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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103076/big-food-s-ambivalence-seeking-profit-and-responsibility-for-health
#1
Tjidde Tempels, Marcel Verweij, Vincent Blok
In this article, we critically reflect on the responsibilities that the food industry has for public health. Although food companies are often significant contributors to public health problems (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes), the mere possibility of corporate responsibility for public health seems to be excluded in the academic public health discourse. We argue that the behavior of several food companies reflects a split corporate personality, as they contribute to public health problems and simultaneously engage in activities to prevent them...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092714/the-food-in-our-future-where-will-we-find-ethics
#2
Jeffrey Burkhardt
Food and agricultural systems are in large part driven by technology. Together with public policy, the kinds of technologies that are induced into, or chosen by actors in, food systems, dictates their structure and activities. The ″Big Story″ or ideology which underlies research, development and adoption of technologies provides the justification for choices we make about the future of the food system. A combination of productionism -more is better, and ″feed the world″- is what governs, and seems to be what will govern Western food systems...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092062/-it-s-a-very-big-burden-on-me-women-s-experiences-using-insulin-for-gestational-diabetes
#3
Marlaine Figueroa Gray, Clarissa Hsu, Linda Kiel, Sascha Dublin
Objectives Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) affects hundreds of thousands of women each year. Many require medications to manage their blood glucose levels. Only insulin is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in pregnancy. While other medications can be used, their safety remains controversial. Few studies have examined women's lived experience of using insulin for GDM. Our objective in this study was to foreground the voices of women speaking about their treatment experience. Methods We conducted two focus groups including 16 women treated for GDM with medications, primarily insulin...
January 13, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088546/product-vs-corporate-carbon-footprint-some-methodological-issues-a-case-study-and-review-on-the-wine-sector
#4
Alejandra Navarro, Rita Puig, Pere Fullana-I-Palmer
Carbon footprint (CF) is nowadays one of the most widely used environmental indicators. The scope of the CF assessment could be corporate (when all production processes of a company are evaluated, together with upstream and downstream processes following a life cycle approach) or product (when one of the products is evaluated throughout its life cycle). Our hypothesis was that usually product CF studies (PCF) collect corporate data, because it is easier for companies to obtain them than product data. Six main methodological issues to take into account when collecting corporate data to be used for PCF studies were postulated and discussed in the present paper: fugitive emissions, credits from waste recycling, use of "equivalent factors", reference flow definition, accumulation and allocation of corporate values to minor products...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070933/secretome-analysis-of-diarrhea-inducing-strains-of-escherichia-coli
#5
Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Babylakshmi Muthusamy, Min-Sik Kim, Gajanan J Sathe, P T V Lakshmi, Olga N Kovbasnjuk, T S Keshava Prasad, Mary Wade, Rabih E Jabbour
Secreted proteins constitute a major part of virulence factors that are responsible for pathogenesis caused by gram negative bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli), EHEC O157:H7 is the major pathogen often causing outbreaks. However, studies have reported that the significant outbreaks caused by non O157:H7 E. coli strains, also known as "Big-Six" serogroup strains are increasing. There is no systematic study describing differential secreted proteins from these non-O157:H7 E. coli strains. In this study, we carried out mass spectrometry-based differential secretome analysis using tandem mass tags labeling strategy of non-O157:H7 E...
January 9, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051336/social-big-data-analysis-of-information-spread-and-perceived-infection-risk-during-the-2015-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-outbreak-in-south-korea
#6
Juyoung Song, Tae Min Song, Dong-Chul Seo, Dal-Lae Jin, Jung Sun Kim
We investigated online diffusion of information, spread of fear, and perceived risk of infection to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) as cases of MERS spread rapidly and dozens of fatalities occurred in South Korea in May-June of 2015. This study retrieved 8,671,695 MERS-related online documents from May 20 to June 18, 2015, from 171 Korean online channels and analyzed such documents by using multilevel models and data mining with Apriori algorithm association analysis. We used R software (version 3.2...
January 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049892/maintenance-of-clinical-expertise-and-clinical-research-by-the-clinical-professors-at-gifu-pharmaceutical-university
#7
Tomoya Tachi, Yoshihiro Noguchi, Hitomi Teramachi
 The clinical professors at Gifu Pharmaceutical University (GPU) provide pharmaceutical services at GPU Pharmacy, Gifu University Hospital, and Gifu Municipal Hospital to keep their clinical skills up-to-date; they also perform clinical research in collaboration with many clinical institutes. The Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacy is part of the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, to which the clinical professors belong, and is composed of three clinical professors (a professor, an associate professor, and an assistant professor)...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034669/pioglitazone-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-reduces-weight-loss-in-walker-256-tumor-bearing-rats
#8
Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Winny Beatriz de Souza Galia, Priscila Cassolla, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues Graciano, Cassia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia, Dimas Zaia, Ângelo Rafael Carpinelli, Francemilson Goulart da Silva, Helenir Medri de Souza
AIM: The lipogenic effect of pioglitazone (PGZ), an insulin (INS) sensitizer, is well established. However, few studies have evaluated PGZ effects in preventing weight loss in cancer. We investigated PGZ effects, alone or associated with INS, on INS resistance, cachexia and metabolic abnormalities induced by Walker-256 tumor in rats MAIN METHODS: PGZ (5.0mg·kg(-1), oral) or PGZ+INS (NPH, 1.0UI·kg(-1), sc), were once-daily administered during 12days, starting on the day inoculation of Walker-256 tumor cells...
December 26, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994979/diet-of-the-endangered-big-headed-turtle-platysternon-megacephalum
#9
Yik-Hei Sung, Billy C H Hau, Nancy E Karraker
Populations of the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum are declining at unprecedented rates across most of its distribution in Southeast Asia owing to unsustainable harvest for pet, food, and Chinese medicine markets. Research on Asian freshwater turtles becomes more challenging as populations decline and basic ecological information is needed to inform conservation efforts. We examined fecal samples collected from P. megacephalum in five streams in Hong Kong to quantify the diet, and we compared the germination success of ingested and uningested seeds...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927892/a-concept-wide-association-study-of-clinical-notes-to-discover-new-predictors-of-kidney-failure
#10
Karandeep Singh, Rebecca A Betensky, Adam Wright, Gary C Curhan, David W Bates, Sushrut S Waikar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identifying predictors of kidney disease progression is critical toward the development of strategies to prevent kidney failure. Clinical notes provide a unique opportunity for big data approaches to identify novel risk factors for disease. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We used natural language processing tools to extract concepts from the preceding year's clinical notes among patients newly referred to a tertiary care center's outpatient nephrology clinics and retrospectively evaluated these concepts as predictors for the subsequent development of ESRD using proportional subdistribution hazards (competing risk) regression...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925708/determinants-of-the-use-of-dietary-supplements-among-secondary-and-high-school-students
#11
Karolina Gajda, Monika Zielińska, Anna Ciecierska, Jadwiga Hamułka
Background: All over the world, including Poland, the sale of dietary supplements is increasing. More and more often, people including children and youths, use dietary supplements on their own initiative and without any medical indications or knowledge in this field. Objectives: Analysis of the conditions of using the dietary supplements with vitamins and minerals among secondary school and high school students in Poland. Material and methods: The study included 396 students aged 13-18 years (249 girls and 147 boys)...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925123/-conflict-of-interest-in-the-training-and-practices-of-nutritionists-regulation-is-necessary
#12
Tatiane Nunes Pereira, Fabiana Alves do Nascimento, Daniel Henrique Bandoni
Transnational "Big Food" companies use advertising strategies to influence nutritionists, professors and students of nutrition. There are, however, conflicts of interest in this relationship. The scope of this study is to conduct a narrative review on the influence of the food industry in training in nutrition. It was revealed that industries seek to induce the recommendation, the prescription and the consumption of products by students and nutritionists through strategies such as sponsorship of scientific meetings, travel funding and the distribution of promotional gifts...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904021/scanning-electron-microscopic-study-on-the-tongues-of-seven-avian-species
#13
Shoichi Emura
The dorsal lingual surface of the grey crowned crane (Balearica regulorum), American flamingo (Phoenicopterus rubber), great egret (Ardea alba), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus), black-necked stilt (himantopus mexicanus) and green macaw (Ara militaris) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. In the grey crowned crane, the surface of the lingual apex was relatively rough. Many openings of the lingual glands in both lateral regions of the lingual body were observed...
2016: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888482/biofertilizers-a-potential-approach-for-sustainable-agriculture-development
#14
Trishna Mahanty, Surajit Bhattacharjee, Madhurankhi Goswami, Purnita Bhattacharyya, Bannhi Das, Abhrajyoti Ghosh, Prosun Tribedi
The worldwide increase in human population raises a big threat to the food security of each people as the land for agriculture is limited and even getting reduced with time. Therefore, it is essential that agricultural productivity should be enhanced significantly within the next few decades to meet the large demand of food by emerging population. Not to mention, too much dependence on chemical fertilizers for more crop productions inevitably damages both environmental ecology and human health with great severity...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862002/distributed-data-networks-a-blueprint-for-big-data-sharing-and-healthcare-analytics
#15
Jennifer R Popovic
This paper defines the attributes of distributed data networks and outlines the data and analytic infrastructure needed to build and maintain a successful network. We use examples from one successful implementation of a large-scale, multisite, healthcare-related distributed data network, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-sponsored Sentinel Initiative. Analytic infrastructure-development concepts are discussed from the perspective of promoting six pillars of analytic infrastructure: consistency, reusability, flexibility, scalability, transparency, and reproducibility...
November 18, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853100/evaluation-of-cii-gene-mutation-in-the-brains-of-big-blue-mice-exposed-to-acrylamide-and-glycidamide-in-drinking-water
#16
Hai-Fang Li, Sharon D Shelton, Todd A Townsend, Nan Mei, Mugimane G Manjanatha
Potential health risks for humans from dietary exposure to acrylamide (AA) and its reactive epoxide metabolite, glycidamide (GA), exist because substantial amounts of AA are found in a variety of fried and baked starchy foods. AA is tumorigenic in rodents, and a large number of studies indicate that AA is genotoxic in multiple organs of mice and rats. Although AA is neurotoxic, there are no reports on AA-induced gene mutations in the mouse brain. Therefore, to investigate if gene mutation can be induced by AA or its metabolite GA, we screened brains for cII mutant frequency (MF) and scored for mutation types in previously treated male and female Big Blue mice with 0, 1...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832109/real-time-pathogen-detection-in-the-era-of-whole-genome-sequencing-and-big-data-comparison-of-k-mer-and-site-based-methods-for-inferring-the-genetic-distances-among-tens-of-thousands-of-salmonella-samples
#17
James B Pettengill, Arthur W Pightling, Joseph D Baugher, Hugh Rand, Errol Strain
The adoption of whole-genome sequencing within the public health realm for molecular characterization of bacterial pathogens has been followed by an increased emphasis on real-time detection of emerging outbreaks (e.g., food-borne Salmonellosis). In turn, large databases of whole-genome sequence data are being populated. These databases currently contain tens of thousands of samples and are expected to grow to hundreds of thousands within a few years. For these databases to be of optimal use one must be able to quickly interrogate them to accurately determine the genetic distances among a set of samples...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819478/big-data-in-food-safety-an-overview
#18
Hans J P Marvin, Esmée M Janssen, Yamine Bouzembrak, Peter J M Hendriksen, Martijn Staats
Technology is now being developed that is able to handle vast amounts of structured and unstructured data from diverse sources and origins. These technologies are often referred to as big data, and opens new areas of research and applications that will have an increasing impact in all sectors of our society. In this paper we assessed to which extent big data is being applied in the food safety domain and identified several promising trends. In several parts of the world, governments stimulate the publication on internet of all data generated in public funded research projects...
November 7, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791139/increasing-seed-size-and-quality-by-manipulating-big-seeds1-in-legume-species
#19
Liangfa Ge, Jianbin Yu, Hongliang Wang, Diane Luth, Guihua Bai, Kan Wang, Rujin Chen
Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation...
October 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784257/effective-role-of-magnetic-core-shell-nanocomposites-in-removing-organic-and-inorganic-wastes-from-water
#20
Nasrullah Shah, Frederick Claessyns, Stephen Rimmer, Muhammad Balal Arain, Touseef Rehan, Aref Wazwaz, Mohammad Wasi Ahmad, Mazhar Ul-Islam
: Affordable and efficient water treatment process to produce water free from various contaminants is a big challenge. The presence of toxic heavy metals, dyes, hazardous chemicals and other toxins causes contamination of water sources and our food chain and make them hazardous to living organisms. The current water treatment processes are no longer sustainable due to high cost and low efficiency. Due to advantageous properties, nanotechnology based materials can play a great role in increasing the efficiency of water treatment processes...
2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
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