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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016385/a-history-into-genetic-and-epigenetic-evolution-of-food-tolerance-how-humanity-rapidly-evolved-by-drinking-milk-and-eating-wheat
#1
Carine Blanchard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human exposure to wheat and milk is almost global worldwide. Yet the introduction of milk and wheat is very recent (5000-10 000 years) when compared to the human evolution. The last 4 decades have seen a rise in food allergy and food intolerance to milk and wheat. Often described as plurifactorial, the cause of allergic diseases is the result from an interplay between genetic predisposition and epigenetic in the context of environmental changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic and epigenetic understanding and their contribution to allergy or other antigen-driven diseases have considerably advanced in the last few years...
October 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992429/adverse-effects-of-nutraceuticals-and-dietary-supplements
#2
Martin J J Ronis, Kim B Pedersen, James Watt
Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973688/from-classical-toxicology-to-tox21-some-critical-conceptual-and-technological-advances-in-the-molecular-understanding-of-the-toxic-response-beginning-from-the-last-quarter-of-the-20th-century
#3
Supratim Choudhuri, Geoffrey W Patton, Ronald F Chanderbhan, Antonia Mattia, Curtis D Klaassen
Toxicology has made steady advances over the last 60+ years in understanding the mechanisms of toxicity at an increasingly finer level of cellular organization. Traditionally, toxicological studies have used animal models. However, the general adoption of the principles of 3R (Replace, Reduce, Refine) provided the impetus for the development of in vitro models in toxicity testing. The present commentary is an attempt to briefly discuss the transformation in toxicology that began around 1980. Many genes important in cellular protection and metabolism of toxicants were cloned and characterized in the 80s, and gene expression studies became feasible, too...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931728/fish-face-a-trade-off-between-eating-big-for-growth-efficiency-and-eating-small-to-retain-aerobic-capacity
#4
Tommy Norin, Timothy D Clark
Feeding provides the necessary energy to fuel all fitness-related processes including activity, growth and reproduction. Nevertheless, prey consumption and digestive processes can have physical and physiological trade-offs with other critical functions, many of which are not clearly understood. Using an ambush predator, barramundi (Lates calcarifer), fed meals ranging 0.6-3.4% of body mass, we examined interrelations between meal size, growth efficiency and surplus aerobic metabolic capacity (aerobic scope, AS)...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929676/-understanding-and-development-strategy-of-health-food-containing-chinese-materia-medica
#5
REVIEW
Lin-Yuan Wang, Jian-Jun Zhang, Chun Wang, Jing-Xia Wang, Ying-Li Zhu, Jia Wang, Xue-Min Gao
Health food containing Chinese materia medica (CMM) conforms to the development demands of the age of big health and the theory of preventive treatment. In the view of health care and improvement of resisting diseases, it plays an important role in the market. It is very necessary to have further study and discussion on health food containing CMM. First of all, by comparing, analyzing and summarizing, the health food containing CMM could be defined as the health food which is qualified in security and functionality evaluation, with the traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) within TCM standards as the main raw materials, and the formulation-composition is based on the theory of TCM...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923032/big-hearts-small-hands-a-focus-group-study-exploring-parental-food-portion-behaviours
#6
Kristina Curtis, Louise Atkins, Katherine Brown
BACKGROUND: The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents' portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation - Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents' portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change...
September 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919787/computational-tool-for-optimizing-the-essential-oils-utilization-in-inhibiting-the-bacterial-growth
#7
Noha E El-Attar, Wael A Awad
Day after day, the importance of relying on nature in many fields such as food, medical, pharmaceutical industries, and others is increasing. Essential oils (EOs) are considered as one of the most significant natural products for use as antimicrobials, antioxidants, antitumorals, and anti-inflammatories. Optimizing the usage of EOs is a big challenge faced by the scientific researchers because of the complexity of chemical composition of every EO, in addition to the difficulties to determine the best in inhibiting the bacterial activity...
2017: Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry: AABC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895675/estrogenic-activity-of-commercial-milk-as-revealed-in-immature-hamster-uterotrophic-assay-%C3%A2-pilot-study
#8
Lidia Radko, Maria Minta, Sylwia Stypuła-Trębas
Background: The risk for public health posed by endocrine disruptors present in food is relatively new issue. Our current understanding of human exposure is mainly based on the residue analysis of selected compounds. With such approach potential, effects of mixtures, including so-far unidentified compounds are not taken into consideration. Therefore, the knowledge of overall hormonal activity in food samples is of big importance. Objective: Milk and dairy products are a rich source of estrogens but very rarely undergo testing for estrogenic activity...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878489/rnai-technology-a-new-platform-for-crop-pest-control
#9
REVIEW
B Mamta, M V Rajam
The insect pests are big threat in meeting the food demands for future generation. The present pest control strategies, including the existing transgenic approaches show certain limitations and are not completely successful in limiting the insect pests. However, the sequence-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi) holds a great promise for effective management of agricultural pests. RNAi is naturally occurring conserved process responsible for gene regulation and defense against pathogens. The efficacy of RNAi varies among different insect orders and also depends upon various factors, including the target gene selection, method of dsRNAs delivery, expression of dsRNAs and presence of off-target effects...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877999/sudden-cardiac-arrest-while-eating-a-hot-dog-a-rare-presentation-of-brugada-syndrome-in-a-child
#10
Isa Ozyilmaz, Bedir Akyol, Yakup Ergul
Patients who are diagnosed with Brugada syndrome (BS) usually experience sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and arrhythmia when they have a high fever, consume alcohol, and, more frequently, during their night sleep. In some rare cases, an SCA can be seen depending on a possible vagal stimulus, such as eating a large bite of food. We describe a 9-year-old patient who had a sudden cardiac attack while he was eating a large hot dog. After successful resuscitation, a suspicious ST elevation in V2 was seen in his electrocardiographic evaluation...
October 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873672/recent-advances-in-the-identification-and-authentication-methods-of-edible-bird-s-nest
#11
REVIEW
Ting Hun Lee, Waseem A Wani, Yin Shin Koay, Supparmaniam Kavita, Eddie Ti Tjih Tan, Sheikh Shreaz
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is an expensive animal bioproduct due to its reputation as a food and delicacy with diverse medicinal properties. One kilogram of EBN costs ~$6000 in China. EBN and its products are consumed in mostly Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, making up almost 1/3 of world population. The rapid growth in EBN consumption has led to a big rise in the trade scale of its global market. Presently, various fake materials such as tremella fungus, pork skin, karaya gum, fish swimming bladder, jelly, agar, monosodium glutamate and egg white are used to adulterate EBNs for earning extra profits...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867100/biodiversity-of-andean-potatoes-morphological-nutritional-and-functional-characterization
#12
Sonia Rosario Calliope, Manuel Oscar Lobo, Norma Cristina Sammán
Andean potatoes (Solanum tuberosum andigenum) are a staple food for Andean population; there is great biodiversity but only few varieties are cultivated nowadays. In order to contribute to biodiversity conservation of Andean potatoes, information about their morphological, nutritional and functional characteristics was generated. In gene bank (INTA-Balcarce), varieties collected from regional producers were preserved. Forty-four genotypes were multiplied and characterized. Morphological characteristics; proximate composition and functional compounds were analyzed...
January 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864778/quantitative-mass-spectrometry-reveals-food-intake-induced-neuropeptide-level-changes-in-rat-brain-functional-assessment-of-selected-neuropeptides-as-feeding-regulators
#13
Hui Ye, Jingxin Wang, Zichuan Tian, Fengfei Ma, James A Dowell, Quentin Bremer, Gaoyuan Lu, Brian Baldo, Lingjun Li
Endogenous neuropeptides are important signaling molecules that function as regulators of food intake and body weight. Previous work has shown that neuropeptide gene expression levels in a forebrain reward site, the nucleus accumbens (NAc), were changed by feeding. In order to directly monitor feeding-induced changes in neuropeptide expression levels within the NAc, we employed a combination of cryostat dissection, heat stabilization, neuropeptide extraction and label-free quantitative neuropeptidomics via a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry platform...
September 1, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853911/a-review-on-influencing-factors-on-the-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-essential-oils
#14
Elien Van de Vel, Imca Sampers, Katleen Raes
With growing interest in essential oils as natural preservatives in the food industry, the literature is expanding enormously. To understand the antimicrobial activity of essential oils, the antimicrobial mechanism of individual essential oil (EO) compounds, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), are interesting starting points for research. Therefore, and to get insight into the factors influencing their antimicrobial activities, the Web of Science was searched for MICs of EO compounds (1995-2016)...
August 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840959/tiny-microbes-big-yields-enhancing-food-crop-production-with-biological-solutions
#15
Pankaj Trivedi, Peer M Schenk, Matthew D Wallenstein, Brajesh K Singh
Plant-associated microbiomes have tremendous potential to improve plant resilience and yields in farming systems. There is increasing evidence that biological technologies that use microbes or their metabolites can enhance nutrient uptake and yield, control pests and mitigate plant stress responses. However, to fully realize the potential of microbial technology, their efficacy and consistency under the broad range of real-world conditions need to be improved. While the optimization of microbial biofertilizers and biopesticides is advancing rapidly to enable use in various soils, crop varieties and environments, crop breeding programmes have yet to incorporate the selection of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to breed 'microbe-optimized plants'...
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827344/individuals-with-greater-science-literacy-and-education-have-more-polarized-beliefs-on-controversial-science-topics
#16
Caitlin Drummond, Baruch Fischhoff
Although Americans generally hold science in high regard and respect its findings, for some contested issues, such as the existence of anthropogenic climate change, public opinion is polarized along religious and political lines. We ask whether individuals with more general education and greater science knowledge, measured in terms of science education and science literacy, display more (or less) polarized beliefs on several such issues. We report secondary analyses of a nationally representative dataset (the General Social Survey), examining the predictors of beliefs regarding six potentially controversial issues...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799082/mathematical-model-of-interaction-between-bacteriocin-producing-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-listeria-part-2-bifurcations-and-applications
#17
Roberta Regina Delboni, Hyun Mo Yang
The big challenge for the food industry is the attending to demands for minimally processed foods, avoiding intense heat treatments and reducing the addition of chemical preservatives, but at the same time ensuring microbiological safety of these products. Lactic acid bacteria are traditionally used in the production of fermented foods. They are responsible for the production of antimicrobial compounds, such as organic acids and bacteriocins, which are protein compounds with bactericidal effect against related species and bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus...
August 10, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715307/taking-on-the-obesity-epidemic-researchers-wage-a-big-fat-fight-in-efforts-to-combat-this-global-health-issue
#18
Leslie Mertz
If obesity were tied only to too much food or too little physical activity, the cure would be a simple matter of counting calories or keeping track of steps with a pedometer. Unfortunately, obesity is much more complex. Many other factors come into play, including so-called hunger genes that make a person more susceptible to obesity, infection with certain pathogens linked to weight gain, hormones that dampen or stimulate appetite, sleep disruption that can trigger overeating, and social networks that can promote obesity...
July 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710057/images-of-little-cigars-and-cigarillos-on-instagram-identified-by-the-hashtag-swisher-thematic-analysis
#19
Jon-Patrick Allem, Patricia Escobedo, Kar-Hai Chu, Tess Boley Cruz, Jennifer B Unger
BACKGROUND: Little cigar and cigarillo use is becoming more prevalent in the United States and elsewhere, with implications for public health. As little cigar and cigarillo use grows in popularity, big social media data (eg, Instagram, Google Web Search, Twitter) can be used to capture and document the context in which individuals use, and are marketed, these tobacco products. Big social media data may allow people to organically demonstrate how and why they use little cigars and cigarillos, unprimed by a researcher, without instrument bias and at low costs...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678528/21st-century-toolkit-for-optimizing-population-health-through-precision-nutrition
#20
Aifric O'Sullivan, Bethany Henrick, Bonnie Dixon, Daniela Barile, Angela Zivkovic, Jennifer Smilowitz, Danielle Lemay, William Martin, J Bruce German, Sara Elizabeth Schaefer
Scientific, technological, and economic progress over the last 100 years all but eradicated problems of widespread food shortage and nutrient deficiency in developed nations. But now society is faced with a new set of nutrition problems related to energy imbalance and metabolic disease, which require new kinds of solutions. Recent developments in the area of new analytical tools enable us to systematically study large quantities of detailed and multidimensional metabolic and health data, providing the opportunity to address current nutrition problems through an approach called Precision Nutrition...
July 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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