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Hepatic regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805685/re-adaption-on-earth-after-spaceflights-affects-the-mouse-liver-proteome
#1
Viktoria Anselm, Svetlana Novikova, Victor Zgoda
Harsh environmental conditions including microgravity and radiation during prolonged spaceflights are known to alter hepatic metabolism. Our studies have focused on the analysis of possible changes in metabolic pathways in the livers of mice from spaceflight project "Bion-M 1". Mice experienced 30 days of spaceflight with and without an additional re-adaption period of seven days compared to control mice on Earth. To investigate mice livers we have performed proteomic profiling utilizing shotgun mass spectrometry followed by label-free quantification...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795384/contribution-of-hepatobiliary-scintigraphy-in-assessing-alpps-most-suited-timing
#2
Stéphanie Truant, Clio Baillet, Anne Claire Deshorgue, Mehdi El Amrani, Damien Huglo, François-René Pruvot
To reduce post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF), associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) has been recently developed for patients with a limited future remnant liver (FRL). Nevertheless, high morbi-mortality rates have been reported . The current study aimed to analyze the kinetics of FRL function in patients who were offered ALPPS. Serial SPECT (99 m)Tc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) was performed in all patients before and after surgery as well as at inter-stage to quantitatively assess hepatic function [total liver (TL) and FRL]...
August 9, 2017: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777941/cholangiocytes-no-longer-cinderellas-to-the-hepatic-regenerative-response
#3
Malcolm R Alison
Biliary ductal cells proliferate from the portal areas of chronically damaged livers, but their significance to regeneration has been controversial. A recent article in Nature by Raven et al. (2017) now shows that blocking hepatocyte replication is essential for the hepatic differentiation of ductular cells after liver damage.
August 3, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768152/mechanosensing-in-liver-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Ziwei Song, Kapish Gupta, Inn Chuan Ng, Jiangwa Xing, Yi An Yang, Hanry Yu
Liver is highly regenerative as it can restore its function and size even after 70% partial hepatectomy. During liver regeneration, the mechanical and chemical environment of liver is altered with accumulation of various growth factors and remodeling of extracellular environment. Cells can sense the changes in their cellular environment through various chemo and mechanosensors present on their surfaces. These changes are then transduced by initiation of multiple signaling pathways. Traditional view of liver regeneration describes the process as a cascade of chemical signaling pathways...
July 30, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767916/transection-of-the-hepatic-parenchyma-associated-or-not-with-the-contralateral-portal-vein-branch-ligature-and-its-effect-in-liver-regeneration
#5
Henrique de Aguiar Wiederkehr, Julio Cesar Wiederkehr, Luiz Martins Collaço, Eros Luiz de Sousa, Paolo Salvalaggio, Caroline Aragão de Carvalho, Barbara de Aguiar Wiederkehr, Camila Aparecida Moraes Marques, Francielle França da Rosa, Felipe de Negreiros Nanni, Taíse Fuchs
Objective: To analyze the influence of portal vein ligation in hepatic regeneration by immunohistochemical criteria. Methods: Ten pigs divided into two groups of five animals underwent hepatectomy in two stages, and the groups were differentiated by ligation or not of the left portal vein tributary, which is responsible for vascularization of the left lateral and medial lobes of the pig liver. Five days after the procedure, the animals underwent liver biopsies for further analysis of histological and immunohistochemical with marker Ki67...
April 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760433/branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-in-treatment-of-liver-cirrhosis-updated-views-on-how-to-attenuate-their-harmful-effects-on-cataplerosis-and-ammonia-formation
#6
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) supplementation is common for patients with liver cirrhosis due to decreased levels of BCAA in the blood plasma of these patients, which plays a role in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and cachexia. The unique pharmacologic properties of BCAA also are a factor for use as supplementation in this population. In the present article, BCAA is shown to provide nitrogen to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) for synthesis of glutamate, which is a substrate for ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN) in the brain and muscles...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758559/small-for-size-syndrome-bridging-the-gap-between-liver-transplantation-and-graft-recovery
#7
Akila Rajakumar, Ilankumaran Kaliamoorthy, Mohamed Rela, M Susan Mandell
In living donor liver transplantation, optimal graft size is estimated from values like graft volume/standard liver volume and graft/recipient body weight ratio but the final functional hepatic mass is influenced by other donor and recipient factors. Grafts with insufficient functional hepatic mass can produce a life-threatening condition with rapidly progressive liver failure called small-for-size syndrome (SFSS). Diagnosis of SFSS requires careful surveillance for signs of inadequate hepatocellular function, residual portal hypertension, and systemic inflammation that suggest rapidly progressive liver failure...
September 2017: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755860/dynamic-and-accurate-assessment-of-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-integrated-photoacoustic-imaging-and-mechanistic-biomarkers-in-vivo
#8
Nathalie Brillant, Mohamed Elmasry, Neal C Burton, Josep Monne Rodriguez, Jack W Sharkey, Stephen Fenwick, Harish Poptani, Neil R Kitteringham, Christopher E Goldring, Anja Kipar, B Kevin Park, Daniel J Antoine
The prediction and understanding of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (APAP-ILI) and the response to therapeutic interventions is complex. This is due in part to sensitivity and specificity limitations of currently used assessment techniques. Here we sought to determine the utility of integrating translational non-invasive photoacoustic imaging of liver function with mechanistic circulating biomarkers of hepatotoxicity with histological assessment to facilitate the more accurate and precise characterization of APAP-ILI and the efficacy of therapeutic intervention...
July 26, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752441/pathophysiology-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-liver-disease
#9
Jeffrey H Teckman, Keith S Blomenkamp
Classical alpha-1 antitrypsin (a1AT) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease associated with an increased risk of liver disease in adults and children, and with lung disease in adults (Teckman and Jain, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 16(1):367, 2014). The vast majority of the liver disease is associated with homozygosity for the Z mutant allele, the so-called PIZZ. These homozygous individuals synthesize large quantities of a1AT mutant Z protein in the liver, but the mutant protein folds improperly during biogenesis and approximately 85% of the molecules are retained within the hepatocytes rather than appropriately secreted...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709961/bile-acids-fgf15-19-and-liver-regeneration-from-mechanisms-to-clinical-applications
#10
REVIEW
Gloria Alvarez-Sola, Iker Uriarte, Maria U Latasa, Maddalen Jimenez, Marina Barcena-Varela, Eva Santamaría, Raquel Urtasun, Carlos Rodriguez-Ortigosa, Jesús Prieto, Pedro Berraondo, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Carmen Berasain, Matías A Avila
The liver has an extraordinary regenerative capacity rapidly triggered upon injury or resection. This response is intrinsically adjusted in its initiation and termination, a property termed the "hepatostat". Several molecules have been involved in liver regeneration, and among them bile acids may play a central role. Intrahepatic levels of bile acids rapidly increase after resection. Through the activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), bile acids regulate their hepatic metabolism and also promote hepatocellular proliferation...
July 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708585/the-neglected-avian-hepatotropic-virus-induces-acute-and-chronic-hepatitis-in-ducks-an-alternative-model-for-hepatology
#11
Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Jingyu Cao, Yunchao Ma, Guangpeng Ma, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck Hepatitis A Virus (DHAV) belongs to the Avihepatovirus, which is also classified into Picornaviridae with Hepatovirus, Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). In humans, the pathogenesis of HAV is not well understood because of limited work with animal models. Here, we investigated the progress of duck viral hepatitis caused by DHAV and their potential for dissecting the pathogenesis of HAV. During the course of infection, the duck model had undergone hepatocellular lesions (vacuolation, acidophilic degeneration and steatosis), lymphocytes recruitment (neutrophil granulocytes, heterophilic granulocytes and T cells or plasm cells) and repair (activation of hepatic stellate cells, fibrosis and regeneration)...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704337/alleviation-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-liver-steatosis-by-augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-alr-is-attributed-to-antioxidation-and-preservation-of-mitochondria
#12
Junhua Weng, Wen Li, Xiaowei Jia, Wei An
BACKGROUND: Fatty liver is 1 of the major impediments to liver surgery and liver transplantation because steatotic hepatocytes are more susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). In this study, the effects of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) on hepatic IRI in steatotic mice were investigated. METHODS: In vivo, liver steatosis of mice was induced by feeding a methionine-choline deficient diet for 2 weeks. Three days prior to hepatic partial warm IRI, mice were transfected with the ALR-containing adenovirus...
July 13, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698986/novelties-in-the-pathophysiology-and-management-of-portal-hypertension-new-treatments-on-the-horizon
#13
REVIEW
Seong Hee Kang, Moon Young Kim, Soon Koo Baik
Portal hypertension (PH) is responsible for the most severe complications of cirrhosis and leading cause of death and liver transplantation. The standard pharmacological treatment available for PH currently consists of the use of a non-selective beta-blocker. However, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to pharmacological treatment. This has led to the development of identifiable targets for the discovery of new horizons in PH treatment. Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding the mechanism behind PH, which is a product of increased hepatic vascular resistance including structural changes and functional change due to endothelial dysfunction...
July 11, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694564/hmgb1-and-extracellular-histones-significantly-contribute-to-systemic-inflammation-and-multiple-organ-failure-in-acute-liver-failure
#14
REVIEW
Runkuan Yang, Xiaoping Zou, Jyrki Tenhunen, Tor Inge Tønnessen
Acute liver failure (ALF) is the culmination of severe liver cell injury from a variety of causes. ALF occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death exceeds the hepatic regenerative capacity. ALF has a high mortality that is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF) and sepsis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Emerging evidence shows that ALF patients/animals have high concentrations of circulating HMGB1, which can contribute to multiple organ injuries and mediate gut bacterial translocation (BT)...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682508/bone-marrow-endothelial-progenitor-cells-activate-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-aggravate-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-mice-via-paracrine-factors
#15
Manali Garg, Savneet Kaur, Arpita Banik, Vikash Kumar, Archana Rastogi, Shiv K Sarin, Asok Mukhopadhyay, Nirupma Trehanpati
OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) are increased in chronic liver disease (CLD). Their role in hepatic fibrosis and regeneration remains an area of intense studies. We investigated the migration and secretory functions of BM-EPCs in fibrotic mice liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone marrow cells from C57BL6-GFP mice were transplanted into the femur of irradiated C57BL6 mice, followed by CCl4 doses for 8 weeks, to develop hepatic fibrosis (n = 36)...
July 6, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680292/effect-of-non-alcoholic-liver-disease-on-recurrence-rate-and-liver-regeneration-after-liver-resection-for-colorectal-liver-metastases
#16
N W Molla, M M Hassanain, Z Fadel, L M Boucher, A Madkhali, R M Altahan, E A Alrijraji, E B Simoneau, H Alamri, A Salman, Z Gao, P P Metrakos
BACKGROUND: Resection of metastases is the only potential cure for patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer (crc-lm). But despite an improved overall 5-year survival, the recurrence rate is still as high as 60%. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (nafld) can decrease the liver's capacity to regenerate after resection and might also affect cancer recurrence, potentially by elevating transforming growth factor β, levels of specific metalloproteinases, and oxidative stress. The objective of the present work was to determine the effect of the histologic features of nafld on cancer recurrence and liver regeneration...
June 2017: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673684/the-effect-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-15-deficiency-on-the-development-of-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
J D Schumacher, B Kong, Y Pan, L Zhan, R Sun, J Aa, D Rizzolo, J R Richardson, A Chen, M Goedken, L M Aleksunes, D L Laskin, G L Guo
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis often associated with metabolic syndrome. Fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), an endocrine factor mainly produced in the distal part of small intestine, has emerged to be a critical factor in regulating bile acid homeostasis, energy metabolism, and liver regeneration. We hypothesized that FGF15 alters the development of each of the listed features of NASH. To test this hypothesis, four-week old male Fgf15(-/-) and their corresponding wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a control chow diet for six months...
September 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667439/left-hepatectomy-after-right-paramedian-sectoriectomy
#18
Takeshi Takamoto, Takuya Hashimoto, Masatoshi Makuuchi
Repeat hepatectomy is beneficial for selected patients with recurrence of liver malignancies. However, the operative procedure becomes technically demanding when the previous hepatectomy was complex, with hepatic veins and stump of portal pedicles exposed on the liver transection surface. We performed left hepatectomy after right paramedian sectoriectomy (RPMS) for three patients. Here, we describe our surgical technique and the postoperative outcomes achieved. This procedure allowed for safe adhesiolysis between the middle and right hepatic veins by following a fibrous plane...
June 30, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655714/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-restoration-rescues-the-fatty-liver-regeneration-in-mice
#19
Teresa A Zimmers, Xiaoling Jin, Zongxiu Zhang, Yanlin Jiang, Leonidas G Koniaris
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is a common histological finding in obese patients. Even mild steatosis is associated with delayed hepatic regeneration and poor outcomes following liver resection or transplantation. We sought to identify and target molecular pathways that mediate this dysfunction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Lean mice and mice made obese through feeding of a high fat, hyper-caloric diet underwent 70% or 80% hepatectomy. RESULTS: After 70% resection, obese mice demonstrated 100% survival but experienced increased liver injury, reduced energy stores, reduced mitoses, increased necroapoptosis and delayed recovery of liver mass...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645247/the-correlation-between-poor-prognosis-and-increased-yes-associated-protein-1-expression-in-keratin-19-expressing-hepatocellular-carcinomas-and-cholangiocarcinomas
#20
KyuHo Lee, Kyoung-Bun Lee, Hae Yoen Jung, Nam-Joon Yi, Kwang-Woong Lee, Kyung-Suk Suh, Ja-June Jang
BACKGROUND: The Hippo pathway plays a vital role in liver regeneration and development by determining cellular lineage and regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of the Hippo pathway in hepatic carcinogenesis and morphogenesis by examining Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) expression in the spectrum of hepatic carcinomas based on cellular lineage. METHODS: We examined 913 primary hepatic carcinomas, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinomas (cHC-CCAs), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCAs) and perihilar extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas (EHBCAs)...
June 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
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