerts, Catherine Lombard, Adil El Taghdouini, Patrick Henriet, Leo van Grunsven, Etienne Marc Sokal
BACKGROUND: Progressive liver fibrosis leads to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. This disease is a consequence of strong interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and resident and infiltrating immune cell populations. Accumulated experimental evidence supports the involvement of adult-derived human liver mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs) in liver regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of ADHLSCs on HSCs, both in vitro and in vivo...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578410/resveratrol-pretreatment-attenuates-concanavalin-a-induced-hepatitis-through-reverse-of-aberration-in-the-immune-response-and-regenerative-capacity-in-aged-mice
#13
Tse-Hung Huang, Chin-Chang Chen, Hsuan-Miao Liu, Tzung-Yan Lee, Sue-Heui Shieh
Loss of regenerative capacity plays a critical role in age-related autoimmune hepatitis. Evidence implicates SIRT1 and p66(shc) in cell senescence, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and proliferation. This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis in aged mice and the roles of SIRT1 and p66(shc). Aged mice were administrated resveratrol (30 mg/kg orally) seven times at an interval of 12 h before a single intravenous injection of Con A (20 mg/kg). Results showed that the cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and MCP-1, as well as infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and T lymphocytes in liver were dramatically enhanced in the mice given only Con A...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577185/light-emitting-diode-modulates-carbohydrate-metabolism-by-pancreatic-duct-regeneration
#14
José Carlos Tatmatsu-Rocha, Cynthia Aparecida de Castro, Marcela Sene-Fiorese, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto
Pancreatic lesions can produce metabolic disorders. Light-emitting diode (LED) has been used as a safe and effective phototherapy for cell proliferation and regeneration. We investigate the effects of phototherapy using LED irradiation on the pancreas after the injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to induce experimental diabetes and evaluate that the β cells can regenerate in the pancreas in an in vivo model and observe its implications on the control of carbohydrate metabolism. Twenty Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: non-diabetic control, diabetic control, and diabetic treated with LED...
June 3, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572613/mesenchymal-stem-cells-correct-haemodynamic-dysfunction-associated-with-liver-injury-after-extended-resection-in-a-pig-model
#15
Hans-Michael Tautenhahn, Sandra Brückner, Christiane Uder, Silvio Erler, Madlen Hempel, Martin von Bergen, Janine Brach, Sandra Winkler, Franziska Pankow, Claudia Gittel, Manja Baunack, Undine Lange, Johannes Broschewitz, Matthias Dollinger, Michael Bartels, Uta Pietsch, Kerstin Amann, Bruno Christ
In patients, acute kidney injury (AKI) is often due to haemodynamic impairment associated with hepatic decompensation following extended liver surgery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) supported tissue protection in a variety of acute and chronic diseases, and might hence ameliorate AKI induced by extended liver resection. Here, 70% liver resection was performed in male pigs. MSCs were infused through a central venous catheter and haemodynamic parameters as well as markers of acute kidney damage were monitored under intensive care conditions for 24 h post-surgery...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570836/the-influence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-therapy-on-the-dna-base-excision-repair-system-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#16
Piotr Czarny, Anna Merecz-Sadowska, Kinga Majchrzak, Maciej Jabłkowski, Janusz Szemraj, Tomasz Śliwiński, Bolesław Karwowski
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can infect extrahepatic tissues, including lymphocytes, creating reservoir of the virus. Moreover, HCV proteins can interact with DNA damage response proteins of infected cells. In this article we investigated the influence of the virus infection and a new ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) anti-HCV therapy on the PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mainly lymphocytes) DNA base excision repair (BER) system. BER protein activity was analyzed in the nuclear and mitochondrial extracts (NE and ME) of PBMC isolated from patients before and after therapy, and from subjects without HCV, using modeled double-strand DNA, with 2'-deoxyuridine substitution as the DNA damage...
June 1, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566882/platelets-in-liver-disease-cancer-and-regeneration
#17
REVIEW
Tomohiro Kurokawa, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Although viral hepatitis treatments have evolved over the years, the resultant liver cirrhosis still does not completely heal. Platelets contain proteins required for hemostasis, as well as many growth factors required for organ development, tissue regeneration and repair. Thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis, can manifest from decreased thrombopoietin production and accelerated platelet destruction caused by hypersplenism; however, the relationship between thrombocytopenia and hepatic pathogenesis, as well as the role of platelets in CLD, is poorly understood...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564722/update-on-the-mechanisms-of-liver-regeneration
#18
Morgan E Preziosi, Satdarshan P Monga
Liver possesses many critical functions such as synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism. It continually receives nutrient-rich blood from gut, which incidentally is also toxin-rich. That may be why liver is uniquely bestowed with a capacity to regenerate. A commonly studied procedure to understand the cellular and molecular basis of liver regeneration is that of surgical resection. Removal of two-thirds of the liver in rodents or patients instigates alterations in hepatic homeostasis, which are sensed by the deficient organ to drive the restoration process...
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558631/ursolic-acid-mediates-hepatic-protection-through-enhancing-of-anti-aging-biomarkers
#19
Shadi Gharibi, Nuredin Bakhtiari, Elham-Moslemee Jalalvand
BACKGROUND: Age-associated loss of liver function has been recognized for decades. But, the mechanism driving liver regeneration and its decline with age remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: Hence, to support of our previous studies about anti-aging effects of Ursolic Acid (UA), a compound which extensively present in apple peels. The aim of this study is to address whether UA might alter sensors of the cell metabolic state such as SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and Klotho proteins...
May 30, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552096/the-role-of-incretin-hormones-and-glucagon-in-patients-with-liver-disease
#20
Anders Ellekær Junker
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as hepatic steatosis exceeding 5% of hepatocytes with no other reason for hepatic fat accumulation. The association between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes is strong. Accordingly, up to 70% of obese patients with type 2 diabetes have NAFLD. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with variable degrees of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the end-stage of chronic liver disease and is characterised by diffuse fibrosis and nodular regeneration of hepatocytes...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
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