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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222523/anomalous-white-matter-structure-and-the-effect-of-age-in-down-syndrome-patients
#1
Raquel Fenoll, Jesus Pujol, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Susana de Sola, Núria Ribas-Vidal, Javier García-Alba, Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Joan Deus, Mara Dierssen, Ramón Novell-Alsina, Rafael de la Torre
BACKGROUND: Neural tissue alterations in Down syndrome are fully expressed at relatively late developmental stages. In addition, there is an early presence of neurodegenerative changes in the late life stages. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were both to characterize white matter abnormalities in the brain of adult Down syndrome patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to investigate whether degenerative alterations in white matter structure are detectable before dementia is clinically evident...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222512/aqp4-association-with-amyloid-deposition-and-astrocyte-pathology-in-the-tg-arcswe-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Jing Yang, Rui Zhang, Changhe Shi, Chengyuan Mao, Zhihua Yang, Zhenhe Suo, Reidun Torp, Yuming Xu
Amyloid-β deposition in senile plaques is one of the main pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is redistributed within the astrocytes in cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the tg-ArcSwe mouse model of AD, suggesting that AQP4 may participate in amyloid-β deposition. However, the role of AQP4 in plaque formation is not currently clear. The objective of the current study was to explore the AQP4 distribution within plaques in the tg-ArcSwe mice in more depth by the combined application of immunofluorescence cytochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222399/improved-yeast-delivery-of-fluconazole-with-a-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-system
#3
Hamid Reza Kelidari, Maryam Moazeni, Roghayeh Babaei, Majid Saeedi, Jafar Akbari, Parisa Islami Parkoohi, Mojtaba Nabili, Atefeh Abdollahi Gohar, Katayoun Morteza-Semnani, Ali Nokhodchi
Despite the growing trends in the number of patients at risk for invasive fungal infections, management with current antifungal agents results in complications due to changes in the epidemiology and drug susceptibility of invasive fungal infections. In the present research fluconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared using probe ultrasonication techniques and investigated the efficacy of the optimal formulation on a large number of Candida species. The morphology of the obtained nanostructured lipid carriers was characterized by transmission-electron microscopy...
February 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222223/prostate-cancer-major-changes-in-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-eighth-edition-cancer-staging-manual
#4
Mark K Buyyounouski, Peter L Choyke, Jesse K McKenney, Oliver Sartor, Howard M Sandler, Mahul B Amin, Michael W Kattan, Daniel W Lin
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) Staging Manual has been updated and improved to ensure the highest degree of clinical relevance and to improve its utility for patient evaluation and clinical research. Major changes include: 1) pathologically organ-confined disease is now considered pT2 and is no longer subclassified by extent of involvement or laterality, 2) tumor grading now includes both the Gleason score (as in the seventh edition criteria) and the grade group (introduced in the eighth edition criteria), 3) prognostic stage group III includes select, organ-confined disease based on prostate-specific antigen and Gleason/grade group status, and 4) 2 statistical prediction models are included in the staging manual...
February 21, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222091/perceived-benefits-and-barriers-of-cervical-cancer-screening-among-chinese-american-women
#5
Wei-Chen Tung, Minggen Lu, Michelle Granner
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the perceived benefits and barriers to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women using stages of the Transtheoretical Model of Change.
. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design with self-report surveys. 
. SETTING: Chinese communities (e.g., churches, supermarkets, restaurants) in Northern California and Northern Nevada. 
. SAMPLE: 121 Chinese women aged 21-65 years living in Northern California and Northern Nevada...
March 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221990/an-integrated-circuit-for-simultaneous-extracellular-electrophysiology-recording-and-optogenetic-neural-manipulation
#6
Chang Hao Chen, Elizabeth A McCullagh, Sio Hang Pun, Peng Un Mak, Mang I Vai, Pui In Mak, Achim Klug, Tim C Lei
OBJECTIVE: The ability to record and to control action potential firing in neuronal circuits is critical to understand how the brain functions. The objective of this study is to develop a monolithic integrated circuit (IC) to record action potentials and simultaneously control action potential firing using optogenetics. METHODS: A low-noise and high input impedance (or low input capacitance) neural recording amplifier is combined with a high current laser/light-emitting diode (LED) driver in a single IC...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221754/nanoporous-polymer-infiltrated-nanoparticle-films-with-uniform-or-graded-porosity-via-undersaturated-capillary-rise-infiltration
#7
Jyo Lyn Hor, Yijie Jiang, David J Ring, Robert A Riggleman, Kevin T Turner, Daeyeon Lee
In this work, we present the fabrication of nanoporous polymer-infiltrated nanoparticle films (PINFs) with either uniform or graded porosity based on undersaturated capillary rise infiltration (UCaRI) and study the processing-structure-property relationship of these nanoporous PINFs. The UCaRI process involves first generating a bilayer film of randomly packed nanoparticle layer atop a polymer layer, such that the volume of polymer is less than the void volume in the nanoparticle packing. Subsequently, the bilayer film is annealed above the glass transition temperature of the polymer to induce polymer infiltration into the voids of the nanoparticle packing...
February 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221098/ion-transport-by-ameloblasts-during-amelogenesis
#8
A L J J Bronckers
Hypomineralization of developing enamel is associated with changes in ameloblast modulation during the maturation stage. Modulation (or pH cycling) involves the cyclic transformation of ruffle-ended (RE) ameloblasts facing slightly acidic enamel into smooth-ended (SE) ameloblasts near pH-neutral enamel. The mechanism of ameloblast modulation is not clear. Failure of ameloblasts of Cftr-null and anion exchanger 2 ( Ae2)-null mice to transport Cl(-) into enamel acidifies enamel, prevents modulation, and reduces mineralization...
March 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220780/bacterial-infections-change-natural-history-of-cirrhosis-irrespective-of-liver-disease-severity
#9
Elena Dionigi, Matteo Garcovich, Mauro Borzio, Gioacchino Leandro, Avik Majumdar, Aikaterini Tsami, Vasiliki Arvaniti, Davide Roccarina, Massimo Pinzani, Andrew K Burroughs, James O'Beirne, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prognostic significance of infections in relation to current prognostic scores and explored if infection could be considered per se a distinct clinical stage in the natural history of cirrhosis. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with cirrhosis admitted to a tertiary referral liver unit for at least 48 h over a 2-year period. Diagnosis of infection was based on positive cultures or strict established criteria. We used competing risk analysis and propensity score matching for data analysis...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220328/the-provision-of-dietary-and-physical-activity-advice-for-men-diagnosed-with-prostate-cancer-a-qualitative-study-of-the-experiences-and-views-of-health-care-professionals-patients-and-partners
#10
Eileen Sutton, Lucy E Hackshaw-McGeagh, Jonathan Aning, Amit Bahl, Anthony Koupparis, Raj Persad, Richard M Martin, J Athene Lane
PURPOSE: To explore the views and experiences of health care professionals (HCPs), men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer and their partners about the provision of advice on diet and physical activity after diagnosis and treatment for localised prostate cancer. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews with ten HCPs (Consultant Urological Surgeons, Uro-Oncology Clinical Nurse Specialists and Allied Health Professionals: see Table 1) and sixteen men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer and seven of their partners...
February 20, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220194/-diagnostic-ability-of-power-measurement-of-different-grip-forms-for-distal-median-nerve-lesion
#11
N Wachter, M Mentzel, G Krischak, C Häderer, J Gülke
BACKGROUND: Peripheral lesions of the median nerve cause characteristic changes of the grip function of the hand. For evaluating grip force changes, measurement by dynamometers (JAMAR dynamometer and pinch dynamometer) is of high relevance. In this study the ability of grip force measurements of different grip forms was evaluated to discriminate between a simulated median nerve lesion and healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 21 healthy subjects, the grip force of power grip was measured by the JAMAR dynamometer at the second stage including measurement of force at the fingertips and the thenar by a sensor glove...
February 20, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219846/changing-caregiving-relationships-for-older-home-based-chinese-people-in-a-transitional-stage-trends-factors-and-policy-implications
#12
Lijuan Gu, Mark W Rosenberg, Juxin Zeng
BACKGROUND: In the transitional stage of socioeconomic development, the traditional practice of home-based care in China is being tested. The evolution and factors of home-based care utilization are the prerequisites for the formulation of a support policy. However, no extant research has studied home-based elder care on a national scale. AIM: This paper aims to examine changing caregiving relationships nationwide for home-based elderly individuals and investigate the changing factors of care utilization in a ten-year period, with special attention to the effects of "location" on care patterns...
February 11, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219830/gut-microbiome-based-medical-methodologies-for-early-stage-disease-prevention
#13
REVIEW
Jing-Zhang Wang, Wen-Tao Du, Yan-Li Xu, Shu-Zhen Cheng, Zhi-Jun Liu
Recent advancements highlight the important role of gut microbiome in human health. However, a variety of endogenous and exogenous factors, such as genes, foods, drugs, environmental pollutions, oxidative stress, etc., may interfere with the gut microbiome in vivo and increase risks of digestive system diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, obesity, diabetes, cancers, and so on. Abundant discoveries listed in this work support that changes in the composition of the gut microbiome may be potentially used as sensitive early-stage diagnostic biomarkers and that the gut microbiome could be a promising therapeutic target for systemic prevention of multiple human diseases...
February 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219749/behavioral-phenotypes-associated-with-mptp-induction-of-partial-lesions-in-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#14
Kimberley A Phillips, Corinna N Ross, Jennifer Spross, Catherine J Cheng, Alyssa Izquierdo, K C Biju, Cang Chen, Senlin Li, Suzette D Tardif
Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with the core motor features of resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. Non-motor symptoms also occur, and include cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, anosmia (loss of smell), and REM sleep disturbances. As the development of medications and other therapies for treatment of non-motor symptoms is ongoing, it is essential to have animal models that aid in understanding the neural changes underlying non-motor PD symptoms and serve as a testing ground for potential therapeutics...
February 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219620/brain-structural-correlates-of-executive-and-social-cognition-profiles-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-elderly-bipolar-disorder
#15
Sandra Baez, Clara Pinasco, María Roca, Jesica Ferrari, Blas Couto, Indira García-Cordero, Agustín Ibañez, Francy Cruz, Pablo Reyes, Diana Matallana, Facundo Manes, Marcelo Cetcovich, Teresa Torralva
An early stage of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) often displays a mix of behavioral disturbances and personality changes hindering a differential diagnosis from elderly bipolar disorder (BD), making this process a big challenge. However, no studies have compared these pathologies from neuropsychological and neuroanatomical perspectives. The aim of the present study was to compare the executive functions (EF) and social cognition profiles as well as the structural neuroimaging of bvFTD and elderly patients with BD...
February 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219479/perceptual-decisions-are-biased-by-the-cost-to-act
#16
Nobuhiro Hagura, Patrick Haggard, Jörn Diedrichsen
Perceptual decisions are classically thought to depend mainly on the stimulus characteristics, probability and associated reward. However, in many cases, the motor response is considered to be a neutral output channel that only reflects the upstream decision. Contrary to this view, we show that perceptual decisions can be recursively influenced by the physical resistance applied to the response. When participants reported the direction of the visual motion by left or right manual reaching movement with different resistances, their reports were biased towards the direction associated with less effortful option...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219413/effect-of-waxy-barley-kirarimochi-consumption-on-bowel-movements-of-late-stage-elderly-residents-at-roken-nursing-home
#17
Keiko Taniguchi, Kozo Komae, Asuka Takahashi, Toji Yoshioka, Yoshiaki Sone
BACKGROUND: It is very important for the late-stage elderly to have the least stressful bowel movements for maintaining a good quality of life. It is generally accepted that consuming adequate dietary fiber is a promising method for the prevention and management of stressful bowel movements such as those during constipation. Therefore, we examined the effect of long-term consumption of waxy barley, which is high in dietary fiber, on the bowel movements of the late-stage elderly living at Roken nursing home (a geriatric health services facility), Japan...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219209/-value-of-99-tc-m-mdp-spect-ct-in-clinical-decision-making-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-and-a-comparison-of-the-values-of-different-imaging-techniques-for-diagnosing-skull-base-bone-invasion
#18
W Li, R S Zhang, L Q Zhang, B G Lu, W H Fu
Objective: To analyze the clinical value of SPECT/CT in diagnosis of skull base bone invasion and clinical decision-making for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and to compare their diagnostic value with SPECT/CT, CT, MRI, and MRI combined with SPECT (MRI-SPECT) for skull base bone invasion. Methods: Before treatment, among 348 newly diagnosed NPC patients, CT scan was performed in 186 patients (group A) and the remaining 162 patients received MRI scan (group B). Clinical doctors then made clinical management decisions according to the CT or MRI results...
February 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219191/-study-of-optic-radiations-in-patients-with-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#19
T Li, W Miao, H G He, J F Xian
Objective: To study the alteration of the optic radiations in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography, and to reveal the correlation between the DTI derived parameters and the severity of the disease. Methods: A total of 24 patients with POAG and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study from January 2011 to June 2013.All subjects underwent ophthalmoscopy, standard automatic perimetry, intraocular pressure measurement and MRI scanning...
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219180/-advances-in-effect-of-unilateral-auditory-deprivation-on-sound-localization
#20
J F Liu, J S Dai, N Y Wang
In patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), the interaural time difference and the interaural level difference signals are insufficient or missing, which result in the lack of sound localization ability and the decrease of speech comprehension in the noise environments. SSD can also cause the morphological and functional changes of the central auditory system, resulting in auditory deprivation. In early stage of the development, the auditory center is more susceptible to ambient environment and auditory inputs...
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
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