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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625839/surveillance-of-upper-respiratory-infections-by-using-newly-multiplex-pcr-assay-compared-to-conventional-methods-during-influenza-season-in-taiwan
#1
Shu-Chun Chiu, Yung-Cheng Lin, Hsiao-Chi Wang, Jen-Jen Hsu, Ting-Kai Yeh, Hsin-Fu Liu, Jih-Hui Lin
OBJECTIVES: To improve the diagnosis of laboratory surveillance, we conducted influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance by using newly multiplex PCR Assay (FilmArray) compared to conventional methods during winter period in Taiwan. METHODS: Throat swabs from ILI patients presenting to physicians in sentinel practices were collected during 2016-2017 influenza season. RESULTS: A total of 52 samples were tested positive by FilmArray-Respiratory Panel, 40% of them were influenza A virus, subtype H3N2 viruses were the major epidemic strains...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621106/a-rapid-and-efficient-screening-method-for-antibacterial-compound-producing-bacteria
#2
Sachithra Amarin Hettiarachchi, Su-Jin Lee, Youngdeuk Lee, Young-Kyung Kwon, Mahanama De Zoysa, Song Moon, Eunyoung Jo, Taeho Kim, Do-Hyung Kang, Soo-Jin Heo, Chulhong Oh
Antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. The overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. This study is focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. Eight randomly selected marine target bacteria species (Agrococcus terreus, Bacillus algicola, Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra, P...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614101/clinical-characteristics-of-allergy-to-hymenoptera-stings
#3
Nualanong Visitsunthorn, Teera Kijmassuwan, Kittipos Visitsunthorn, Panchama Pacharn, Orathai Jirapongsananuruk
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of allergy to stings from the Hymenoptera order of insects in a hospital in Thailand. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective analytical study was carried out in inpatients and outpatients suffering from Hymenoptera stings from 2009 to 2013 in Siriraj Hospital. RESULTS: Medical records of 386 patients with an allergy to Hymenoptera stings were evaluated. Anaphylaxis was more common in patients younger than 15 years, who comprised 22...
June 13, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603278/transmission-of-the-gut-microbiota-spreading-of-health
#4
REVIEW
Hilary P Browne, B Anne Neville, Samuel C Forster, Trevor D Lawley
Transmission of commensal intestinal bacteria between humans could promote health by establishing, maintaining and replenishing microbial diversity in the microbiota of an individual. Unlike pathogens, the routes of transmission for commensal bacteria remain unappreciated and poorly understood, despite the likely commonalities between both. Consequently, broad infection control measures that are designed to prevent pathogen transmission and infection, such as oversanitation and the overuse of antibiotics, may inadvertently affect human health by altering normal commensal transmission...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602521/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-postweaning-piglets-understanding-the-keys-to-health
#5
REVIEW
Raphaële Gresse, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Mickaël Alain Fleury, Tom Van de Wiele, Evelyne Forano, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
Weaning is a critical event in the pig's life cycle, frequently associated with severe enteric infections and overuse of antibiotics; this raises serious economic and public health concerns. In this review, we explain why gut microbiota dysbiosis, induced by abrupt changes in the diet and environment of piglets, emerges as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhea, even if the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Then, we focus on nonantimicrobial alternatives, such as zinc oxide, essential oils, and prebiotics or probiotics, which are currently evaluated to restore intestinal balance and allow a better management of the crucial weaning transition...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595925/jinggangmycin-suppressed-reproduction-in-the-small-brown-planthopper-sbph-laodelphax-striatellus-fallen-is-mediated-by-glucose-dehydrogenase-gdh
#6
Jun Ding, You Wu, Lin-Lin You, Bin Xu, Lin-Quan Ge, Guo-Qing Yang, Jin-Cai Wu
The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen), is a serious pest insect of rice, wheat, and maize in China. SBPH not only sucks plant sap but also transmits plant disease viruses, causing serious damage. These viruses include rice striped virus disease (RSV disease), black streaked dwarf, and maize rough disease virus. SBPH outbreaks are related to the overuse of pesticides in China. Some pesticides, such as triazophos, stimulate the reproduction of SBPH, but an antibiotic fungicide jinggangmycin (JGM) suppresses its reproduction...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587974/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-sitafloxacin-vs-ertapenem-as-a-switch%C3%A2-therapy-after-treatment-for-acute-pyelonephritis-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-a-pilot-study
#7
Chitprasong Malaisri, Angsana Phuphuakrat, Arrug Wibulpolprasert, Pitak Santanirand, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul
BACKGROUND: The overuse and misuse of carbapenems have contributed to the antibiotic resistance crisis. The role of oral fluoroquinolones as a switch therapy for the treatment of urinary tract infection from Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of sitafloxacin and ertapenem for non-bacteremic acute pyelonephritis caused by ESBL-EC. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial of patients with acute pyelonephritis caused by ESBL-EC was performed as a pilot study...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587172/the-rising-tide-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-aquaculture-sources-sinks-and-solutions
#8
REVIEW
Joy E M Watts, Harold J Schreier, Lauma Lanska, Michelle S Hale
As the human population increases there is an increasing reliance on aquaculture to supply a safe, reliable, and economic supply of food. Although food production is essential for a healthy population, an increasing threat to global human health is antimicrobial resistance. Extensive antibiotic resistant strains are now being detected; the spread of these strains could greatly reduce medical treatment options available and increase deaths from previously curable infections. Antibiotic resistance is widespread due in part to clinical overuse and misuse; however, the natural processes of horizontal gene transfer and mutation events that allow genetic exchange within microbial populations have been ongoing since ancient times...
June 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583227/differential-diagnosis-and-proper-treatment-of-acute-rhinosinusitis-guidance-based-on-historical-data-analysis
#9
Gregor Cevc
BACKGROUND: The time course of rhinovirus positive and negative rhinosinusitis has not been quantified yet, which aggravates proper selection and justification of the optimum treatment for this illness. Such quantitative information would facilitate an early and proper identification of the disease and its differentiation from acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, and could diminish harmful overuse of antibiotics, arguably driven by patients' want for attention and the treating physicians' inability to offer an adequate verbal comfort in its stead...
June 1, 2017: Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566119/consultation-expectations-among-patients-with-respiratory-tract-infection-symptoms
#10
Gitte Bruun Lauridsen, Mette Sejr Sørensen, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Jette Østergaard Rathe, Dorte Ejg Jarbøl
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to public health, and antibiotic prescribing increases. About 90% of antibiotics are prescribed in general practice, mostly for acute respiratory tract infections. It is well known that patient expectations and general practitioners' misinterpretation of patients' expectations are associated with antibiotic overuse. The aim of this study was to explore Danish patients' expectations when consulting a general practitioner with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, and to determine predictors for these expectations...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559889/characterization-of-lipopeptide-biosurfactants-produced-by-bacillus-licheniformis-mb01-from-marine-sediments
#11
Yulin Chen, Shiliang A Liu, Haijin Mou, Yunxiao Ma, Meng Li, Xiaoke Hu
Antibiotic resistance has become one of the world's most severe problems because of the overuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are more difficult to kill and more expensive to treat. Researchers have been studied on antibiotic alternatives such as antimicrobial peptides and lipopeptides. A functional bacteria MB01 producing lipopeptides which can be used as bacteriostat was isolated from the Bohai Sea sediments, which had been identified as Bacillus licheniformis by the morphological, physiological, and biochemical identification and 16s rDNA sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554614/antibiotic-use-in-heavy-pigs-comparison-between-urine-and-muscle-samples-from-food-chain-animals-analysed-by-hplc-ms-ms
#12
Luca Maria Chiesa, Maria Nobile, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli
The antibiotic overuse in zoothechnics, due to prophylactic and therapeutic treatments, or to their growth-promoting activity, is a major cause for the onset of widespread antibiotic resistance. Of particular relevance to this study, is the antibiotic abuse in pig breeding. Despite the comprehensive literature on residue controls in pig muscle, data on pig urine, a non-invasive, on-farm collectable matrix, are lacking. Therefore, we validated an HPLC-MS/MS method to detect 29 antimicrobials from eight classes and applied it to 43 anonymous pig urine and muscle paired samples and fulfilled the parameters in agreement with the Commission Decision 2002/657/UE...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552780/the-genome-of-the-medicinal-plant-macleaya-cordata-provides-new-insights-into-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloids-metabolism
#13
Xiubin Liu, Yisong Liu, Peng Huang, Yongshuo Ma, Zhixing Qing, Qi Tang, Huifen Cao, Pi Cheng, Yajie Zheng, Zejun Yuan, Yuan Zhou, Jinfeng Liu, Zhaoshan Tang, Yixiu Zhuo, Yancong Zhang, Linlan Yu, Jialu Huang, Peng Yang, Qiong Peng, Jinbo Zhang, Wenkai Jiang, Zhonghua Zhang, Kui Lin, Dae-Kyun Ro, Xiaoya Chen, Xingyao Xiong, Yi Shang, Sanwen Huang, Jianguo Zeng
The overuse of antibiotics in animal agriculture and medicine has caused a series of potential threats to public health. Macleaya cordata is a medicinal plant species from the Papaveraceae family and a safe resource for the manufacture of anti-microbial feed additive for livestock. The active constituents from M. cordata are known to be benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), including sanguinarine (SAN) and chelerythrine (CHE), but these metabolic pathways have yet to be studied in this non-model plant. The active biosynthesis of SAN and CHE in M...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546563/microbiota-in-t-cell-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Naeun Lee, Wan-Uk Kim
The etiology of disease pathogenesis can be largely explained by genetic variations and several types of environmental factors. In genetically disease-susceptible individuals, subsequent environmental triggers may induce disease development. The human body is colonized by complex commensal microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. With the adaptation to modern lifestyles, its composition has changed depending on host genetics, changes in diet, overuse of antibiotics against infection and elimination of natural enemies through the strengthening of sanitation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542707/-urinary-tract-infection-requiem-for-a-heavyweight
#15
Thomas E Finucane
"Urinary tract infection" ("UTI") is an ambiguous, expansive, overused diagnosis that can lead to marked, harmful antibiotic overtreatment. "Significant bacteriuria," central to most definitions of "UTI," has little significance in identifying individuals who will benefit from treatment. "Urinary symptoms" are similarly uninformative. Neither criterion is well defined. Bacteriuria and symptoms remit and recur spontaneously. Treatment is standard for acute uncomplicated cystitis and common for asymptomatic bacteriuria, but definite benefits are few...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531289/management-of-bacteriuria-in-veterans-affairs-hospitals
#16
Emily S Spivak, Muriel Burk, Rongping Zhang, Makoto M Jones, Melinda M Neuhauser, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Francesca E Cunningham
Background: Bacteriuria contributes to antibiotic overuse through treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and long durations of therapy for symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs), yet large-scale evaluations of bacteriuria management among inpatients are lacking. Methods: Inpatients with bacteriuria were classified as asymptomatic or symptomatic based on established criteria applied to data collected by manual chart review. We examined frequency of treatment of ASB, factors associated with treatment of ASB, durations of therapy, and frequency of complications including Clostridium difficile infection, readmission and all-cause mortality within 28 days of discharge...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528649/metal-resistance-and-its-association-with-antibiotic-resistance
#17
Chandan Pal, Karishma Asiani, Sankalp Arya, Christopher Rensing, Dov J Stekel, D G Joakim Larsson, Jon L Hobman
Antibiotic resistance is recognised as a major global threat to public health by the World Health Organization. Currently, several hundred thousand deaths yearly can be attributed to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The major driver for the development of antibiotic resistance is considered to be the use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Nonantibiotic compounds, such as antibacterial biocides and metals, may also contribute to the promotion of antibiotic resistance through co-selection...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526836/characterisation-of-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-danish-general-practice-a-retrospective-registry-based-cohort-study
#18
Rune Aabenhus, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Laura Trolle Saust, Lars Bjerrum
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice...
May 19, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520621/outbreaks-in-the-adult-icus
#19
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Yaseen M Arabi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infectious disease outbreaks in the critical care setting are common and serious consequence. This article reviews and summarizes recent outbreaks in the adult ICUs. RECENT FINDINGS: Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and emerging viruses in ICUs from different countries are common. Outbreak investigation relies on epidemiologic methods, microbiologic studies, and molecular typing methods. Overuse of antibiotics, gaps in implementing infection prevention measures, and contaminated environment are common causes of ICU outbreaks...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504895/progress-toward-inhibitors-of-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases
#20
Ross P McGeary, Daniel Tc Tan, Gerhard Schenk
The global overuse of antibiotics has led to the emergence of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria can combat β-lactams by expressing β-lactamases. Inhibitors of one class of β-lactamase, the serine-β-lactamases, are used clinically to prevent degradation of β-lactam antibiotics. However, a second class of β-lactamase, the metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), function by a different mechanism to serine-β-lactamases and no inhibitors of MBLs have progressed to be used in the clinic. Bacteria that express MBLs are an increasingly important threat to human health...
May 15, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
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