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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682898/crumpling-and-unfolding-of-montmorillonite-hybrid-nanocoatings-as-stretchable-flame-retardant-skin
#1
Ting-Hsiang Chang, Yuan Tian, Daniel L Y Wee, Hongliang Ren, Po-Yen Chen
Flame-retardant coatings are widely used in a variety of personnel or product protection, and many applications would benefit from film stretchability if suitable materials are available. It is challenging to develop flame-retardant coatings that are stretchable, eco-friendly, and capable of being integrated on mechanically dynamic devices. Here, a concept is reported that uses pretextured montmorillonite (MMT) hybrid nanocoatings that can undergo programed unfolding to mimic the stretchability of elastomeric materials...
April 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682315/insulin-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes-are-we-there-yet-the-d-nav%C3%A2-story
#2
I Hodish
Insulin replacement therapy is mostly used by patients with type 2 diabetes who become insulin deficient and have failed other therapeutic options. They comprise about a quarter of those with diabetes, endures the majority of the complications and consumes the majority of the resources. Adequate insulin replacement therapy can prevent complications and reduce expenses, as long as therapy goals are achieved and maintained. Sadly, these therapy goals are seldom achieved and outcomes have not improved for decades despite advances in pharmacotherapy and technology...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681866/study-protocol-using-deep-brain-stimulation-multimodal-neuroimaging-and-neuroethics-to-understand-and-treat-severe-enduring-anorexia-nervosa
#3
Rebecca J Park, Jessica C Scaife, Tipu Z Aziz
Background: Research suggests that altered eating and the pursuit of thinness in anorexia nervosa (AN) are, in part, a consequence of aberrant reward circuitry. The neural circuits involved in reward processing and compulsivity overlap significantly, and this has been suggested as a transdiagnostic factor underpinning obsessive compulsive disorder, addictions and eating disorders. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is central to both reward processing and compulsivity. In previous studies, deep-brain stimulation (DBS) to the NAcc has been shown to result in neural and symptomatic improvement in both obsessive compulsive disorder and addictions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681008/micromanaging-freeze-tolerance-the-biogenesis-and-regulation-of-neuroprotective-micrornas-in-frozen-brains
#4
Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
When temperatures plummet below 0 °C, wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) can endure the freezing of up to ~ 65% of their body water in extracellular ice masses, displaying no measurable brain activity, no breathing, no movement, and a flat-lined heart. To aid survival, frogs retreat into a state of suspended animation characterized by global suppression of metabolic functions and reprioritization of energy usage to essential survival processes that is elicited, in part, by the regulatory controls of microRNAs...
April 21, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680317/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-ii-randomised-cross-over-trial-investigating-the-use-of-duloxetine-for-the-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#5
Eva Battaglini, Susanna B Park, Elizabeth H Barnes, David Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a significant side effect of cancer treatment, potentially leading to early cessation of chemotherapy, enduring symptoms and long-lasting disability. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that duloxetine, a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, may be effective in the symptomatic treatment of CIPN. This double blind, placebo controlled, phase II randomised cross-over trial aims to determine whether treatment with duloxetine results in a reduction in chronic neuropathic symptoms experienced as a result of neurotoxic chemotherapy treatment...
April 19, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679517/urogenital-function-three-years-after-abdominoperineal-excision-for-rectal-cancer
#6
Anna Ledebo, David Bock, Mattias Prytz, Eva Haglind, Eva Angenete
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore urogenital dysfunction and associated risk factors after treatment of rectal cancer, in a large national cohort of patients three years after abdominoperineal excision and to compare outcomes with a reference population and a cohort of patients operated for prostate cancer. METHOD: Patients treated with abdominoperineal excision 2007-2009 were identified using the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry. All consenting patients received a questionnaire...
April 21, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679294/gender-differences-in-home-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-of-post-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-patients
#7
Yong Hwan Kim, Wi-Young So
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a structured program for the prevention of secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. This study aimed to investigate whether there are gender differences after 9 months of home-based cardiac rehabilitation program in post-percutaneous coronary intervention patients. A total of 114 (58.29 ± 10.33 years) men and 30 (60.90 ± 9.32 years) women were enrolled in the CR program. The program included three visits: initial, 4th month (follow-up), and 9th month (final) visits at a CR center...
April 20, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676218/vaunting-the-independent-amateur-scientific-american-and-the-representation-of-lay-scientists
#8
Sean F Johnston
This paper traces how media representations encouraged enthusiasts, youth and skilled volunteers to participate actively in science and technology during the twentieth century. It assesses how distinctive discourses about scientific amateurs positioned them with respect to professionals in shifting political and cultural environments. In particular, the account assesses the seminal role of a periodical, Scientific American magazine, in shaping and championing an enduring vision of autonomous scientific enthusiasms...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675862/hemodialysis-a-model-for-extreme-physiology-in-a-vulnerable-patient-population
#9
REVIEW
Jeroen P Kooman, Krassimir Katzarski, Frank M van der Sande, Karel M Leunissen, Peter Kotanko
Hemodialysis (HD) is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, which is very efficient in the correction of abnormalities of the internal environment. However, this efficiency also induces significant hemodynamic, thermal, and respiratory stressors. These have parallels with the extreme physiologic demands which are normally mainly experienced by healthy subjects under adverse environmental conditions, with the difference that they must be endured by a vulnerable patient population. Hemodynamic stress induced by ultrafiltration leads to a decline in circulating blood volume, which may result in intradialytic hypotension (IDH) and changes in tissue perfusion, which may have long-term consequences for the function of vital organs such as the brain and the heart...
April 19, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675670/principles-of-exercise-prescription-and-how-they-influence-exercise-induced-changes-of-transcription-factors-and-other-regulators-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Cesare Granata, Nicholas A Jamnick, David J Bishop
Physical inactivity represents the fourth leading risk factor for mortality, and it has been linked with a series of chronic disorders, the treatment of which absorbs ~ 85% of healthcare costs in developed countries. Conversely, physical activity promotes many health benefits; endurance exercise in particular represents a powerful stimulus to induce mitochondrial biogenesis, and it is routinely used to prevent and treat chronic metabolic disorders linked with sub-optimal mitochondrial characteristics. Given the importance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial pool, it is vital to better characterize how manipulating the endurance exercise dose affects cellular mechanisms of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis...
April 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674741/pair-bond-endurance-promotes-cooperative-food-defense-and-inhibits-conflict-in-coral-reef-butterflyfish
#11
Jessica P Nowicki, Stefan P W Walker, Darren J Coker, Andrew S Hoey, Katia J Nicolet, Morgan S Pratchett
Pair bonding is generally linked to monogamous mating systems, where the reproductive benefits of extended mate guarding and/or of bi-parental care are considered key adaptive functions. However, in some species, including coral reef butterflyfishes (f. Chaetodonitidae), pair bonding occurs in sexually immature and homosexual partners, and in the absence of parental care, suggesting there must be non-reproductive adaptive benefits of pair bonding. Here, we examined whether pair bonding butterflyfishes cooperate in defense of food, conferring direct benefits to one or both partners...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673397/sex-differences-in-kinematic-adaptations-to-muscle-fatigue-induced-by-repetitive-upper-limb-movements
#12
Jason Bouffard, Chen Yang, Mickael Begon, Julie Côté
BACKGROUND: Muscle fatigue induced by repetitive movements contributes to the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Men and women respond differently to muscle fatigue during isometric single-joint efforts, but sex differences during dynamic multi-joint tasks have not been clearly identified. Moreover, most studies comparing men and women during fatigue development assessed endurance time. However, none evaluated sex differences in kinematic adaptations to fatigue during multi-joint dynamic tasks...
April 19, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673245/the-association-of-locomotive-and-non-locomotive-physical-activity-measured-by-an-accelerometer-with-functional-fitness-in-healthy-elderly-men-a-pilot-study
#13
Hyejoon Park, Wonil Park, Moran Lee, Nayoung Ko, Eunkyung Kim, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Jonghoon Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of various aspects of daily physical activity, such as the number of steps, time spent in moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), and locomotive and non-locomotive MVPA measured by a triaxial accelerometer, with the functional fitness in healthy elderly men. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 22 healthy elderly men aged over 65 years. The participants wore a triaxial accelerometer for two weeks to estimate their daily physical activities...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672712/perspectives-on-symptom-experiences-and-symptom-reporting-among-individuals-on-hemodialysis
#14
Jennifer E Flythe, Adeline Dorough, Julia H Narendra, Derek Forfang, Lori Hartwell, Emaad Abdel-Rahman
Background: Individuals on hemodialysis bear substantial symptom burdens, but providers often underappreciate patient symptoms. In general, standardized, patient-reported symptom data are not captured during routine dialysis care. We undertook this study to better understand patient experiences with symptoms and symptom reporting. In exploratory interviews, we sought to describe hemodialysis nurse and patient care technician perspectives on symptoms and symptom reporting. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 42 US hemodialysis patients and 13 hemodialysis clinic personnel...
April 16, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672614/adaptation-of-motor-unit-contractile-properties-in-rat-medial-gastrocnemius-to-treadmill-endurance-training-relationship-to-muscle-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#15
Katarzyna Kryściak, Joanna Majerczak, Jakub Kryściak, Dawid Łochyński, Dominik Kaczmarek, Hanna Drzymała-Celichowska, Piotr Krutki, Anna Gawedzka, Magdalena Guzik, Michał Korostynski, Zbigniew Szkutnik, Elżbieta Pyza, Wiesława Jarmuszkiewicz, Jerzy A Zoladz, Jan Celichowski
This study aimed at investigating the effects of 2, 4 and 8 weeks of endurance training on the contractile properties of slow (S), fast fatigue resistant (FR) and fast fatigable (FF) motor units (MUs) in rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) in relation to the changes in muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. The properties of functionally isolated MUs were examined in vivo. Mitochondrial biogenesis was judged based on the changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA), the content of the electron transport chain (ETC) proteins and PGC-1α in the MG...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672119/remembering-who-was-where-a-happy-expression-advantage-for-face-identity-location-binding-in-working-memory
#16
Sara Spotorno, Megan Evans, Margaret C Jackson
It is well established that visual working memory (WM) for face identity is enhanced when faces display threatening versus nonthreatening expressions. During social interaction, it is also important to bind person identity with location information in WM to remember who was where, but we lack a clear understanding of how emotional expression influences this. Here, we conducted two touchscreen experiments to investigate how angry versus happy expressions displayed at encoding influenced the precision with which participants relocated a single neutral test face to its original position...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671875/atrial-remodeling-and-ectopic-burden-in-recreational-athletes-implications-for-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Adrian D Elliott, Rajiv Mahajan, Dominik Linz, Michael Stokes, Christian V Verdicchio, Melissa E Middeldorp, Andre La Gerche, Dennis H Lau, Prashanthan Sanders
BACKGROUND: Atrial remodeling, vagal tone and atrial ectopic triggers have been suggested to contribute to the increased incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in endurance athletes. How these parameters change with increased lifetime training hours is debated. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesised that atrial remodeling occurs in proportion to total training history, thus contributing to the elevated risk of AF. METHODS: We recruited 99 recreational endurance athletes, subsequently grouped according to lifetime training hours, to undergo evaluation of atrial size, autonomic modulation and atrial ectopy...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671347/exercise-training-alters-the-genomic-response-to-acute-exercise-in-human-adipose-tissue
#18
Odile Fabre, Lars R Ingerslev, Christian Garde, Ida Donkin, David Simar, Romain Barrès
AIM: To determine the genomic mechanisms by which adipose tissue responds to acute and chronic exercise. METHODS: We profiled the transcriptomic and epigenetic response to acute exercise in human adipose tissue collected before and after endurance training. RESULTS: Although acute exercises were performed at same relative intensities, the magnitude of transcriptomic changes after acute exercise was reduced by endurance training. DNA methylation remodeling induced by acute exercise was more prominent in trained versus untrained state...
April 19, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670997/burn-survivors-pulmonary-and-muscular-impairment-exercise-tolerance-and-return-to-work-following-medical-vocational-rehabilitation-a-long-term-follow-up
#19
Viveca Björnhagen, Kristina Schüldt Ekholm, Flemming Larsen, Jan Ekholm
OBJECTIVE: To follow up the long-term outcome in return-to-work (RTW) rate in burn-injury patients, and to determine the degree of impairment in pulmonary and muscular function and exercise tolerance. DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study without a control group. PATIENTS: Twenty-five burn-injury patients referred for medical-vocational rehabilitation. METHODS: Return-to-work rate was followed after completed medical-vocational rehabilitation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670498/the-case-for-using-personally-relevant-and-emotionally-stimulating-gambling-messages-as-a-gambling-harm-minimisation-strategy
#20
EDITORIAL
Andrew Harris, Adrian Parke, Mark D Griffiths
Emotions typically exert powerful, enduring, and often predictable influences over decision-making. However, emotion-based decision-making is seen as a mediator of impulsive and reckless gambling behaviour, where emotion may be seen as the antithesis of controlled and rational decision-making, a proposition supported by recent neuroimaging evidence. The present paper argues that the same emotional mechanisms can be used to influence a gambler to cease gambling, by focusing their emotional decision-making on positive external and personally relevant factors, such as familial impact or longer term financial factors...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
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