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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930553/fetal-nucleic-acids-in-maternal-plasma-from-biology-to-clinical-translation
#1
Neha Bunkar, Arpit Bhargava, Koel Chaudhury, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Lohiya, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
Exposure to environmental contaminants during the critical window of pregnancy results in deregulation of highly coordinated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in prenatal growth. Such disturbances significantly alter the fetal programming, and lead to various developmental disorders immediately, over the lifetime, or transgenerationally. During the process of placental development, fetal nucleic acids enter maternal plasma as a result of necrotic, apoptotic, and inflammatory mechanisms. These nucleic acids reflect normal or abnormal ongoing cellular changes during prenatal fetal development...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914979/systemic-evaluation-of-vascular-dysfunction-by-high-resolution-sonography-in-an-n%C3%AF-nitro-l-arginine-methyl-ester-hydrochloride-induced-mouse-model-of-preeclampsia-like-symptoms
#2
Ying Zhao, Ning Yang, Hanying Li, Wei Cai, Xin Zhang, Yongqiang Ma, Xiulong Niu, Guohong Yang, Xin Zhou, Yuming Li
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate vascular function, including arterial resistance and endothelial function, by high-resolution sonography in an Nω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-induced mouse model of preeclampsia-like symptoms. METHODS: Pregnant mice were subcutaneously injected with a saline solution (control; n = 10) or l-NAME (n = 10) between the 7th and 18th days of gestation. The resistive index and pulsatility index (RI and PI, indicators of arterial resistance) of the uteroplacental, umbilical, femoral, and common carotid arteries and the flow-mediated dilatation (index of endothelial function) of the femoral artery were measured by high-frequency sonography in both groups...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913146/fetomaternal-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-hepatitis-e-infection-still-an-important-fetomaternal-killer-with-an-unresolved-mystery-of-increased-virulence-in-pregnancy
#3
Namrata Kumar, Vinita Das, Anjoo Agarwal, Amita Pandey, Smriti Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis is a prevalent infection in developing countries. While hepatitis B and C are deepening their roots in the developed world, hepatitis A and E are common in the developing world. The uniqueness of hepatitis is in its transformation from a relatively self-limiting disease in the non-pregnant state, to a highly virulent disease during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, for a period of six months from June 2016 to November 2016 [probably during an endemic peak of hepatitis E virus (HEV)] to observe the clinical outcomes in HEV-infected pregnant women...
June 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900713/complement-activation-a-threat-to-pregnancy
#4
REVIEW
Guillermina Girardi
Pregnancy poses a challenge for the immune systems of placental mammals. As fetal tissues are semi-allogeneic and alloantibodies that commonly develop in the mother, the fetus and the placenta might be subject to complement-mediated immune attack with the potential risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here, I describe how the use of animal models was pivotal in demonstrating that complement inhibition at the fetomaternal interface is essential for a successful pregnancy. Studies in animals also helped the identification of uncontrolled complement activation as a crucial effector in the pathogenesis of recurrent miscarriages, intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, and preterm birth...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864018/bovine-placentomal-heparanase-and-syndecan-expression-is-related-to-placental-maturation
#5
N Hambruch, S Kumstel, J-D Haeger, C Pfarrer
INTRODUCTION: Impaired placental maturation has been associated with retention of fetal membranes, which is a major reproductive disease in cattle. This maturation includes alterations in all tissue compartments of the placenta, specifically of epithelial and stroma cells and extracellular matrix. It is believed to be controlled by hormones, adhesion molecules and proteolytic enzymes. To investigate if the proteolytic enzyme heparanase and its substrates, the syndecans (SDCs) could be involved in the release of fetal membranes, their expression in bovine placentomes was analyzed...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842426/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-critical-for-pregnancy-loss-in-sphingosine-kinase-deficient-mice-on-129sv-c57bl-6-background
#6
Kiyomi Mizugishi, Kouhei Yamashita
Exaggerated maternal immune responses must be strictly controlled to ensure a successful pregnancy. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been implicated as a potential mechanism for promoting inflammation in pregnancy-related disorders. In this study, we demonstrated that NETs play a key role in the pathogenesis of sphingosine kinase (Sphk)-mediated pregnancy loss. Perturbing the sphingolipid pathway by disrupting Sphk genes during pregnancy led to excessive NET formation exclusively at the fetomaternal interface and early fetal death...
August 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837581/fetal-exposure-to-maternal-human-platelet-antigen-1a-does-not-induce-tolerance-an-analytical-observational-study
#7
Mette Kjær, Heidi Tiller, Gøril Heide, Jens Kjeldsen-Kragh, Bjørn Skogen, Anne Husebekk
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a disease that may cause severe bleeding complications with risk of perinatal death or lifelong disability. The main cause of FNAIT is maternal antibodies against human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a. Both fetomaternal bleeding and transplacental trafficking of fetal cells during pregnancy could be the cause of alloimmunization. Persistence of fetal cells in the mother (fetal microchimerism) and maternal cells in the child (maternal microchimerism) are well-recognized phenomena...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830992/integrative-single-cell-and-cell-free-plasma-rna-transcriptomics-elucidates-placental-cellular-dynamics
#8
Jason C H Tsang, Joaquim S L Vong, Lu Ji, Liona C Y Poon, Peiyong Jiang, Kathy O Lui, Yun-Bi Ni, Ka Fai To, Yvonne K Y Cheng, Rossa W K Chiu, Yuk Ming Dennis Lo
The human placenta is a dynamic and heterogeneous organ critical in the establishment of the fetomaternal interface and the maintenance of gestational well-being. It is also the major source of cell-free fetal nucleic acids in the maternal circulation. Placental dysfunction contributes to significant complications, such as preeclampsia, a potentially lethal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy. Previous studies have identified significant changes in the expression profiles of preeclamptic placentas using whole-tissue analysis...
August 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819490/maternofetal-outcome-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-among-pregnant-women-in-a-nigerian-teaching-hospital
#9
Kenneth Ebele Izuchukwu, Emmanuel Okwudili Oranu, Goddy Bassey, Ngozi Clare Orazulike
INTRODUCTION: Asymptomatic bacteriuria has been reported to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. This study sought to determine the prevalence and complications of asymptomatic bacteriuria amongst parturient in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). METHODS: The study was a prospective cohort study involving 220 eligible antenatal attendees. Urine culture and sensitivity was conducted for each participant and the fetomaternal outcome between affected and unaffected women were compared and p value <0...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761227/acute-kidney-injury-in-pregnancy-specific-disorders
#10
REVIEW
J Prakash, V C Ganiger
The incidence of acute kidney injury in pregnancy (P-AKI) has declined significantly over the last three decades in developing countries. However, it is still associated with significant fetomaternal mortality and morbidity. The diagnosis of P-AKI is based on the serum creatinine increase. The usual formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are not validated in this population. The incidence of P-AKI with respect to total AKI cases has decreased in the last three decades from 25% in 1980s to 9% in 2000s at our centre...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679758/a-cell-fusion-based-screening-method-identifies-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-protein-ly6e-as-the-receptor-for-mouse-endogenous-retroviral-envelope-syncytin-a
#11
Agathe Bacquin, Caroline Bireau, Maxime Tanguy, Charlotte Romanet, Cécile Vernochet, Anne Dupressoir, Thierry Heidmann
Syncytin genes are envelope genes of retroviral origin that have been exapted for a role in placentation. They are involved in the formation of a syncytial structure (the syncytiotrophoblast) at the fetomaternal interface via their fusogenic activity. The mouse placenta is unique among placental mammals since the fetomaternal interface comprises two syncytiotrophoblast layers (ST-I and ST-II) instead of one, as observed in humans and all other hemochorial placentae. Each layer specifically expresses a distinct mouse syncytin, namely, syncytin-A (SynA) for ST-I and syncytin-B (SynB) for ST-II, which have been shown to be essential to placentogenesis and embryo survival...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584742/antepartum-hemorrhage-a-retrospective-analysis-from-a-northern-nigerian-teaching-hospital
#12
Idris Usman Takai, Badia Maje Sayyadi, Hadiza Shehu Galadanci
BACKGROUND: Antepartum hemorrhage (APH) contributes significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality globally, particularly in the developing world like ours. Prevention, early detection, and prompt management cannot be overemphasized to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. OBJECTIVES: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence, etiology, sociodemographic characteristics, and the fetomaternal outcome of pregnancies complicated by APH in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano...
April 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574640/trigeminal-neuralgia-in-pregnancy-a-management-challenge
#13
Bhanu P Swain, Sri Vidhya, Ashok Jadon, Kumar N Chandra, Sharad K Sinha
Pregnancy is known to aggravate pre-existing chronic painful conditions. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), albeit a disease of elderly may afflict pregnant females which can further complicate its management. Teratogenic effects of the commonly used drugs on the developing fetus limit pharmacological treatment. Moreover safety of commonly performed interventional therapies is marred by their inherent fetomaternal effects and more importantly the risk of radiation effects on fetus due to the use of fluoroscopy. This rare coexistence of TN in pregnancy is never reported before...
June 2, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509414/the-normal-fetal-pancreas
#14
Zvi Kivilevitch, Reuven Achiron, Sharon Perlman, Yinon Gilboa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period...
October 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484250/maternal-depression-attenuates-newborn-vitamin-d-concentrations-in-winter-spring-a-prospective-population-based-study
#15
Qi-Fan Zhou, Meng-Xiao Zhang, Shi-Lu Tong, Rui-Xue Tao, Jia-Hu Hao, Kun Huang, Fang-Biao Tao, Peng Zhu
We aimed to investigate whether the newborns of mothers with maternal depression (MD) had lower vitamin D levels than newborns of non-MD (NMD) mothers and identify the potential mechanism underlying this association. Maternal depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and concentrations of cord blood 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured in 1491 mother-infant pairs. Data on maternal sociodemographic characteristics, health status, lifestyle and birth outcomes were prospectively collected. For infants born in winter-spring, the infants of MD mothers had significantly reduced concentrations of 25(OH) D (adjusted β = -3...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478827/mild-anemia-during-pregnancy-upregulates-placental-vascularity-development
#16
A Stangret, M Skoda, A Wnuk, M Pyzlak, D Szukiewicz
The connection between maternal hematological status and pregnancy outcome has been shown by many independent researchers. Attention was initially focused on the adverse effects of moderate and severe anemia. Interestingly, some studies revealed that mild anemia was associated with optimal fetal development and was not affecting pregnancy outcome. The explanation for this phenomenon became a target for scientists. Hemodilution, physiologic anemia and relative decrease in hemoglobin concentration are the changes observed during pregnancy but they do not explain the reasons for the positive influence of mild anemia on a fetomaternal unit...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458479/gestational-gigantomastia-a-systematic-review-of-case-reports
#17
Mishu Mangla, Deepak Singla
INTRODUCTION: Gestational gigantomastia (GG) is a rare disease characterized by diffuse, extreme, and incapacitating enlargement of one or both breasts during pregnancy. Although benign, it can lead to a great social, emotional, and physical disability. A good and complete knowledge regarding this rare but distressing clinical situation is a must among all practicing physicians especially obstetricians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of all the case reports and short case series, published in the English language in various databases in the last 40 years, i...
January 2017: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419453/obstetrics-and-gynecology-physician-knowledge-of-rh-immune-globulin-prophylaxis
#18
Amy Yu, Erin Morris, Richard Adams, Mark K Fung
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that more than 20% of laboratories would have recommended inaccurate doses of Rh immune globulin (RhIG) in hypothetical cases. Efforts have been made in educating laboratories in correct dosing calculations; however, obstetricians are most often responsible for ordering RhIG. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge of RhIG indications and dosing among obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) physicians in the United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: An anonymous 17- question online survey was distributed to all OB/GYN resident and attending physicians affiliated with US residency training programs...
June 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408909/the-maternal-diet-gut-bacteria-and-bacterial-metabolites-during-pregnancy-influence-offspring-asthma
#19
REVIEW
Lawrence E K Gray, Martin O'Hely, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter David Sly, Peter Vuillermin
This review focuses on the current evidence that maternal dietary and gut bacterial exposures during pregnancy influence the developing fetal immune system and subsequent offspring asthma. Part 1 addresses exposure to a farm environment, antibiotics, and prebiotic and probiotic supplementation that together indicate the importance of bacterial experience in immune programming and offspring asthma. Part 2 outlines proposed mechanisms to explain these associations including bacterial exposure of the fetoplacental unit; immunoglobulin-related transplacental transport of gut bacterial components; cytokine signaling producing fetomaternal immune alignment; and immune programming via metabolites produced by gut bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367190/labour-induction-with-gestational-hypertension-a-great-obstetric-challenge
#20
Meharun-Nissa Khaskheli, Shahla Baloch, Aneela Sheeba, Sarmad Baloch, Fahad Khan
OBJECTIVE: To observe the fetomaternal morbidity and mortality with induction of labour in pregnant women with gestational hypertension. METHODS: The subjected study population included was 138 pregnant women with gestational hypertension. These pregnant women were between 34-40 weeks of gestational period in whom labour was induced, while the pregnant women who had labour induction for other reasons were excluded. These women were registered on the predesigned proforma...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
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