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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909252/nurses-as-antibiotic-brokers-institutionalized-praxis-in-the-hospital
#1
Alex Broom, Jennifer Broom, Emma Kirby, Graham Scambler
We are likely moving rapidly toward a post-antibiotic era, as a result of escalating antimicrobial resistance, rapidly declining antibiotic production and profligate overuse. Hitherto research has almost exclusively focused on doctors' prescribing, with nurses' roles in antibiotic use remaining virtually invisible. Drawing on interviews with 30 nurses, we focus on nurses as brokers of doctors' antibiotic decisions, nursing capacity to challenge doctors' decisions, and, "back stage" strategies for circumnavigating organizational constraints...
November 30, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896609/moral-polemics-of-far-reaching-economic-consequences-of-antibiotics-overuse
#2
Marek Vochozka, Anna Maroušková, Petr Šuleř
The unethical overuse of antibiotics to seek to achieve a shortening of the treatment period raises the cost of health services and poses a threat to humanity due to the gradual development of antibiotic resistance. Other consequences of our modern passion for antibiotics have appeared. Small concentrations of antibiotic residues in sewage waters slow down the metabolism of anaerobic microorganism thereby reducing the overall performance of the anaerobic fermentation used to detoxify and digest sewage and other collected organic wastes...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892497/optimising-antibiotic-usage-to-treat-bacterial-infections
#3
Iona K Paterson, Andy Hoyle, Gabriela Ochoa, Craig Baker-Austin, Nick G H Taylor
The increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria poses a threat to the continued use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics has been identified as a significant driver in the emergence of resistance. Finding optimal treatment regimens is therefore critical in ensuring the prolonged effectiveness of these antibiotics. This study uses mathematical modelling to analyse the effect traditional treatment regimens have on the dynamics of a bacterial infection. Using a novel approach, a genetic algorithm, the study then identifies improved treatment regimens...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866945/a-global-call-from-five-countries-to-collaborate-in-antibiotic-stewardship-united-we-succeed-divided-we-might-fail
#4
REVIEW
Debra A Goff, Ravina Kullar, Ellie J C Goldstein, Mark Gilchrist, Dilip Nathwani, Allen C Cheng, Kelly A Cairns, Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Maria Virginia Villegas, Adrian Brink, Dena van den Bergh, Marc Mendelson
In February, 2016, WHO released a report for the development of national action plans to address the threat of antibiotic resistance, the catastrophic consequences of inaction, and the need for antibiotic stewardship. Antibiotic stewardship combined with infection prevention comprises a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to optimise use of antibiotics. Efforts to mitigate overuse will be unsustainable without learning and coordinating activities globally. In this Personal View, we provide examples of international collaborations to address optimal prescribing, focusing on five countries that have developed different approaches to antibiotic stewardship-the USA, South Africa, Colombia, Australia, and the UK...
November 17, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843438/a-decade-long-commitment-to-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-in-portugal
#5
REVIEW
Catarina M Marinho, Tiago Santos, Alexandre Gonçalves, Patrícia Poeta, Gilberto Igrejas
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a worldwide problem with serious health and economic repercussions. Since the 1940s, underuse, overuse, and misuse of antibiotics have had a significant environmental downside. Large amounts of antibiotics not fully metabolized after use in human and veterinary medicine, and other applications, are annually released into the environment. The result has been the development and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to many years of selective pressure. Surveillance of AMR provides important information that helps in monitoring and understanding how resistance mechanisms develop and disseminate within different environments...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814677/a-single-center-observational-study-on-emergency-department-clinician-non-adherence-to-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-treatment-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections
#6
Catherine Zatorski, Mark Zocchi, Sara E Cosgrove, Cynthia Rand, Gillian Brooks, Larissa May
BACKGROUND: The Emergency Department (ED) is a frequent site of antibiotic use; poor adherence with evidence-based guidelines and broad-spectrum antibiotic overuse is common. Our objective was to determine rates and predictors of inappropriate antimicrobial use in patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) compared to the 2010 International Clinical Practice Guidelines (ICPG). METHODS: A single center, prospective, observational study of patients with uncomplicated UTI presenting to an urban ED between September 2012 and February 2014 that examined ED physician adherence to ICPG when treating uncomplicated UTIs...
November 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812159/enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-the-river-danube-antibiotic-resistances-with-a-focus-on-the-presence-of-esbl-and-carbapenemases
#7
Clemens Kittinger, Michaela Lipp, Bettina Folli, Alexander Kirschner, Rita Baumert, Herbert Galler, Andrea J Grisold, Josefa Luxner, Melanie Weissenbacher, Andreas H Farnleitner, Gernot Zarfel
In a clinical setting it seems to be normal these days that a relevant proportion or even the majority of different bacterial species has already one or more acquired antibiotic resistances. Unfortunately, the overuse of antibiotics for livestock breeding and medicine has also altered the wild-type resistance profiles of many bacterial species in different environmental settings. As a matter of fact, getting in contact with resistant bacteria is no longer restricted to hospitals. Beside food and food production, the aquatic environment might also play an important role as reservoir and carrier...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806931/the-mechanism-of-ros-regulation-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-antimicrobial-lethality
#8
Ma Lina, Mi Hongfei, Xue Yunxin, Wang Dai, Zhao Xilin
Misuse and overuse of antibiotics have led to serious resistance problems that pose a grave threat to human health. How to solve the increasing antibiotic resistance problem is a huge challenge. Besides the traditional strategy of developing novel antimicrobial agents, exploring ways to enhance the lethal activity of antibiotics currently available is another feasible approach to fight against resistance. Recent studies showed that ROS plays an important role in regulating both antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial lethality...
October 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797411/antibiotic-use-in-infancy-and-neurocognitive-outcomes-in-children-the-role-of-bacterial-denitrification
#9
Keith Fluegge
Slykerman et al. (1) recently investigated the role of antibiotic use in early life and later adverse neurocognitive outcomes in children. The authors utilized as their cohort 871 mothers and their children at birth from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Data on antibiotic use during early life were collected from maternal interview, and behavioral assessments and intelligence test scores were obtained at the ages of 3.5, 7, and 11. The authors reported that those individuals treated with antibiotics experienced more behavioral difficulties and depressive symptomatology during the follow-up periods...
October 31, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790945/functionalization-of-nanostructures-for-antibiotic-improvement-an-interdisciplinary-approach
#10
Acm Saúde, O L Franco
The resistance of infectious bacteria to current antibiotics is a worldwide problem caused, partially, by the overuse of antimicrobials. The use of nanotechnology as an innovative tool against bacterial infections provides a range of methodologies to redesign old antibiotics for novel and remarkable new strategies. Thus, functionalized antibiotics present structures with improved bioavailability, low toxicity and specificity to bacterial membrane. In this context, this review will describe the use of nanotechnology as an innovative tool to functionalize antibiotics...
October 28, 2016: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784575/the-appropriate-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-ppis-need-for-a-reappraisal
#11
REVIEW
Vincenzo Savarino, Pietro Dulbecco, Nicola de Bortoli, Andrea Ottonello, Edoardo Savarino
The advent of powerful acid-suppressive drugs, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), has revolutionized the management of acid-related diseases and has minimized the role of surgery. The major and universally recognized indications for their use are represented by treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in combination with antibiotics, therapy of H. pylori-negative peptic ulcers, healing and prophylaxis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated gastric ulcers and control of several acid hypersecretory conditions...
October 23, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769449/a-highly-selective-electrochemical-sensor-for-chloramphenicol-based-on-three-dimensional-reduced-graphene-oxide-architectures
#12
Xuan Zhang, Yi-Chi Zhang, Jia-Wei Zhang
Chloramphenicol (CAP), as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been worldwide banned for using in the food producing animals due to its overuse may cause severe threats to public health. It is therefore highly desirable to develop facile, selective and sensitive biosensor for CAP detection and monitoring in drug and foodstuff samples. In this work, three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3DRGO) architectures were prepared through a green and template-free approach and used as active electrode materials to develop a highly selective electrochemical sensor for CAP detection...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752235/active-educational-intervention-as-a-tool-to-improve-safe-and-appropriate-use-of-antibiotics
#13
Mayadah B Shehadeh, Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Eman A Hammad
Misconception about antibiotics use among the public has been widely outlined to be a main reason for inappropriate use of antibiotics including failure to complete treatment, skipping of doses, re-use of leftover medicines and overuse of antibiotics. The study was devised to evaluate whether education might be a potential strategy to promote safer use of antibiotics and reducing self-medication. Two hundred seventy one adults were asked to complete two questionnaires; a pre and posteducation. The questionnaires comprised of three parts consisting of 17 statements assessing the knowledge on: appropriate use, safe use and resistance of antibiotics...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749962/the-quality-of-outpatient-care-delivered-to-adults-in-the-united-states-2002-to-2013
#14
David M Levine, Jeffrey A Linder, Bruce E Landon
Importance: Widespread deficits in the quality of US health care were described over a decade ago. Since then, local, regional, and national efforts have sought to improve quality and patient experience, but there is incomplete information about whether such efforts have been successful. Objective: To measure changes in outpatient quality and patient experience in the United States from 2002 to 2013. Design, Setting, and Participants: We analyzed temporal trends from 2002 to 2013 using quality measures constructed from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative annual survey of the US population that collects data from individual respondents as well as respondents' clinicians, hospitals, pharmacies, and employers...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747832/general-practitioners-prescribing-patterns-at-primary-healthcare-centers-in-national-health-insurance-gezira-sudan
#15
Bashir Mohamed Elmahi Yousif, Siripen Supakankunti
BACKGROUND: The appropriate use of medicines is essential for the provision of quality health services, patient safety, and the rational use of health resources. In Sudan, general practitioners (GPs) provide 80 % of insured patients' health services. Pharmaceutical service costs have been increasing since 2010. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to use the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs prescribing indicators to assess prescription quality among GPs in different types of primary healthcare centers (PHCCs) within the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in Gezira State, Sudan...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744059/effect-of-mixed-bacillus-spp-isolated-from-pustulose-ark-anadara-tuberculosa-on-growth-survival-viral-prevalence-and-immune-related-gene-expression-in-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#16
Ana Claudia Sánchez-Ortiz, Carlos Angulo, Antonio Luna-González, Píndaro Álvarez-Ruiz, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova
The widespread overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistance shrimp pathogens, the negative impact on shrimp gut microbiota, and the presence of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture products, with negative consequences on human health. Alternatively, probiotics have positive effects on immunological responses and productive performance of aquatic animals. In this study, three probiotic bacteria, (Bacillus licheniformis MAt32, B. subtilis MAt43 and B. subtilis subsp...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716565/performance-and-microbial-community-of-a-sequencing-batch-biofilm-reactor-treating-synthetic-mariculture-wastewater-under-long-term-exposure-to-norfloxacin
#17
Dong Zheng, Qingbo Chang, Zhiwei Li, Mengchun Gao, Zonglian She, Xuejiao Wang, Liang Guo, Yangguo Zhao, Chunji Jin, Feng Gao
The performance and microbial community of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) treating synthetic mariculture wastewater were evaluated under long-term exposure to norfloxacin (NFX) due to the overuse of antibiotics during the mariculture. The COD and NH4(+)-N removals had no distinct change at 0-6mgL(-1) NFX and were inhibited at 6-35mgL(-1) NFX. The specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), specific ammonium oxidation rate (SAOR), specific nitrite oxidation rate (SNOR) and specific nitrate reduction rate (SNRR) of the biofilm kept a decreasing tendency with the increase of NFX concentration from 0 to 35mgL(-1)...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709564/the-potential-of-lactobacillus-casei-and-entercoccus-faecium-combination-as-a-preventive-probiotic-against-entamoeba
#18
Nitya Sarjapuram, Niharika Mekala, Meetali Singh, Utpal Tatu
Travellers' diarrhoea caused by enteric protozoa like Entamoeba histolytica is among the most common protozoan diseases in developing countries. In developing countries, amoebiasis is the second most prevalent protozoan disease. This protozoan parasite is often known to coexist as a part of the normal gut microbiota. It is estimated that around 50-60 % of population in developing countries might be harbouring Entamoeba in an asymptomatic manner. Due to physiological perturbation or upon immuno-compromise, it can become virulent and then cause diarrhoea, bloody stools and may invade other organs if left untreated...
October 5, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704014/outpatient-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-for-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infection-in-women-in-the-united-states-2002-2011
#19
Miwako Kobayashi, Daniel J Shapiro, Adam L Hersh, Guillermo V Sanchez, Lauri A Hicks
Background.  Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common diagnoses leading to an antibiotic prescription for women seeking ambulatory care. Understanding current national outpatient antibiotic prescribing practices will help ongoing stewardship efforts to optimize antibiotic use; however, information on recent national outpatient antibiotic prescribing trends for UTI is limited. Methods.  We analyzed the National Ambulatory Medical Care and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey datasets from 2002 to 2011...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697043/the-antibacterial-activity-of-metal-complexes-containing-1-10-phenanthroline-potential-as-alternative-therapeutics-in-the-era-of-antibiotic-resistance
#20
Lívia Viganor, Orla Howe, Pauraic McCarron, Malachy McCann, Michael Devereux
The "antibiotic era", characterized by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, over the last half-century has culminated in the present critical "era of resistance". The treatment of bacterial infections is challenging because of a decline in the current arsenal of useful antibiotics and the slow rate of new drug development. The discovery of a new gene (mcr-1) in 2015, which enables bacteria to be highly resistant to polymyxins (such as colistin), the last line of antibiotic defence left, heralds a new level of concern as this gene is susceptible to horizontal gene transfer, with alarming potential to be spread between different bacterial populations, suggesting that the progression from "extensive drug resistance" to "pan-drug resistance" may be inevitable...
October 3, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
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