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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912964/is-the-south-african-triage-scale-valid-for-use-in-afghanistan-haiti-and-sierra-leone
#1
Mohammed Dalwai, Pola Valles, Michele Twomey, Yvonne Nzomukunda, Prince Jonjo, Manoj Sasikumar, Masood Nasim, Abdul Razaaq, Olivia Gayraud, Pierre Ronald Jecrois, Lee Wallis, Katie Tayler-Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) in four Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported emergency departments (ED, two trauma-only sites, one mixed site (both medical and trauma cases) and one paediatric-only site) in Afghanistan, Haiti and Sierra Leone. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted between June 2013 and June 2014. Validity was assessed by comparing patients' SATS ratings with their final ED outcome (ie, hospital admission, death or discharge)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910810/concurrent-infection-with-plasmodium-vivax-and-the-dengue-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-a-paediatric-patient-from-new-delhi-india-in-2016
#2
Ayesha Tazeen, Mohd Abdullah, Malik Hisamuddin, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Hirday N Verma, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Dengue and chikungunya fevers are transmitted by the common mosquito vector Aedes and malaria by Anopheles. Concurrent infections are reported due to co-circulation of these pathogens, especially in endemic regions. We report a rare case of triple infection with 3 arthropod-borne pathogens (Plasmodium vivax and the dengue and chikungunya viruses) in a 3-year-old child from New Delhi, India, in August 2016. The viruses were identified by RT-PCR and the parasite by microscopy and antigen detection. The dengue virus serotype 3 sequence was clustered in the genotype III by the phylogenetic analysis...
September 15, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904111/a-literature-review-of-the-effect-of-malaria-on-stunting
#3
REVIEW
Bianca D Jackson, Robert E Black
Background: The current version of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) maternal and child health impact modeling software does not include an effect of malaria on stunting.Objective: This literature review was undertaken to determine whether such a causal link should be included in the LiST model.Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched by using broad search terms. The searches returned a total of 4281 documents. Twelve studies from among the retrieved documents were included in the review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902879/chronic-plasmodium-brasilianum-infections-in-wild-peruvian-tamarins
#4
Gideon A Erkenswick, Mrinalini Watsa, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante, Patricia G Parker
There is an increased interest in potential zoonotic malarias. To date, Plasmodium malariae that infects humans remains indistinguishable from Plasmodium brasilianum, which is widespread among New World primates. Distributed throughout tropical Central and South America, the Callitrichidae are small arboreal primates in which detection of natural Plasmodium infection has been extremely rare. Most prior screening efforts have been limited to small samples, the use of low-probability detection methods, or both...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900620/can-mixed-parasite-infections-thwart-targeted-malaria-elimination-program-in-india
#5
Upasana Shyamsunder Singh, Nisha Siwal, Veena Pande, Aparup Das
India is highly endemic to malaria with prevalence of all five species of human malaria parasites of Plasmodium genus. India is set for malaria elimination by 2030. Since cases of mixed Plasmodium species infections remain usually undetected but cause huge disease burden, in order to understand the distributional prevalence of both monospecies infections and mixed species infections in India, we collated published data on the differential infection incidences of the five different malaria parasites based on PCR diagnostic assay...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895080/population-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-artemisinin-resistance-in-southeast-asia
#6
Jesmin Lohy Das, Arjen M Dondorp, Francois Nosten, Aung Pyae Phyo, Warunee Hanpithakpong, Pascal Ringwald, Pharath Lim, Nicholas J White, Mats O Karlsson, Martin Bergstrand, Joel Tarning
Orally administered artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line treatment against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria worldwide. However, the increasing prevalence of artemisinin resistance is threatening efforts to treat and eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to characterize the exposure-response relationship of artesunate in patients with artemisinin sensitive and resistant malaria infections. Patients were recruited in Pailin, Cambodia (n = 39), and Wang Pha, Thailand (n = 40), and received either 2 mg/kg/day of artesunate mono-therapy for 7 consecutive days or 4 mg/kg/day of artesunate monotherapy for 3 consecutive days followed by mefloquine 15 and 10 mg/kg for 2 consecutive days...
September 11, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893264/maximizing-research-study-effectiveness-in-malaria-elimination-settings-a-mixed-methods-study-to-capture-the-experiences-of-field-based-staff
#7
Sara E Canavati, Cesia E Quintero, Britt Haller, Dysoley Lek, Sovann Yok, Jack S Richards, Maxine Anne Whittaker
BACKGROUND: In a drug-resistant, malaria elimination setting like Western Cambodia, field research is essential for the development of novel anti-malarial regimens and the public health solutions necessary to monitor the spread of resistance and eliminate infection. Such field studies often face a variety of similar implementation challenges, but these are rarely captured in a systematic way or used to optimize future study designs that might overcome similar challenges. Field-based research staff often have extensive experience and can provide valuable insight regarding these issues, but their perspectives and experiences are rarely documented and seldom integrated into future research protocols...
September 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863338/perceptions-of-incentives-offered-in-a-community-based-malaria-diagnosis-and-treatment-program-in-the-highlands-of-papua-new-guinea
#8
Camilla Burkot, Laura Naidi, Liesel Seehofer, Kevin Miles
What motivates community-based health workers to provide care in rural and remote areas, often on a voluntary or casual basis, is a key question for program managers and public health officials. This paper examines how a range of incentives offered as part of the Marasin Stoa Kipa program, a community-based malaria diagnosis and treatment program that has been implemented since 2007 within a major oil and gas development area in Papua New Guinea, are perceived and critiqued by community-based health workers...
August 23, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860870/early-treatment-failure-in-concurrent-dengue-and-mixed-malaria-species-infection-with-suspected-resistance-to-artemisinin-combination-therapy-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-delhi-a-case-report
#9
Rushika Saksena, Monika Matlani, Vineeta Singh, Amit Kumar, Anupam Anveshi, Dilip Kumar, Rajni Gaind
BACKGROUND: Concurrent dengue and mixed malaria infections in a single patient present with overlapping clinical manifestations which pose a diagnostic challenge and management dilemma in areas of common endemicities. METHODS: We report a case of a young male who tested positive for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum along with dengue infection. He showed signs of early treatment failure to artemisinin combination therapy (artesunate with sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine)...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854248/maternal-health-care-initiatives-causes-of-morbidities-and-mortalities-in-two-rural-districts-of-upper-west-region-ghana
#10
Joshua Sumankuuro, Judith Crockett, Shaoyu Wang
BACKGROUND: Maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities have received much attention over the years in sub-Saharan Africa; yet addressing them remains a profound challenge, no more so than in the nation of Ghana. This study focuses on finding explanations to the conditions which lead to maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities in rural Ghana, particularly the Upper West Region. METHOD: Mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the medical and non-medical causes of maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities in two rural districts of the Upper West Region of Ghana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841864/comparison-of-statistical-models-to-estimate-parasite-growth-rate-in-the-induced-blood-stage-malaria-model
#11
Leesa F Wockner, Isabell Hoffmann, Peter O'Rourke, James S McCarthy, Louise Marquart
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of vaccines aimed at inhibiting the growth of malaria parasites in the blood can be assessed by comparing the growth rate of parasitaemia in the blood of subjects treated with a test vaccine compared to controls. In studies using induced blood stage malaria (IBSM), a type of controlled human malaria infection, parasite growth rate has been measured using models with the intercept on the y-axis fixed to the inoculum size. A set of statistical models was evaluated to determine an optimal methodology to estimate parasite growth rate in IBSM studies...
August 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818084/do-the-venous-blood-samples-replicate-malaria-parasite-densities-found-in-capillary-blood-a-field-study-performed-in-naturally-infected-asymptomatic-children-in-cameroon
#12
Maurice M Sandeu, Albert N Bayibéki, Majoline T Tchioffo, Luc Abate, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Parfait H Awono-Ambéné, Sandrine E Nsango, Diadier Diallo, Antoine Berry, Gaétan Texier, Isabelle Morlais
BACKGROUND: The measure of new drug- or vaccine-based approaches for malaria control is based on direct membrane feeding assays (DMFAs) where gametocyte-infected blood samples are offered to mosquitoes through an artificial feeder system. Gametocyte donors are identified by the microscopic detection and quantification of malaria blood stages on blood films prepared using either capillary or venous blood. However, parasites are known to sequester in the microvasculature and this phenomenon may alter accurate detection of parasites in blood films...
August 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816023/community-sensitization-and-decision-making-for-trial-participation-a-mixed-methods-study-from-the-gambia
#13
Susan Dierickx, Sarah O'Neill, Charlotte Gryseels, Edna Immaculate Anyango, Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Joseph Okebe, Julia Mwesigwa, Fatou Jaiteh, René Gerrets, Raffaella Ravinetto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Ensuring individual free and informed decision-making for research participation is challenging. It is thought that preliminarily informing communities through 'community sensitization' procedures may improve individual decision-making. This study set out to assess the relevance of community sensitization for individual decision-making in research participation in rural Gambia. METHODS: This anthropological mixed-methods study triangulated qualitative methods and quantitative survey methods in the context of an observational study and a clinical trial on malaria carried out by the Medical Research Council Unit Gambia...
August 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810865/cryptic-plasmodium-ovale-concurrent-with-mixed-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-malariae-infection-in-two-children-from-central-african-republic
#14
Cynthia Bichara, Philippe Flahaut, Damien Costa, Anne-Lise Bienvenu, Stephane Picot, Gilles Gargala
BACKGROUND: Since several malaria parasite species are usually present in a particular area, co-infections with more than one species of Plasmodium are more likely to occur in humans infected in these areas. In many mixed infections, parasite densities of the cryptic species may be low and often not recognized in clinical practice. CASE PRESENTATION: Two children (3 and 6 years old) adopted recently from Central African Republic were admitted to hospital because of intermittent fever...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771493/differing-growth-responses-to-nutritional-supplements-in-neighboring-health-districts-of-burkina-faso-are-likely-due-to-benefits-of-small-quantity-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-lns
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sonja Y Hess, Janet M Peerson, Elodie Becquey, Souheila Abbeddou, Césaire T Ouédraogo, Jérôme W Somé, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo, Stephen A Vosti, Noël Rouamba, Kenneth H Brown
BACKGROUND: Of two community-based trials among young children in neighboring health districts of Burkina Faso, one found that small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) increased child growth compared with a non-intervention control group, but zinc supplementation did not in the second study. OBJECTIVES: We explored whether the disparate growth outcomes were associated with differences in intervention components, household demographic variables, and/or children's morbidity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764717/a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-malaria-exposure-and-changing-serostatus-in-a-malaria-endemic-area-of-rural-tanzania
#16
Ryan A Simmons, Leonard Mboera, Marie Lynn Miranda, Alison Morris, Gillian Stresman, Elizabeth L Turner, Randall Kramer, Chris Drakeley, Wendy P O'Meara
BACKGROUND: Measurements of anti-malarial antibodies are increasingly used as a proxy of transmission intensity. Most serological surveys are based on the use of cross-sectional data that, when age-stratified, approximates historical patterns of transmission within a population. Comparatively few studies leverage longitudinal data to explicitly relate individual infection events with subsequent antibody responses. METHODS: The occurrence of seroconversion and seroreversion events for two Plasmodium falciparum asexual stage antigens (MSP-1 and AMA-1) was examined using three annual measurements of 691 individuals from a cohort of individuals in a malaria-endemic area of rural east-central Tanzania...
August 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750669/population-level-estimates-of-the-proportion-of-plasmodium-vivax-blood-stage-infections-attributable-to-relapses-among-febrile-patients-attending-adama-malaria-diagnostic-centre-east-shoa-zone-oromia-ethiopia
#17
Lemu Golassa, Michael T White
BACKGROUND: Malaria is ranked as the leading communicable disease in Ethiopia, where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are co-endemic. The incidence of P. vivax is usually considered to be less seasonal than P. falciparum. Clinical cases of symptomatic P. falciparum exhibit notable seasonal variation, driven by rainfall-dependent variation in the abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes. A similar peak of clinical cases of P. vivax is usually observed during the rainy season. However, the ability of P...
July 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748840/cardiovascular-involvement-in-severe-malaria-a-prospective-study-in-ranchi-jharkhand
#18
Hemant Narayan Ray, Darshit Doshi, Appu Rajan, Amit K Singh, S B Singh, M K Das
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Malaria is considered as the most important parasitic disease of humans, causing seri- ous illness that can be fatal, if not diagnosed and treated immediately. It is a multisystem disorder affecting nearly every system of the body. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the involvement of cardiovascular system in severe malaria using non-invasive methods. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on patients of severe malaria who were admitted between June and November 2015 in the Department of Medicine, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India...
April 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743266/non-falciparum-malaria-imported-mainly-from-africa-a-review-from-a-portuguese-hospital
#19
Rogério Ruas, André Pinto, João Nuak, António Sarmento, Cândida Abreu
BACKGROUND: Non-falciparum malaria (NFM) has been reported to be responsible for around 25% of imported malaria cases in Europe but is often neglected due to its less severe clinical course when compared to Plasmodium falciparum. Differentiation between species is however crucial for a correct approach. The objective of this study is to report the cases of this often missed aetiology of malaria in a tertiary hospital in Portugal. METHODS: Data were retrospectively analysed from patients admitted from January 2006 to August 2016 with a NFM diagnosis based on microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) (BinaxNow(®)) and/or PCR...
July 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722583/a-direct-from-blood-reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-monitoring-falciparum-malaria-parasite-transmission-in-elimination-settings
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Brian J Taylor, Kjerstin Lanke, Shanna L Banman, Isabelle Morlais, Merribeth J Morin, Teun Bousema, Sanna R Rijpma, Stephanie K Yanow
We describe a novel one-step reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (direct RT-PCR) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites that amplifies RNA targets directly from blood. We developed the assay to identify gametocyte-specific transcripts in parasites from patient blood samples, as a means of monitoring malaria parasite transmission in field settings. To perform the test, blood is added directly to a master mix in PCR tubes and analyzed by real-time PCR. The limit of detection of the assay on both conventional and portable real-time PCR instruments was 100 parasites/mL for 18S rRNA, and 1,000 parasites/mL for asexual (PFE0065W) and gametocyte (PF14_0367, PFGEXP5) mRNA targets...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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