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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036906/from-2-alkylsulfanylimidazoles-to-2-alkylimidazoles-an-approach-towards-metabolically-more-stable-p38%C3%AE-map-kinase-inhibitors
#1
Fabian Heider, Urs Haun, Eva Döring, Mark Kudolo, Catharina Sessler, Wolfgang Albrecht, Stefan Laufer, Pierre Koch
In vitro and in vivo metabolism studies revealed that 2-alkylsulfanylimidazole ML3403 (4-(5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(methylthio)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)-N-(1-phenylethyl)pyridin-2-amine) undergoes rapid oxidation to the sulfoxide. Replacing the sulfur atom present in the two potent p38α mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors ML3403 and LN950 (2-((5-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(2-((3-methylbutan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-4-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)thio)ethan-1-ol) by a methylene group resulted in 2-alkylimidazole derivatives 1 and 2, respectively, having a remarkably improved metabolic stability...
October 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036502/three-cases-of-fatal-acrylfentanyl-toxicity-in-the-united-states-and-a-review-of-literature
#2
Daniel C Butler, Kevin Shanks, George S Behonick, Dustin Smith, Susan E Presnell, Lee Marie Tormos
Fentanyl analogs pose a unique challenge for forensic pathologists and toxicologists. The extreme potency of these analogs results in minute blood, urine and vitreous concentrations that are technically difficult to identify. This in addition to their absence from standard drug screening may potentiate a setting of apparent drug overdose without an immediately identifiable source. The following case series illustrates three such encounters with acrylfentanyl, an analog whose presence has not yet been reported in the scientific literature in the United States...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036409/structure-of-an-innexin-gap-junction-channel-and-cryo-em-sample-preparation
#3
Atsunori Oshima
Gap junction channels are essential for mediating intercellular communication in most multicellular organisms. Two gene families encode gap junction channels, innexin and connexin. Although the sequence similarity between these two families based on bioinformatics is not conclusively determined, the gap junction channels encoded by these two gene families are structurally and functionally analogous. We recently reported an atomic structure of an invertebrate innexin gap junction channel using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy...
September 21, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036207/little-ice-age-climatic-erraticism-as-an-analogue-for-future-enhanced-hydroclimatic-variability-across-the-american-southwest
#4
Julie Loisel, Glen M MacDonald, Marcus J Thomson
The American Southwest has experienced a series of severe droughts interspersed with strong wet episodes over the past decades, prompting questions about future climate patterns and potential intensification of weather disruptions under warming conditions. Here we show that interannual hydroclimatic variability in this region has displayed a significant level of non-stationarity over the past millennium. Our tree ring-based analysis of past drought indicates that the Little Ice Age (LIA) experienced high interannual hydroclimatic variability, similar to projections for the 21st century...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036160/on-the-van-cittert-zernike-theorem-for-intensity-correlations-and-its-applications
#5
Timur E Gureyev, Alexander Kozlov, David M Paganin, Yakov I Nesterets, Frank De Hoog, Harry M Quiney
A reciprocal relationship between the autocovariance of the light intensity in the source plane and in the far-field detector plane is presented in a form analogous to the classical van Cittert-Zernike theorem, but involving intensity correlation functions. A "classical" version of the reciprocity relationship is considered first, based on the assumption of circular Gaussian statistics of the complex amplitudes in the source plane. The result is consistent with the theory of Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry, but it is shown to be also applicable to estimation of the source size or the spatial resolution of the detector from the noise power spectrum of flat-field images...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036155/condition-for-far-zone-spectral-isotropy-of-light-radiated-from-a-quasi-homogeneous-source-scattering-on-a-quasi-homogeneous-random-medium
#6
Xinyu Peng, Dong Ye, Munchun Zhou, Yu Xin, Minmin Song
The far-zone spectral isotropy of light radiated from a secondary planar quasi-homogeneous (QH) source scattering on a QH medium has been discussed. Without assuming the specified function of incident light, a sufficient condition for the far-zone spectral isotropy has been expressed as a new scaling law, which is analogous with the scaling law for weak scattering in previous works. Special examples are discussed to validate the obtained scaling law.
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036013/patient-experience-based-value-sets-are-they-stable
#7
A Simon Pickard, Yu-Ting Hung, Fang-Ju Lin, Todd A Lee
BACKGROUND: Although societal preference weights are desirable to inform resource-allocation decision-making, patient experienced health state-based value sets can be useful for clinical decision-making, but context may matter. OBJECTIVE: To estimate EQ-5D value sets using visual analog scale (VAS) ratings for patients undergoing knee replacement surgery and compare the estimates before and after surgery. METHODS: We used the Patient Reported Outcome Measures data collected by the UK National Health Service on patients undergoing knee replacement from 2009 to 2012...
October 13, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035986/long-term-outcome-of-mini-open-surgical-decompression-for-chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-of-the-forearm-in-professional-motorcycling-riders
#8
Giorgio Gondolini, Paolo Schiavi, Francesco Pogliacomi, Francesco Ceccarelli, Tommaso Antonetti, Michele Zasa
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate results of mini-open fasciotomy (MOF) in high-level motorcycling or motocross riders with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) at long-term follow-up (minimum 5 years). DESIGN: Case series. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV. SETTING: University Hospital/Private Practice. PATIENTS: Fifty-four professional motorcycling riders treated with MOF for a CECS of the forearm from January 2006 to June 2011...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035839/insights-into-protein-misfolding-and-aggregation-enabled-by-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#9
REVIEW
Patrick C A van der Wel
The aggregation of proteins and peptides into a variety of insoluble, and often non-native, aggregated states plays a central role in many devastating diseases. Analogous processes undermine the efficacy of polypeptide-based biological pharmaceuticals, but are also being leveraged in the design of biologically inspired self-assembling materials. This Trends article surveys the essential contributions made by recent solid-state NMR (ssNMR) studies to our understanding of the structural features of polypeptide aggregates, and how such findings are informing our thinking about the molecular mechanisms of misfolding and aggregation...
October 4, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035716/synthesis-photophysical-and-cellular-characterisation-of-folate-and-methotrexate-labelled-luminescent-lanthanide-complexes
#10
REVIEW
Zhangli Du, Jing Sun, Christie A Bader, Doug A Brooks, Minqi Li, Xun Li, Sally E Plush
In this work we have developed a series of highly emissive europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes tethered to either folic acid (FA) or methotrexate (MTX), with the aim of developing visual probes that enable the imaging of folate receptors in cancer cells. The synthesis, photophysical properties and cellular behaviour are reported for four new lanthanide Ln(III) complexes, where either FA or MTX are tethered to 1,4,7-tris(carbonylmethyl)-10-(4'-quinolineacetic acid, (7'-acetamido)-1',2'-dihydro-2'-oxo)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane Ln(III) complex, and Ln(III)=Eu(III) or Tb(III); herein referred to as Eu-FA, Eu-MTX, Tb-FA or Tb-MTX...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035599/progressive-dehydration-in-junior-laser-class-sailors-during-world-championship
#11
Giannis Arnaoutis, Panagiotis Verginadis, Adam D Seal, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Labros S Sidossis, Stavros A Kavouras
The purpose of this manuscript is to assess hydration status of elite young sailing athletes during World Championship competition. 12 young elite male Laser Class sailors (age: 15.8±1.1 y, height: 1.74±0.1 m, weight: 65.1±1.5 kg, body fat: 12.5±3.1%, training experience: 7.0±1.2 y) participated in this descriptive study. After three-day baseline bodyweight measurements, hydration status was assessed via pre- and post-race body weights, urine specific gravity, and thirst ratings via a visual analog scale during 4 consecutive days of racing...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035374/design-of-coiled-coil-protein-origami-cages-that-self-assemble-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Ajasja Ljubetič, Fabio Lapenta, Helena Gradišar, Igor Drobnak, Jana Aupič, Žiga Strmšek, Duško Lainšček, Iva Hafner-Bratkovič, Andreja Majerle, Nuša Krivec, Mojca Benčina, Tomaž Pisanski, Tanja Ćirković Veličković, Adam Round, José María Carazo, Roberto Melero, Roman Jerala
Polypeptides and polynucleotides are natural programmable biopolymers that can self-assemble into complex tertiary structures. We describe a system analogous to designed DNA nanostructures in which protein coiled-coil (CC) dimers serve as building blocks for modular de novo design of polyhedral protein cages that efficiently self-assemble in vitro and in vivo. We produced and characterized >20 single-chain protein cages in three shapes-tetrahedron, four-sided pyramid, and triangular prism-with the largest containing >700 amino-acid residues and measuring 11 nm in diameter...
October 16, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035364/sympathetic-neuron-associated-macrophages-contribute-to-obesity-by-importing-and-metabolizing-norepinephrine
#13
Roksana M Pirzgalska, Elsa Seixas, Jason S Seidman, Verena M Link, Noelia Martínez Sánchez, Inês Mahú, Raquel Mendes, Vitka Gres, Nadiya Kubasova, Imogen Morris, Bernardo A Arús, Chelsea M Larabee, Miguel Vasques, Francisco Tortosa, Ana L Sousa, Sathyavathy Anandan, Erin Tranfield, Maureen K Hahn, Matteo Iannacone, Nathanael J Spann, Christopher K Glass, Ana I Domingos
The cellular mechanism(s) linking macrophages to norepinephrine (NE)-mediated regulation of thermogenesis have been a topic of debate. Here we identify sympathetic neuron-associated macrophages (SAMs) as a population of cells that mediate clearance of NE via expression of solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), an NE transporter, and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a degradation enzyme. Optogenetic activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) upregulates NE uptake by SAMs and shifts the SAM profile to a more proinflammatory state...
October 9, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035307/effects-of-three-lipidated-oxytocin-analogs-on-behavioral-deficits-in-cd38-knockout-mice
#14
Stanislav M Cherepanov, Shirin Akther, Tomoko Nishimura, Anna A Shabalova, Akira Mizuno, Wataru Ichinose, Satoshi Shuto, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Shigeru Yokoyama, Haruhiro Higashida
Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide that plays an important role in social behavior. Nasal administration of OT has been shown to improve trust in healthy humans and social interaction in autistic subjects. As is consistent with the nature of a peptide, OT has some unfavorable characteristics: it has a short half-life in plasma and shows poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Analogs with long-lasting effects may overcome these drawbacks. To this end, we have synthesized three analogs: lipo-oxytocin-1 (LOT-1), in which two palmitoyl groups are conjugated to the cysteine and tyrosine residues, lipo-oxytocin-2 (LOT-2) and lipo-oxytocin-3 (LOT-3), which include one palmitoyl group conjugated at the cysteine or tyrosine residue, respectively...
October 16, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035060/a-computational-study-investigating-the-energetics-and-kinetics-of-the-hnco-ch3-2nh-reaction-catalyzed-by-a-single-water-molecule
#15
Arathala Parandaman, Chanin B Tangtartharakul, Manoj Kumar, Joseph S Francisco, Amitabha Sinha
High level ab initio calculations are used to explore the energetics and kinetics for the formation of 1,1-dimethyl urea via the reaction of isocyanic acid (HNCO) with dimethyl amine (DMA) catalyzed by a single water molecule. Compared to the uncatalyzed HNCO+DMA reaction, the presence of a water molecule lowers the reaction barrier, defined here as the energy difference between the separated HNCO+DMA+H2O reactants and the transition state (TS), by ~23 kcal/mol. In addition to the HNCO+DMA+H2O reaction, the energetics of the analogous reactions involving respectively ammonia and methyl amine were also investigated...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035022/microbial-diversity-and-iron-oxidation-at-okuoku-hachikurou-onsen-a-japanese-hot-spring-analog-of-precambrian-iron-formations
#16
L M Ward, A Idei, S Terajima, T Kakegawa, W W Fischer, S E McGlynn
Banded iron formations (BIFs) are rock deposits common in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic (and regionally Neoproterozoic) sedimentary successions. Multiple hypotheses for their deposition exist, principally invoking the precipitation of iron via the metabolic activities of oxygenic, photoferrotrophic, and/or aerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria. Some isolated environments support chemistry and mineralogy analogous to processes involved in BIF deposition, and their study can aid in untangling the factors that lead to iron precipitation...
November 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035021/microbial-communities-and-organic-biomarkers-in-a-proterozoic-analog-sinkhole
#17
T L Hamilton, P V Welander, H L Albrecht, J M Fulton, I Schaperdoth, L R Bird, R E Summons, K H Freeman, J L Macalady
Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, FL, USA) is a sinkhole with groundwater vents at ~77 m depth. The entire water column experiences sulfidic (~50 μM) conditions seasonally, resulting in a system poised between oxic and sulfidic conditions. Red pinnacle mats occupy the sediment-water interface in the sunlit upper basin of the sinkhole, and yielded 16S rRNA gene clones affiliated with Cyanobacteria, Chlorobi, and sulfate-reducing clades of Deltaproteobacteria. Nine bacteriochlorophyll e homologues and isorenieratene indicate contributions from Chlorobi, and abundant chlorophyll a and pheophytin a are consistent with the presence of Cyanobacteria...
November 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034961/a-randomized-trial-of-automated-intermittent-ropivacaine-administration-vs-continuous-infusion-in-an-interscalene-catheter
#18
J Oxlund, A H Clausen, S Venø, M D Nielsen, M Pall, T Strøm, P Toft
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided interscalene nerve block with ropivacaine as local anesthetic agent given as boluses or continuous infusion is the preferred pain management after major shoulder surgery. The use of automated intermittent boluses has been shown to be superior to continuous infusion in sciatic and epidural nerve block. HYPOTHESIS: Automated intermittent boluses reduce pain after major shoulder surgery. METHODS: Seventy patients aged 18-75 years, scheduled for major shoulder surgery under general anesthesia with interscalene nerve block were included in this randomized controlled trial...
October 16, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034742/comparison-of-outcomes-in-patients-with-generalized-ligamentous-laxity-and-without-generalized-laxity-in-the-arthroscopic-modified-brostr%C3%A3-m-operation-for-chronic-lateral-ankle-instability
#19
Eui Dong Yeo, Ji Young Park, Jin Hyeung Kim, Young Koo Lee
BACKGROUND: The arthroscopic modified Broström operation (MBO) has been frequently used to treat chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). However, no reports comparing the clinical outcomes between patients with or without generalized ligamentous laxity (laxity or no laxity, respectively) currently exist. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the 2 groups with CLAI. METHODS: Between January 2013 and November 2015, arthroscopic MBO was performed on 99 patients with CLAI...
October 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034271/effect-of-propolis-extract-in-combination-with-eugenol-free-dressing-coe-paktm-on-pain-and-wound-healing-after-crown-lengthening-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Mitra Askari, Anna Saffarpour, Jalal Purhashemi, Atena Beyki
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Researchers have long been in search of products to enhance healing and patient comfort postoperatively. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of propolis extract in combination with Coe-Pak(TM) dressing for pain relief and wound healing after crown lengthening surgery. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This randomized clinical trial was performed on 36 patients who were randomly divided into two groups of Coe-Pak(TM) dressing with (trial group) and without (control group) propolis extract...
September 2017: Journal of Dentistry
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