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Pedro Iglesias, Víctor Rodríguez Berrocal, Juan José Díez
Giant pituitary adenomas comprise about 6-10% of all pituitary tumors. They are mostly clinically non-functioning adenomas and occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are usually secondary to compression of neighboring structures, but also due to partial or total hypopituitarism. Functioning adenomas give rise to specific symptoms of hormonal hypersecretion. The use of dopamine agonists is considered a first-line treatment in patients with giant macroprolactinomas. Somatostatin analogs can also be used as primary treatment in cases of growth hormone and thyrotropin producing giant adenomas, although remission of the disease is not achieved in the vast majority of these patients...
June 16, 2018: Endocrine
Robert Ossendorff, Kilian Franke, Benjamin Erdle, Markus Uhl, Norbert P Südkamp, Gian M Salzmann
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical and radiographical long-term outcome of microfracture (MFX) and first-generation periosteum-covered autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI-P). METHODS: All subjects (n = 86) who had been treated with knee joint ACI-P or microfracture (n = 76) with a post-operative follow-up of at least ten years were selected. Clinical pre- and post-operative outcomes were analyzed by numeric analog scale (NAS) for pain, Lysholm, Tegner, IKDC, and KOOS score...
June 16, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Wafaa M Abdel-Rehim, Rasha A El-Tahan, Mennatullah A El-Tarawy, Rowaida R Shehata, Maher A Kamel
Vitamin D3 deficiency was found to be tightly linked to many health problems including metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our study, we tested the possible antidiabetic effects of one of vitamin D3 analogs, alfacalcidol, solely or in a combination with metformin on type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic model rats were induced by feeding high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. In addition to the control group, the diabetic rats were divided into four groups: untreated, metformin-treated, alfacalcidol-treated, and combination-treated group (metformin + alfacalcidol) for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ola M Ezzatt, Iman M Helmy
OBJECTIVES: Oral lichen plans (OLP) is a potentially malignant inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. CD133 is an investigated surface marker for cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) that may be involved in tumor initiation in head and neck carcinomas. We compared short-term clinical effectiveness of topical pimecrolimus as selective inflammatory cytokine release inhibitor with betamethasone cream for erosive/atrophic OLP and investigated the influence of this therapy on CD133 expression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive topical pimecrolimus (group I) or betamethasone (group II) four times daily for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Luciana Gonçalves Langella, Heliodora Leão Casalechi, Shaiane Silva Tomazoni, Douglas Scott Johnson, Regiane Albertini, Rodney Capp Pallotta, Rodrigo Labat Marcos, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior
When conservative treatments fail, hip osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic degenerative disease characterized by cartilage wear, progressive joint deformity, and loss of function, can result in the need for a total hip arthroplasty (THA). Surgical procedures induced tissue trauma and incite an immune response. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMt) using low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and/or light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) has proven effective in tissue repair by modulating the inflammatory process and promoting pain relief...
June 16, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Shujuan Sun, Kai Yao, Sijun Zhao, Pimiao Zheng, Sihan Wang, Yuyang Zeng, Demei Liang, Yuebin Ke, Haiyang Jiang
Six aflatoxins (AFs; AF B1 , B2 , G1 , G2 , M1 and M2 ) and six zearalenone (ZEN) analogs (ZEN, zearalanone, α-zeralanol, β-zeralanol, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol) were simultaneously extracted from edible and medicinal herbs using a group-specific immunoaffinity column (IAC) and then identified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The IAC was prepared by coupling N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated Sepharose 4B Fast Flow gel with two group-specific monoclonal antibodies...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ismahene Dahmane, Caroline Montagner, André Matagne, Shrinivas Dumbre, Piet Herdewijn, Mohammed Terrak
Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (GTase) of family 51 are essential enzymes for the synthesis of the glycan chains of the bacterial cell wall. They are considered potential antibacterial target, but discovery of inhibitors was hampered so far by the lack of efficient and affordable screening assay. Here we used Staphylococcus aureus MtgA to introduce a single tryptophan reporter residue in selected positions flanking the substrates binding cavity of the protein. We selected a mutant (Y181W) that shows strong fluorescence quenching in the presence of moenomycin A and two lipid II analogs inhibitors...
June 14, 2018: Biochimie
Kaelin M Bernier, Lynda A Morrison
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 cause painful blisters and shallow ulcers in exposed skin and mucosae during primary or recurrent infection. In addition, recurrent and potentially blinding HSV-1 infections of the eye afflict nearly half a million persons in the U.S. Current clinical therapies rely on nucleoside analog drugs such as acyclovir (ACV) or ganciclovir to ameliorate primary infections and reduce the frequency and duration of reactivations. However, these treatments do not fully suppress viral shedding and drug-resistant mutants develop in the eye and in vulnerable, immunosuppressed patients...
June 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
Myeong Sang Yu, Moon Sik Jung, Bo-Hyung Kim, Sung-Ho Kang, Dae Jun Lim
PURPOSE: Fibrin sealant (FS) was approved as a hemostatic agent, sealant, and adhesive by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998. Our study sought to determine whether FS also reduced edema and pain in rhinoplasty without osteotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized trial involving patients who underwent open rhinoplasty without osteotomy. The patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: those treated with aerosolized FS (FS group) and those not treated (control group)...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Min-Tsang Hsieh, Li-Jiau Huang, Tian-Shung Wu, Hui-Yi Lin, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Sheng-Chu Kuo
The aim of this study was to develop a new drug substance with low toxicity and effective inhibitory activity against cisplatin-resistant oral cancer. The naturally produced pterostilbene was selected as the lead compound for design and synthesis of a series of bis(hydroxymethyl)propionate-based prodrugs. All derivatives were screened for antiproliferative effects against the cisplatin-resistant oral squamous (CAR) cell line and the results indicated that several compounds demonstrated superior inhibitory activity compared with pterostilbene and resveratrol...
June 8, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Chi Zhang, Guifang Jia
More than 100 modifications have been found in RNA. Analogous to epigenetic DNA methylation, epitranscriptomic modifications can be written, read, and erased by a complex network of proteins. Apart from N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), N1 -methyladenosine (m1 A) has been found as a reversible modification in tRNA and mRNA. m1 A occurs at positions 9, 14, and 58 of tRNA, with m1 A58 being critical for tRNA stability. Other than the hundreds of m1 A sites in mRNA and long non-coding RNA transcripts, transcriptome-wide mapping of m1 A also identifies > 20 m1 A sites in mitochondrial genes...
June 13, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Durairajan Rubini, Sanaulla Farisa Banu, B Narayanan Vedahari, Durai Ramyadevi, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Paramasivam Nithyanand
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of biofilm-associated and indwelling device related infections. The present study explores the anti-virulent and antibiofilm potency of chitosan extracted from the shells of the marine crab Portunus sanguinolentus against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The chemical characterization results revealed that the extracted chitosan (EC) has structural analogy to that of a commercial chitosan (CC). The extracted chitosan was found to be effective in reducing the staphyloxanthin pigment, a characteristic virulence feature of MRSA that promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species...
June 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Anirban Basu, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Nucleic acids are now important targets for therapeutic intervention. Alkaloids are an important class of molecules that have myriad therapeutic utility. Isoquinoline and benzophenanthridine alkaloids exhibit multiple pharmacological activities which are often related to their strong nucleic acid binding abilities. Therefore, a review of their interaction aspects with varying nucleic acid structures is essential for rational design and development as therapeutic agents. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: This work reviews the interaction of various therapeutically important isoquinoline and benzophenanthridine alkaloids with nucleic acids...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Amira A Abdel Azim, Rania T Salem, Rania Abdelghani
BACKGROUND: Multiple treatment modalities were introduced for treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) but mostly with unsatisfactory results. OBJECTIVE: In this prospective randomized right-left intra-individual controlled study, we studied the safety and efficacy of combined treatment with fractional CO2 laser and long pulsed Nd : YAG (1064 nm) laser in treatment of HS. METHODS: Twenty adult patients with HS were randomized into this study...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Alberto Cauli, Dafna D Gladman, Alessandro Mathieu, Ignazio Olivieri, Giovanni Porru, Paul P Tak, Claudia Sardu, Raffaele Scarpa, Antonio Marchesoni, William J Taylor, Carlo Salvarani, Joachim Kalden, Ennio Lubrano, Sueli Carneiro, Matteo Piga, Alberto Floris, Francesca Desiati, John A Flynn, Salvatore D'Angelo, Arno W R van Kuijk, Maria Grazia Catanoso, Francesco Caso, Paolo Contu, Ilona Ujfalussy, Philip S Helliwell, Philip J Mease
OBJECTIVE: Physician's global assessment (PGA) of disease activity is a major determinant of therapeutic decision making. This study assesses the reliability of the PGA, measured by means of 0-100 mm visual analog scale (VAS), and the additional use of separate VAS scales for musculoskeletal (PhysMSK) and dermatologic (PhysSk) manifestations in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: Sixteen centers from 8 countries enrolled 319 consecutive patients with PsA...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Chad Myeroff, J Logan Brock, G Russell Huffman
BACKGROUND: A variety of techniques currently exist for ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction in symptomatic overhead athletes, all with the potential complication of fracture about the humeral or ulnar tunnels. Far cortical button fixation is a reproducible, biomechanically attractive option; however, no clinical series has been published on this technique to date. This study reports the clinical outcomes, with minimum 2-year follow-up, of a dual far cortical button suspension technique for UCL reconstruction in athletes...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Tom H Johnston, Alix M B Lacoste, Naomi P Visanji, Anthony E Lang, Susan H Fox, Jonathan M Brotchie
In this review, we discuss the opportunity for repurposing drugs for use in l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease. LID is a particularly suitable indication for drug repurposing given its pharmacological diversity, translatability of animal-models, availability of Phase II proof-of-concept (PoC) methodologies and the indication-specific regulatory environment. A compound fit for repurposing is defined as one with appropriate human safety-data as well as animal safety, toxicology and pharmacokinetic data as found in an Investigational New Drug (IND) package for another indication...
June 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Sho Miyazaki, Kenji Tomita, Hisakazu Yamane, Masatomo Kobayashi, Tadao Asami, Masatoshi Nakajima
Helminthosporol, a natural growth regulator isolated from a fungus, stimulates hypocotyl growth and seed germination, similar to gibberellin (GA). We recently reported that helminthosporic acid (H-acid), a synthetic analog of helminthosporol, acts as an agonist of GA receptor. In this study, we showed that a H-acid analog, in which the hydroxymethyl group at the C-8 position of H-acid was converted to a keto group, acts as a selective GA receptor agonist. 1) This analog shows higher hypocotyl elongation activity in Arabidopsis than H-acid does, and induces the degradation of DELLA protein and 2) leads to the formation of the GID1-DELLA complex and 3) regulates the expression of GA-related genes...
June 5, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Bassel G Diebo, Jared C Tishelman, Samantha Horn, Gregory W Poorman, Cyrus Jalai, Frank A Segreto, Cole A Bortz, Michael C Gerling, Virginie Lafage, Andrew P White, James M Mok, Thomas D Cha, Robert K Eastlack, Kris E Radcliff, Carl B Paulino, Peter G Passias
Optimizing functional outcomes and disability status are essential for effective surgical treatment of cervical spine disorders. Mental impairment is common among patients with cervical spine complaints; yet little is known about the impact of baseline mental status with respect to overall patient-reported outcomes. This was a retrospective analysis of patients with cervical spondylosis with myelopathy(CM) or radiculopathy(CR: cervical disc herniation, stenosis, or spondylosis without myelopathy) at 2-year follow-ups...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Savvas Dalitis, Natalia Filippidou, George Krashias, Christina Christodoulou, Marios Pantzaris, Anastasia Lambrianides
The clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is established through clinical signs such as bradykinesia, rigidity, and resting tremor. Recently, immune system involvement has been implicated as a major pathogenic factor in the onset and progression of PD. We examine the presence of autoantibodies against phosphatidylserine (PS), cardiolipin (CL) and dsDNA in 45 PD patients and 38 healthy controls and provide evidence to the possible connection to oxidative stress. We report higher frequency of IgG anti-PS and anti-dsDNA in PD patients (24...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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