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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686487/global-governance-mechanisms-to-address-antimicrobial-resistance
#1
Ponnu Padiyara, Hajime Inoue, Marc Sprenger
Since their discovery, antibiotics, and more broadly, antimicrobials, have been a cornerstone of modern medicine. But the overuse and misuse of these drugs have led to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, which occurs when bacteria adapt in ways that render antibiotics ineffective. A world without effective antibiotics can have drastic impacts on population health, global development, and the global economy. As a global common good, antibiotic effectiveness is vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons, where a shared limited resource is overused by a community when each individual exploits the finite resource for their own benefit...
2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685459/educational-intervention-to-enhance-adherence-to-short-term-use-of-antibiotics
#2
Lorna Marie West, Maria Cordina
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to short-term antibiotics is considered to be one of the factors leading to medicines wastage, and this can increase misuse of medicine taking, promote antibiotic resistance and cause environmental pollution. Interventions developed to enhance adherence to short-term antibiotics should be easily implementable into daily practice. No studies utilising Normalization Process Theory to develop interventions aiming to enhance adherence to antibiotics were identified...
April 11, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676754/carbon-nanotubes-as-antimicrobial-agents-for-water-disinfection-and-pathogen-control
#3
Dan Liu, Yiqin Mao, Lijun Ding
Waterborne diseases significantly affect human health and are responsible for high mortality rates worldwide. Antibiotics have been known for decades for treatment of bacterial strains and their overuse and irrational applications are causing increasing bacteria resistance. Therefore, there is a strong need to find alternative ways for efficient water disinfection and microbial control. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have demonstrated strong antimicrobial properties due to their remarkable structure. This paper reviews the antimicrobial properties of CNTs, discusses diverse mechanisms of action against microorganisms as well as their applicability for water disinfection and microbial control...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674796/prescriber-and-dispenser-perceptions-about-antibiotic-use-in-acute-uncomplicated-childhood-diarrhea-and-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-new-delhi-qualitative-study
#4
Anita Kotwani, P C Joshi, Urmila Jhamb, Kathleen Holloway
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the prescribing practices, knowledge, and attitudes of primary care doctors and community pharmacists, regarding antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and diarrhea in children to better understand causes of misuse and identify provider suggestions to change such behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two focus group discussions (FGDs) each were conducted with primary care government doctors (GDs), private general practitioners (GPs), pediatricians, and community pharmacists in Delhi...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671132/effects-of-county-public-hospital-reform-on-procurement-costs-and-volume-of-antibiotics-a-quasi-natural-experiment-in-hubei-province-china
#5
Yuqing Tang, Chaojie Liu, Junjie Liu, Xinping Zhang, Keyuan Zuo
BACKGROUND: The overuse of antibiotics has become a major public health challenge worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries, including China. In 2009, the Chinese government launched a series of measures to de-incentivise over-prescription in public health facilities, including decoupling the link between facility income and the sale of medicines. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of these measures on procurement costs and the volume of antibiotics in county public hospitals...
April 18, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655522/antibiotics-as-instigators-of-microbial-dysbiosis-implications-for-asthma-and-allergy
#6
REVIEW
Tomasz P Wypych, Benjamin J Marsland
The human body and its resident microbiota form a complex ecosystem, shaped by both inherited and environmental factors. The use of antibiotics represents an extreme example of environmental pressure and can broadly disrupt the microbial landscape. The benefits that antibiotics have brought to modern medicine are unquestionable; however, their overuse comes with consequences, including the potential for secondary infections by opportunistic pathogens and the spread of antibiotic resistance. Here, we discuss the implications of microbial dysbiosis driven by antibiotics, with a focus on potential links with allergy and asthma...
March 14, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652754/pattern-of-antibiotic-prescription-for-oral-implant-treatment-among-dentists-in-saudi-arabia
#7
Khalid E El-Kholey, Othman Wali, Aamna Elkomy, Ahmed Almozayen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate antibiotic prophylaxis prescription behavior among dentists practicing dental implant surgery in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational questionnaire study was conducted in the period between October 2016 and December 2016. A link to an online previously validated questionnaire was sent to a convenience sample of dentists practicing dental implant placement in the different areas of Saudi Arabia. Absolute frequencies were used to describe the data...
April 12, 2018: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627625/the-depressed-central-carbon-and-energy-metabolisms-is-associated-to-the-acquisition-of-levofloxacin-resistance-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#8
Zhi-Xue Cheng, Man-Jun Yang, Bo Peng, Xuan-Xian Peng, Xiang-Min Lin, Hui Li
The overuse and misuse of antibiotics lead to bacterial antibiotic resistance, challenging human health and intensive cultivation. It is especially required to understand for the mechanism of antibiotic resistance to control antibiotic-resistant pathogens. The present study characterized the differential proteome of levofloxacin-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus with the most advanced iTRAQ quantitative proteomics technology. A total of 160 proteins of differential abundance were identified, where 70 were decreased and 90 were increased...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625989/a-cell-penetrating-peptide-fused-phage-lysin-kills-intracellular-mrsa-in-keratinocytes-and-treatment-for-skin-infections-of-mice
#9
ZhaoFei Wang, LiCheng Kong, Yang Liu, Qiang Fu, ZeLin Cui, Jian Wang, JingJiao Ma, HengAn Wang, YaXian Yan, JianHe Sun
Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) is the major pathogen that causes skin and skin structure infections, which is able to survive and persist in keratinocytes of the epidermis. Since the evolution of multi-drug resistant bacteria, the use of phages and their lysins presents a promising alternative approach. In this study, a cell wall hydrolase (also called lysin) derived from Staphylococcus phage JD007, short for JDlys, was identified. The JDlys showed a strong lytic activity against MRSA strains from different sources and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) types...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619292/rate-of-antibiotic-prescriptions-in-german-outpatient-care-are-the-guidelines-followed-or-are-they-still-exceeded
#10
Janine Zweigner, Elisabeth Meyer, Petra Gastmeier, Frank Schwab
Aim: The consequences of antibiotic overuse are substantial. We combined and analyzed the infection diagnoses and antibiotic prescribing practices of physicians in outpatient settings. Recommendations for targeting policy efforts to focused areas are given. Methods: Antibiotic prescriptions and infections diagnosed were provided by a German statutory health insurance provider over a 12-month period. Antibiotic use was expressed as prescriptions per 100 patients. Results: 2,594,000 patient-physician contacts within twelve months were analyzed...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619015/colonization-dynamics-of-cefotaxime-resistant-bacteria-in-beef-cattle-raised-without-cephalosporin-antibiotics
#11
Raies A Mir, Thomas A Weppelmann, Lin Teng, Alexander Kirpich, Mauricio A Elzo, Joseph D Driver, Kwangcheol C Jeong
The emergence of infections caused by antimicrobial resistant microorganisms (ARMs) is currently one of the most important challenges to public health and medicine. Though speculated to originate at least partially from the overuse of antibiotics during food animal production, we hypothesized that cattle are exposed to ARMs in the environment. In this cohort study, a herd of beef calves with no previous exposure to antibiotics was followed during the first year of life in order to investigate the rate of colonization by bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614373/pcr-screening-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-faecal-samples-from-australian-and-chinese-children
#12
Joshua T Ravensdale, Darren Ten Wei Xian, Chooi Ming Wei, Quanjun Lv, Xiajian Wen, Jing Guo, Ranil Coorey, Peter LeSouëf, Fengmin Lu, Brad Zhang, Gary A Dykes
OBJECTIVES: Recent public awareness campaigns on the risk of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes has placed pressure on governments to enforce stricter antimicrobial stewardship policies on the hospital and agricultural industry. This study aimed to screen faecal samples from Australian and Chinese children for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes to identify demographics at risk of carriage of these genes and examine antimicrobial stewardship policies from the two countries which may influence carriage...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613975/antibiotic-overuse-in-premature-low-birth-weight-infants-in-a-developing-country
#13
Maria S Rueda, Renzo Calderon-Anyosa, Jorge Gonzales, Christie G Turin, Alonso Zea-Vera, Jaime Zegarra, Sicilia Bellomo, Luis Cam, Anne Castaneda, Theresa J Ochoa
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of child morbidity and mortality, especially in premature and low-birth-weight (LBW) infants. Prompt antibiotic therapy is warranted, but its inappropriate use leads to bacterial resistance and adverse outcomes. Our objective is to describe the antibiotic use for late onset sepsis (LOS) in Peruvian premature infants. METHODS: Prospective study as a secondary analysis of a clinical trial in three Neonatal Care Units in Peru...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611878/prospective-assessment-of-peristomal-infections-using-objective-criteria
#14
Manpreet S Mundi, Sara Seegmiller, Jacob Davidson, Jill Schneckloth, Jessica Saied, Ryan T Hurt
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition (EN) is a safe and cost-effective intervention with significant morbidity and mortality benefit that can also be associated with complications. Peristomal infections can occur in 5%-30% of cases after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement. Despite this common occurrence, widespread use of objective diagnostic criteria is not prevalent, possibly leading to overuse of antibiotics. METHODS: All patients who were reporting symptoms consistent with peristomal infection were evaluated...
December 27, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608420/influence-of-long-term-feeding-antibiotics-on-the-gut-health-of-zebrafish
#15
Li Zhou, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Fang Qiao, Zhen-Yu Du, Meiling Zhang
The use of antibiotics for anti-infection and growth promotion has caused the overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture. However, the benefit or risk of the long-term use of antibiotics on fish growth or health has not been fully addressed. In the present study, zebrafish were fed with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) or oxytetracycline (OTC) at the therapeutic concentrations (100 and 80 mg/kg body weight per day, respectively) for 6 weeks to mimic the long-term use of antibiotics. The digestive enzyme activities were higher in both antibiotic treatments, and higher oxygen consumption rate was found in OTC treated group...
April 2, 2018: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605741/degradation-and-removal-of-ceftriaxone-sodium-in-aquatic-environment-with-bi-2-wo-6-g-c-3-n-4-photocatalyst
#16
Yanyan Zhao, Xuhua Liang, Yongbo Wang, Huanxian Shi, Enzhou Liu, Jun Fan, Xiaoyun Hu
Modern chemistry aims to identify outstanding photocatalytic materials for antibiotic degradation given the overuse and misuse of antibiotics. Herein, highly efficient heterojunction photocatalysts composed of Bi2 WO6 nanoflowers (BW) and g-C3 N4 nanosheets (CNNs) were successfully synthesized. The Bi2 WO6 /g-C3 N4 (BW/CNNs) were presented for Ceftriaxone sodium degradation in the aquatic environment at low concentrations under visible light irradiation. The 40%-BW/CNNs showed excellent photocatalytic activity, and approximately 94...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605191/a-quality-improvement-intervention-to-reduce-emergency-department-radiography-for-bronchiolitis
#17
Joel Reiter, Adin Breuer, Oded Breuer, Saar Hashavya, David Rekhtman, Eitan Kerem, Malena Cohen-Cymberknoh
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infants. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that a chest X-ray (CXR) should not be routinely obtained in the diagnosis of bronchiolitis, as studies have shown that they do not affect clinical outcomes, but rather lead to overuse of pharmacological agents and a longer length of hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether active institution of bronchiolitis practice guidelines as part of a quality improvement project decreased the use of CXRs in the Pediatric Emergency Department (ED)...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603811/utility-of-catheterized-specimens-in-reducing-overdiagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-women
#18
Carrie M Aisen, Erica Ditkoff, Arindam RoyChoudhury, Michele Corish, Matthew P Rutman, Doreen E Chung, Gina M Badalato, Kimberly L Cooper
AIMS: To evaluate the utility of catheterized samples in reducing overdiagnosis of UTI based on voided specimens among patients presenting with a range of urinary symptoms. We also aimed to determine variables that may modify the predictive value of the voided midstream urine culture. METHODS: Patient charts were reviewed to identify female patients referred to our voiding dysfunction clinic with a range of complaints warranting urine studies (5/2014-8/2016). Patients with a positive voided urine culture who also had a catheterized urine culture in our system were included...
March 31, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601448/antibiotic-overuse-in-children-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#19
Chantal B van Houten, Christiana Naaktgeboren, Brigitte J M Buiteman, Maaike van der Lee, Adi Klein, Isaac Srugo, Irina Chistyakov, Wouter de Waal, Clemens B Meijssen, Pieter W Meijers, Karin M de Winter-de Groot, Tom F W Wolfs, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas, Michal Stein, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) during the first year of life. Antibiotic treatment is recommended in cases suspected of bacterial co-infection. The aim of this prospective study is to estimate the incidence of bacterial co-infections, and the amount of antibiotic overuse in children infected with RSV using expert panel diagnosis. METHODS: Children one month of age and over with LRTI or fever without source were prospectively recruited in hospitals in the Netherlands and Israel...
March 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596346/1st-german-phage-symposium-conference-report
#20
Irene Huber, Katerina Potapova, Andreas Kuhn, Herbert Schmidt, Jörg Hinrichs, Christine Rohde, Wolfgang Beyer
In Germany, phage research and application can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century. However, with the triumphal march of antibiotics around the world, the significance of bacteriophages faded in most countries, and respective research mainly focused on fundamental questions and niche applications. After a century, we pay tribute to the overuse of antibiotics that led to multidrug resistance and calls for new strategies to combat pathogenic microbes. Against this background, bacteriophages came into the spotlight of researchers and practitioners again resulting in a fast growing "phage community"...
March 29, 2018: Viruses
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