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overuse of antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228985/investigating-the-burden-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-ethnic-minority-groups-in-high-income-countries-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Hannah Lishman, Paul Aylin, Vivian Alividza, Enrique Castro-Sanchez, Anuja Chatterjee, Victor Mariano, Alan P Johnson, Samir Jeraj, Céire Costelloe
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is an urgent problem globally, with overuse and misuse of antibiotics being one of the main drivers of antibiotic-resistant infections. There is increasing evidence that the burden of community-acquired infections such as urinary tract infections and bloodstream infections (both susceptible and resistant) may differ by ethnicity, although the reasons behind this relationship are not well defined. It has been demonstrated that socioeconomic status and ethnicity are often highly correlated with each other; however, it is not yet known whether accounting for deprivation completely explains any discrepancy seen in infection risk...
December 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196453/physician-preferences-surrounding-urinary-tract-infection-management-in-neonates
#2
Neha S Joshi, Brian P Lucas, Alan R Schroeder
OBJECTIVES: Variability exists in the treatment of neonates with urinary tract infection (UTI), potentially reflecting an overuse of resources. A cross-sectional vignette survey was designed to examine variability in physician preferences for intravenous (IV) antibiotic duration, genitourinary imaging, and prophylactic antibiotics and to evaluate drivers of resource use. METHODS: The survey was administered to a random sample of pediatricians through the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile...
December 1, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168046/procalcitonin-guided-antibiotic-therapy-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Hui-Bin Huang, Jin-Min Peng, Li Weng, Chun-Yao Wang, Wei Jiang, Bin Du
BACKGROUND: Serum procalcitonin (PCT) concentration is used to guide antibiotic decisions in choice, timing, and duration of anti-infection therapy to avoid antibiotic overuse. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to seek evidence of different PCT-guided antimicrobial strategies for critically ill patients in terms of predefined clinical outcomes. METHODS: We searched for relevant studies in PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library up to 25 February 2017...
November 22, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168013/clinical-features-and-treatment-of-pediatric-patients-with-drug-induced-anaphylaxis-a-study-based-on-pharmacovigilance-data
#4
Yan Xing, Hua Zhang, Shusen Sun, Xiang Ma, Roy A Pleasants, Huilin Tang, Hangci Zheng, Suodi Zhai, Tiansheng Wang
We assessed the clinical features and treatment of pediatric patients with drug-induced anaphylaxis in clinical settings. Pediatric drug-induced anaphylaxis cases collected by the Beijing Pharmacovigilance Database from 2004 to 2014 were analyzed. A total of 91 cases were identified. Drug-induced anaphylaxis was primarily caused by antibiotics (53%). Children of 0-5 years were more likely to develop cyanosis symptoms than children of 13-17 years (OR = 5.14, 95%CI [1.74, 15.20], P = 0.002). Children of 13-17 years were more likely to develop hypotension than children of 6-12 years (OR = 11...
November 22, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153252/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-pediatric-post-acute-care-facilities
#5
Candace L Johnson, Meaghan Jain, Lisa Saiman, Natalie Neu
Providers in pediatric post-acute care facilities were surveyed about knowledge of and resources for antimicrobial stewardship. All agreed that antibiotics were overused in such pediatric facilities, but 60% had not implemented stewardship strategies. Lack of treatment guidelines (47%) was identified as the most common barrier to antimicrobial stewardship.
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140661/an-international-model-for-antibiotics-regulation
#6
Emilie Aguirre
We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120606/management-of-respiratory-infections-with-use-of-procalcitonin-moving-toward-more-personalized-antibiotic-treatment-decisions
#7
Yannick Wirz, Angela Branche, Michel Wolff, Tobias Welte, Vandack Nobre, Konrad Reinhart, Ann R Falsey, Pierre Damas, Albertus Beishuizen, Rodrigo O Deliberato, Yahya Shehabi, Jens-Ulrik S Jensen, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
Due to overlap of clinical findings and low sensitivity of bacterial diagnostic tests, differentiation between bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections remains challenging, ultimately leading to antibiotic overuse in this population of patients. Addition of procalcitonin, a blood biomarker expressed by epithelial cells in response to bacterial infections, to the clinical assessment leads to a reduction in inappropriate antibiotic initiation. Procalcitonin also provides prognostic information about the resolution of illness, and significant decreases over time are a strong signal for the discontinuation of antibiotics...
November 9, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109308/triclosan-hazards-of-overuse-are-not-limited-to-antibiotics
#8
Nakul Uppal, Krishnamurthy Bonanthaya
Antibiotic abuse by patients and overprescription by some dentists are problems in modern healthcare practice. Less understood are the deleterious effects of antiseptics in oral care products marketed for routine home use. Ample literature exists to condemn the routine use of mouthrinses, but criticism focuses on alcohol content and its effects on oral mucosa.(1) We highlight the more insidious problem of triclosan, which is added as an antiseptic to toothpastes and mouthrinses.
November 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080051/reducing-unnecessary-chest-x-rays-antibiotics-and-bronchodilators-through-implementation-of-the-nice-bronchiolitis-guideline
#9
Richard Breakell, Benjamin Thorndyke, Julie Clennett, Christian Harkensee
Chest X-rays (CXR), antibiotics and inhaled/nebulized therapy are overused in bronchiolitis, despite evidence-based guidelines suggesting supportive management only. This study investigates the effect of the implementation of the NICE bronchiolitis guideline in a secondary paediatric unit in England. We present a quality improvement project with a completed audit cycle (winter 2014-2015 and 2015-2016) pre- and post-implementation of the NICE bronchiolitis guideline. The educational intervention included sessions for raising awareness of appropriate and inappropriate management of bronchiolitis for both clinicians and nursing staff...
October 28, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079152/antibiotic-stewardship-in-nursing-facilities
#10
REVIEW
Miranda McElligott, Grace Welham, Aurora Pop-Vicas, Lyndsay Taylor, Christopher J Crnich
Misuse and overuse of antibiotic therapy is a frequent cause of resident harm in nursing facilities. As a result, newly released policy and regulatory initiatives will require antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) in nursing facilities. Although implementing ASPs can be challenging, improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing is achievable in this setting. The authors review the determinants of antibiotic prescribing in nursing facilities, strategies to improve antibiotic prescribing in this setting, current status of ASPs in nursing facilities, and steps that facilities can take to enhance existing ASP structure and process...
December 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078905/sphingosine-rescues-aged-mice-from-pulmonary-pseudomonas-infection
#11
Teresa C Rice, Amanda M Pugh, Aaron P Seitz, Erich Gulbins, Vanessa Nomellini, Charles C Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Bacterial lung infection is a leading cause of death for those 65 y or older, often requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation, which consumes considerable health care resources. Although administration of antibiotics is the standard of care for bacterial pneumonia, its overuse has led to the emergence of multidrug resistant organisms. Therefore, alternative strategies to help minimize the effects of bacterial pneumonia in the elderly are necessary...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039160/influenza-vaccines-for-preventing-acute-otitis-media-in-infants-and-children
#12
REVIEW
Mohd N Norhayati, Jacqueline J Ho, Mohd Y Azman
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children. It has been reported that 64% of infants have an episode of AOM by the age of six months and 86% by one year. Although most cases of AOM are due to bacterial infection, it is commonly triggered by a viral infection. In most children AOM is self limiting, but it does carry a risk of complications. Since antibiotic treatment increases the risk of antibiotic resistance, influenza vaccines might be an effective way of reducing this risk by preventing the development of AOM...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034850/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-variants-obtained-from-veterinary-clinical-samples-reveal-a-role-for-cyclic-di-gmp-in-biofilm-formation-and-colony-morphology
#13
Maria T Brock, Galya C Fedderly, Grace I Borlee, Michael M Russell, Liliana K Filipowska, Doreene R Hyatt, Ryan A Ferris, Bradley R Borlee
Overuse of antibiotics is contributing to an emerging antimicrobial resistance crisis. To better understand how bacteria adapt tolerance and resist antibiotic treatment, Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from infection sites sampled from companion animals were collected and evaluated for phenotypic differences. Selected pairs of clonal isolates were obtained from individual infection samples and were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, cyclic di-GMP levels, biofilm production, motility and genetic-relatedness...
October 16, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022964/nocardia-arthritidis-keratitis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Andrew Gieger, Stephen Waller, Joseph Pasternak
INTRODUCTION: Keratitis due to Nocardia infection is not commonly encountered in clinical practice and may therefore be mistaken for fungal or viral keratitis leading to delayed treatment and increased risk of permanent visual impairment. CASE: An otherwise healthy 27 years old Caucasian Active Duty military member presented to the clinic with three days of light sensitivity and irritation of his right eye. He carried a history of PRK in both eyes six years prior and admitted to recent contact lens overuse...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992328/what-parents-think-about-the-risks-and-benefits-of-antibiotics-for-their-child-s-acute-respiratory-tract-infection
#15
Julia E Szymczak, Sarah B Klieger, Matthew Miller, Alexander G Fiks, Jeffrey S Gerber
Background: Parental pressure is often cited as a reason for why pediatricians overuse antibiotics for children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). We sought to capture parent perceptions of antibiotics at the time of their child's presentation with an ARTI. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with parents of children who presented with ARTI symptoms to 1 of 4 diverse practices in a large hospital-affiliated network of pediatric primary care practices...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979121/optimization-and-integration-of-nanosilver-on-polycaprolactone-nanofibrous-mesh-for-bacterial-inhibition-and-wound-healing-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Menglong Liu, Gaoxing Luo, Ying Wang, Weifeng He, Tengfei Liu, Daijun Zhou, Xiaohong Hu, Malcolm Xing, Jun Wu
Bacterial infection is a major hurdle to wound healing, and the overuse of antibiotics have led to global issue, such as emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, even "super bacteria". On the contrary, nanosilver (NS) can kill bacteria without causing resistant bacterial strains. In this study, NS was simply generated in situ on the polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous mesh using an environmentally benign and mussel-inspired dopamine (DA). Scanning electron microscopy showed that NS uniformly formed on the nanofibers of PCL mesh...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978750/rapid-pathogen-specific-phenotypic-antibiotic-susceptibility-testing-using-digital-lamp-quantification-in-clinical-samples
#17
Nathan G Schoepp, Travis S Schlappi, Matthew S Curtis, Slava S Butkovich, Shelley Miller, Romney M Humphries, Rustem F Ismagilov
Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is urgently needed for informing treatment decisions and preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance resulting from the misuse and overuse of antibiotics. To date, no phenotypic AST exists that can be performed within a single patient visit (30 min) directly from clinical samples. We show that AST results can be obtained by using digital nucleic acid quantification to measure the phenotypic response of Escherichia coli present within clinical urine samples exposed to an antibiotic for 15 min...
October 4, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973636/influence-of-point-of-care-c-reactive-protein-testing-on-antibiotic-prescription-habits-in-primary-care-in-the-netherlands
#18
Tim J Schuijt, David S Boss, Ruben E A Musson, Ayse Y Demir
Background: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics represents a serious global challenge that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. One of the most important causes of this threat is antibiotic overuse. The Dutch College of General Practitioners (DCGP) recommends the use of point-of-care (POC) testing for C-reactive protein (CRP) in two guidelines ('Acute Cough' and 'Diverticulitis') to achieve a more sensible prescription pattern of antibiotics. Objective: To evaluate the use of POC-CRP testing in light of the DCGP guidelines and the effect of CRP measurements on antibiotic prescription policy in primary care...
September 1, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973402/2017-update-on-medical-overuse-a-systematic-review
#19
Daniel J Morgan, Sanket S Dhruva, Eric R Coon, Scott M Wright, Deborah Korenstein
Importance: Overuse of medical care is a well-recognized problem. Objective: To identify and highlight original research articles published in 2016 that are most relevant to understanding medical overuse or strategies to reduce it. Evidence Review: A structured review of English-language articles on PubMed published in 2016 coupled with examination of tables of contents of high-impact journals to identify articles related to medical overuse in adults...
October 2, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906047/a-systematic-review-to-explore-influences-on-parental-attitudes-towards-antibiotic-prescribing-in-children
#20
REVIEW
Helen Bosley, Catherine Henshall, Jane V Appleton, Debra Jackson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To understand the factors influencing parental attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing. BACKGROUND: Overuse of antibiotics and inappropriate prescribing has resulted in rapid development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and is a significant global threat to patient safety. In primary care settings, substantial numbers of antibiotics are prescribed for young children, despite viral nature of illness for which antibiotics are ineffective. Parents play a vital role in decision-making regarding accessing healthcare services and requesting treatment for their children...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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