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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076428/does-measles-vaccination-reduce-the-risk-of-acute-respiratory-infection-ari-and-diarrhea-in-children-a-multi-country-study
#1
Rahul Bawankule, Abhishek Singh, Kaushalendra Kumar, Sadanand Shetye
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and diarrhea occur either as complications or secondary infections in measles affected children. So, the integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) by WHO and UNICEF includes measles vaccination as preventive measure in children. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of measles vaccination on Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and diarrhea in children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. METHODS: We analyzed data from the most recent rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in the selected countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075363/maternal-and-child-health-of-internally-displaced-persons-in-ukraine-a-qualitative-study
#2
Svitlana Nidzvetska, Jose M Rodriguez-Llanes, Isabelle Aujoulat, Julita Gil Cuesta, Hannah Tappis, Joris A F van Loenhout, Debarati Guha-Sapir
Due to the conflict that started in spring 2014 in Eastern Ukraine, a total of 1.75 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) fled the area and have been registered in government-controlled areas of the country. This paper explores perceived health, barriers to access to healthcare, caring practices, food security, and overall financial situation of mothers and young children displaced by the conflict in Ukraine. This is a qualitative study, which collected data through semi-structured in-depth interviews with nine IDP mothers via Skype and Viber with a convenience sample of participants selected through snowball technique...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073406/-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#3
H Zhuang
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is a major mode of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission, especially in high endemic areas. Administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine to infants at birth, followed by completion of the vaccine series, prevented approximately 95% of HBV transmission from HBsAg-positive mothers to their infants. However, immunoprophylaxis failure was still observed in 5~10% infants born to mothers with high levels of viremia. It was demonstrated that antiviral nucleot(s)ide analogues (NUCs) provided to pregnant women with high viral loads in late pregnancy further reduced MTCT...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069620/prenatal-exposure-to-antiepileptic-drugs-and-use-of-primary-healthcare-during-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-denmark
#4
Anne Mette Würtz, Dorte Rytter, Claus Høstrup Vestergaard, Jakob Christensen, Mogens Vestergaard, Bodil Hammer Bech
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring such as congenital malformations and neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to AEDs is also associated with more frequent use of primary healthcare during childhood. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide national registers in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All live-born singletons in Denmark during 1997-2012 identified in the Danish National Patient Register and followed until 31 December 2013 (n=963 010)...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069359/monitoring-equity-in-vaccination-coverage-a-systematic-analysis-of-demographic-and-health-surveys-from-45-gavi-supported-countries
#5
Catherine Arsenault, Sam Harper, Arijit Nandi, José M Mendoza Rodríguez, Peter M Hansen, Mira Johri
OBJECTIVES: (1) To conduct a systematic analysis of inequalities in childhood vaccination coverage in Gavi-supported countries; (2) to comparatively assess alternative measurement approaches and how they may affect cross-country comparisons of the level of inequalities. METHODS: Using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2014) in 45 Gavi-supported countries, we measured inequalities in vaccination coverage across seven dimensions of social stratification and of vulnerability to poor health outcomes...
January 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068918/seasonal-influenza-vaccination-in-pregnant-women-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-in-italy
#6
Francesco Napolitano, Paola Napolitano, Italo Francesco Angelillo
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards seasonal influenza and its vaccination among pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among a sample of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy in Italy. RESULTS: The 64.2% of the sample knew that the influenza is more dangerous for pregnant women. Women of older age, Italian, and who had a pregnancy at high-risk were more likely to have this knowledge...
January 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065204/risk-factors-for-pertussis-in-adults-and-teenagers-in-england
#7
A Wensley, G J Hughes, H Campbell, G Amirthalingam, N Andrews, N Young, L Coole
Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis which can be fatal in infants. Although high vaccine coverage led to prolonged disease control in England, a national outbreak of pertussis in 2011 led to the largest increase in over two decades, including a marked increase in cases aged ⩾15 years. A case-control study in four regions of England was undertaken to investigate risk factors for pertussis in adolescents and adults, specifically employment type and professional and household contact with children...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061843/sun-protection-to-improve-vaccine-effectiveness-in-children-in-a-high-ambient-ultraviolet-radiation-and-rural-environment-an-intervention-study
#8
Caradee Y Wright, Patricia N Albers, Angela Mathee, Zamantimande Kunene, Catherine D'Este, Ashwin Swaminathan, Robyn M Lucas
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is a mainstay of preventive healthcare, reducing the incidence of serious childhood infections. Ecological studies have demonstrated an inverse association between markers of high ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure (e.g., sunny season, low latitude of residence) and reduction in the vaccination-associated immune response. Higher sun exposure on the day prior to and spanning the day of vaccination has been associated with a reduced antigen-specific immune response independent of skin pigmentation...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060041/estimating-pertussis-susceptibility-among-0-23-month-old-children-in-the-united-states-using-national-immunization-survey-nis-2013
#9
Lana Childs, Robert A Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Despite high pertussis-containing vaccine coverage in the United States (US), children who are unvaccinated or not fully vaccinated remain susceptible to pertussis. Over multiple birth cohorts of incomplete vaccination, the number of children not immune to pertussis will accumulate due to factors such as age-specific vaccination status and dose-specific vaccine effectiveness. The total number of pertussis-susceptible children 0-23 months of age in the US is unknown. METHODS: Using data on age-specific pertussis-containing vaccine receipt among children evaluated in the 2013 National Immunization Survey (born between February 2011 and June 2012), and accounting for vaccine effectiveness, and maternal transfer of anti-pertussis antibodies, we estimated the cumulative number of pertussis-susceptible children 0-23 months of age...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057194/budget-impact-of-polio-immunization-strategy-for-india-introduction-of-one-dose-of-inactivated-poliomyelitis-vaccine-and-reductions-in-supplemental-polio-immunization
#10
M M Khan, S Sharma, B Tripathi, F P Alvarez
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a budget impact analysis (BIA) of introducing the immunization recommendations of India Expert Advisory Group (IEAG) for the years 2015-2017. The recommendations include introduction of one inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) dose in the regular child immunization programme along with reductions in oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses in supplemental programmes. STUDY DESIGN: This is a national level analysis of budget impact of new polio immunization recommendations...
January 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043737/knowledge-and-recommendation-regarding-routine-childhood-vaccinations-among-pediatric-healthcare-providers-in-israel
#11
Rana Shibli, Rivka Shemer, Liat Lerner-Geva, Shmuel Rishpon
BACKGROUND: A recommendation by pediatric healthcare providers (HCPs) is a major factor influencing parents' decision to vaccinate their children. Consequently, it is important to understand the motives behind the HCPs' recommendations to vaccinate children according to the routine immunization program. OBJECTIVES: To study the association of pediatric HCPs' knowledge about and attitudes towards childhood vaccinations and of their professional and demographic characteristics, with two variables: 1...
December 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043486/tuberculosis-in-children
#12
Ali Akbar Velayati
Tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of infection-related death in the world. Children make up ∼5-15% of all TB cases. Severe forms of disease such as meningitis and disseminated form are more common in children. Due to current estimates of World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015, one million children suffer from TB around the world; of these, it is estimated that more than 136,000 die a year. One study estimated 67million children with latent TB which develops to active form with the rate of ∼850,000 each year...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040206/interest-in-an-ebola-vaccine-among-a-u-s-national-sample-during-the-height-of-the-2014-2016-ebola-outbreak-in-west-africa
#13
Julia E Painter, Ralph J DiClemente, Michael E von Fricken
To better understand the association between Ebola-related attitudes and interest in receiving an Ebola virus vaccine, a survey was administered to a U.S. national sample using GfK's KnowledgePanel®. Among participants (N=1417), 34.1% expressed interest in an Ebola vaccine for themselves. In the subset of participants with children aged 0-17 (N=410), 38.1% expressed interest in an Ebola vaccine for their child. In multivariable analyses, vaccine interest for oneself was associated with perceived susceptibility to Ebola (p=0...
December 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034730/association-between-postpartum-depression-and-the-practice-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-the-first-three-months-of-life
#14
Catarine S Silva, Marilia C Lima, Leopoldina A S Sequeira-de-Andrade, Juliana S Oliveira, Jailma S Monteiro, Niedja M S Lima, Rijane M A B Santos, Pedro I C Lira
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between postpartum depression and the occurrence of exclusive breastfeeding. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the states of the Northeast region, during the vaccination campaign in 2010. The sample consisted of 2583 mother-child pairs, with children aged from 15 days to 3 months. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to screen for postpartum depression. The outcome was lack of exclusive breastfeeding, defined as the occurrence of this practice in the 24h preceding the interview...
December 26, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034476/defining-cases-of-severe-pediatric-diarrhea-for-an-efficacy-trial-of-an-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-etec-vaccine-report-on-an-international-workshop-washington-dc-march-2016
#15
Thomas F Wierzba, Alexandra Bourgis
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes severe acute watery diarrhea. No ETEC vaccine is available but candidates are in development, including ETVAX, an oral, whole-cell inactivated vaccine. ETVAX is being tested in a descending-age trial in Bangladesh. If found safe and immunogenic, investigators may test it for efficacy in children. Like oral rotavirus vaccines, we expect that ETVAX will be most effective at decreasing the incidence of moderate-to-severe ETEC episodes. Thus, for an efficacy trial outcome, it will be necessary to triage patients into moderate-to-severe versus mild disease...
December 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030524/attitudes-of-swiss-health-care-providers-towards-childhood-immunizations
#16
Marianne Schuler, Sabine Schaedelin, Christoph Aebi, Christoph Berger, Pierre-Alex Crisinel, Alessandro Diana, Anita Niederer-Loher, Claire-Anne Siegrist, Bernard Vaudaux, Ulrich Heininger
BACKGROUND: INFOVAC is a network providing information about immunization issues to health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of INFOVAC subscribers towards the current Swiss immunization schedule, potential modifications, and current and hypothetical immunization practices regarding their own children. METHODS: In March 2015, a web-based survey was sent to 4260 physicians and pharmacists subscribed to INFOVAC. Participation was anonymous and voluntary...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029403/female-political-representation-and-child-health-evidence-from-a-multilevel-analysis
#17
Amm Quamruzzaman, Matthew Lange
This article explores the impact of female political representation in national parliaments on child health through a multilevel analysis. Using available Demographic and Health Surveys, we employ both cross-sectional data for 51 low- and middle-income countries and longitudinal data for 20 countries with multiple surveys. For both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, female representation is negatively related to infant mortality and positively related to measles vaccination status. To explore potential mechanisms, we control for state spending on health and analyze whether the impact of female representation depends on a critical mass of female representatives...
October 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018959/a-qualitative-systematic-review-of-factors-influencing-parents-vaccination-decision-making-in-the-united-kingdom
#18
REVIEW
Alice S Forster, Lauren Rockliffe, Amanda J Chorley, Laura A V Marlow, Helen Bedford, Samuel G Smith, Jo Waller
BACKGROUND: High uptake of vaccinations is crucial for disease prevention. Although overall uptake of childhood immunisations is high in the United Kingdom (UK), pockets of lower uptake remain. Novel systematic methods have not been employed when reviewing the qualitative literature examining parents' vaccination decisions. AIMS: We aimed to conduct a qualitative systematic review of studies in the UK to understand factors influencing parental decisions to vaccinate a child...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012814/parental-reported-full-influenza-vaccination-coverage-of-children-in-the-u-s
#19
Yusheng Zhai, Tammy A Santibanez, Katherine E Kahn, Anup Srivastav
INTRODUCTION: Depending upon influenza vaccination history, children aged 6 months-8 years need one or two doses of influenza vaccine to be considered fully vaccinated. The objectives of this study were to quantify the percentage of children aged 6 months-8 years who were fully vaccinated against influenza based on parental report, overall, by state, and by sociodemographic characteristics, and to examine sociodemographic characteristics associated with being fully vaccinated. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey-Flu for the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 influenza seasons were analyzed in 2015 using the Kaplan-Meier method to produce vaccination coverage estimates...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008343/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-in-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-clinic-in-honiara-solomon-islands-2015
#20
Aneley Getahun, Margaret Baekalia, Nixon Panda, Alice Lee, Elliot Puiahi, Sabiha Khan, Donald Tahani, Doris Manongi
AIM: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Honiara, Solomon Islands. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in seven area health centers in Honiara. From March to June 2015, identification of eligible pregnant women in each site was conducted using systematic random sampling technique. A total of 243 pregnant women who gave written informed consent were enrolled...
December 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
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