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Alpha-linoleic acid

Erica Zamberletti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Valentina De Castro, Elisabetta Murru, Marina Gabaglio, Paola Colucci, Chiara Fanali, Pamela Prini, Tiziana Bisogno, Mauro Maccarrone, Patrizia Campolongo, Sebastiano Banni, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro
Imbalanced dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA content has been associated with a number of neurological conditions. Endocannabinoids are n-6 PUFA derivatives, whose brain concentrations are sensitive to modifications of fatty acid composition of the diet, and play a central role in the regulation of mood and cognition. As such, the endocannabinoid system appears to be an ideal candidate for mediating the effects of dietary fatty acids on mood and cognition. Lifelong administration of isocaloric alpha linolenic acid (ALA) deficient and enriched diets induced short-term memory deficits, whereas only dietary ALA enrichment altered emotional reactivity in adult male rats compared to animals fed a standard diet, balanced in ALA/linoleic (LA) ratio...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Sufang Shui, Xiaorong Cai, Rongqing Huang, Bingkun Xiao, Jianyun Yang
Yi Guanjian (YGJ), one of the Chinese herbal medicines most commonly used in western countries, reported to possess significant anti-inflammatary effects that inhibit the process of inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammation effects remain largely unresolved. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of YGJ and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms by serum metabonomics approach. An xylene-induced mouse right-ear-edema model was used as an inflammatory response in vivo model...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Michael C Rudolph, Bridget E Young, Kristina Harris Jackson, Nancy F Krebs, William S Harris, Paul S MacLean
Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Felix Royo, Laura Palomo, Justyna Mleczko, Esperanza Gonzalez, Cristina Alonso, Ibon Martínez, Miriam Pérez-Cormenzana, Azucena Castro, Juan M Falcon-Perez
Hepatocytes are involved in the endogenous and drug metabolism; many of the enzymes involved in those processes are incorporated into extracellular vesicles and secreted into the bloodstream. Liver-damaging conditions modify the molecular cargo of those vesicles significantly. However, no information about the effect of these hepatic vesicles on the extracellular environment is available. Drug-induced liver damage increases the number of circulating extracellular vesicles and affects the release and content of hepatocyte-derived vesicles...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Cristina Eslava-Zomeño, Amparo Quiles, Isabel Hernando
The fat in a sponge cake formulation was partially replaced (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) with OptiSol™5300.This natural functional ingredient derived from flax seeds, rich in fiber and alpha-linoleic acid, provides a natural substitute for guar and xanthan gums, avoiding E-numbers on labels. The structure and some physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined, sensory analysis was conducted and changes in starch digestibility due to adding this ingredient were determined. Increasing quantities of OptiSol™5300 gave harder cakes, with less weight loss during baking, without affecting the final cake height...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Hang Su, Dan Zhou, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Xingguo Wang, Manabu T Nakamura
In mammals, because they share a single synthetic pathway, n-6/n-3 ratios of dietary PUFAs impact tissue arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA content. Likewise, SNPs in the human fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster impact tissue ARA and DHA. Here we tested the feasibility of using heterozygous Fads2-null-mice (HET) as an animal model of human FADS polymorphisms. WT and HET mice were fed diets with linoleate/α-linolenate ratios of 1:1, 7:1, and 44:1 at 7% of diet. In WT liver, ARA and DHA in phospholipids varied >2× among dietary groups, reflecting precursor ratios...
November 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Nobuyuki Sakayori, Hisanori Tokuda, Kaichi Yoshizaki, Hiroshi Kawashima, Sheila M Innis, Hiroshi Shibata, Noriko Osumi
Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for normal brain development. The principal dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively, We have previously shown that maternal dietary imbalance between these PUFAs, i.e., rich in LA and poor in ALA, affected brain development and increased anxiety-related behavior in the mouse offspring. Here we further addressed sex difference in anxiety-related behavior in the offspring exposed to maternal LA:ALA imbalance...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
T L Schumacher, T L Burrows, M E Rollo, L G Wood, R Callister, C E Collins
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Limited dietary intake tools have been validated specifically for hyperlipidaemic adults. The Australian Eating Survey (AES) Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was adapted to include foods with cardio-protective properties (CVD-AES). The aims were to estimate dietary fatty acid (FA) intakes derived from the CVD-AES and AES and compare them with red blood cell (RBC) membrane FA content. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary intake was measured using the semi-quantitative 120-item AES and 177-item CVD-AES...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Mieke Cabout, Marjan Alssema, Giel Nijpels, Coen D A Stehouwer, Peter L Zock, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Amany K Elshorbagy, Helga Refsum, Jacqueline M Dekker
PURPOSE: Data on the relation between linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of serum LA and ALA with fasting and 2 h post-load plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). METHOD: This study included 667 participants from third examination (2000) of the population-based Hoorn study in which individuals with glucose intolerance were overrepresented...
July 14, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Simone Ravetto Enri, Manuela Renna, Massimiliano Probo, Carola Lussiana, Luca M Battaglini, Michele Lonati, Giampiero Lombardi
BACKGROUND: Plant composition of species-rich mountain grasslands can affect the sensorial and chemical attributes of dairy and meat products, with implications for human health. A multivariate approach was used to analyse the complex relationships between vegetation characteristics (botanical composition and plant community variables) and chemical composition (proximate constituent and fatty acid profile) in mesophilic and dry vegetation ecological groups, comprising six different semi-natural grassland types in the Western Italian Alps...
June 21, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ameer Y Taha, Marie Hennebelle, Jun Yang, Daisy Zamora, Stanley I Rapoport, Bruce D Hammock, Christopher E Ramsden
Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the North American diet and is a precursor to circulating bioactive fatty acid metabolites implicated in brain disorders. This exploratory study tested the effects of increasing dietary LA on plasma and cerebral cortex metabolites derived from LA, its elongation-desaturation products dihomo-gamma linolenic (DGLA, 20:3n-6) acid and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), as well as omega-3 alpha-linolenic (α-LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3)...
May 11, 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
J P Schuchardt, T Köbe, V Witte, J Willers, A Gingrich, V Tesky, J Pantel, D Rujescu, T Illig, A Flöel, A Hahn
BACKGROUND: Long-chain (> 20 C-atoms) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFAs) of both the omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) series are important for the functional integrity of brain and thereby cognition, memory and mood. Clinical studies observed associations between altered LC PUFA levels and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer´s disease and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: The present study examined the LC PUFA status of MCI patients with specific view on the relative LC n-3 PUFA levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocyte membranes (omega-3 index)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Vijay R More, Christopher R Campos, Rebecca A Evans, Keith D Oliver, Gary Ny Chan, David S Miller, Ronald E Cannon
Lipid sensor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) is the master regulator of lipid metabolism. Dietary release of endogenous free fatty acids, fibrates, and certain persistent environmental pollutants, e.g. perfluoroalkyl fire-fighting foam components, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligands. Here, we define a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in regulating the expression of three ATP-driven drug efflux transporters at the rat and mouse blood-brain barriers: P-glycoprotein (Abcb1), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2/Abcc2)...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Liang Liu, Qinling Hu, Huihui Wu, Yihong Xue, Liang Cai, Min Fang, Zhiguo Liu, Ping Yao, Yongning Wu, Zhiyong Gong
The effects of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular disease are controversial. We currently explored the effects of various ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on high-fat-induced atherosclerosis. In model apoE(-/-) mice, high-fat diets (HFD) were partially replaced with fish and algal oils (DHA/EPA 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) and/or plant oils enriched in linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids with an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1. PUFA supplementation significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area, serum lipid profile, inflammatory response, aortic ROS production, proinflammatory factors and scavenger receptor expression as compared to those in the HFD group...
June 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Manish K Patel, Avinash Mishra, Bhavanath Jha
Non-targeted metabolomics implies that psyllium (Plantago ovata) is a rich source of natural antioxidants, PUFAs (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids) and essential and sulfur-rich amino acids, as recommended by the FAO for human health. Psyllium contains phenolics and flavonoids that possess reducing capacity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. In leaves, seeds, and husks, about 76, 78, 58% polyunsaturated, 21, 15, 20% saturated, and 3, 7, 22% monounsaturated fatty acids were found, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Bo Shu, Weicai Li, Liqin Liu, Yongzan Wei, Shengyou Shi
Trunk girdling can increase carbohydrate content above the girdling site and is an important strategy for inhibiting new shoot growth to promote flowering in cultivated litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). However, girdling inhibits carbohydrate transport to the root in nearly all of the fruit development periods and consequently decreases root absorption. The mechanism through which carbohydrates regulate root development in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) remains largely unknown. Carbohydrate content, AM colonization, and transcriptome in the roots were analyzed to elucidate the interaction between host litchi and AM fungi when carbohydrate content decreases...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Indu Mani, Pratibha Dwarkanath, Tinku Thomas, Annamma Thomas, Anura V Kurpad
BACKGROUND: The quantity and quality of dietary fat during pregnancy play a key role in the growth and development of the fetus. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fat and fatty acid intakes in early pregnancy and birth outcomes in an apparent healthy normal South Indian population. METHODS: The study was a prospective observational cohort of 1838 pregnant women, conducted in South India. Intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) were assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and correlated with birthweight and incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) infants...
April 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi, Mohammad Mazani, Ali Nemati, Mojtaba Amani, Seyedyashar Alamolhoda, Reza Alipanah Mogadam
OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on some inflammatory factors in young healthy males during exhaustive exercise. METHODS: The randomised double-blind controlled study was conducted at Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from December 2012 to March2013, and comprised healthy male athletes 18-24 years of age. The subjects were randomly distributed into control and intervention groups. About 5.6 g/day conjugated linoleic acid supplement and oral paraffin (placebo) were given to intervention and control groups respectively daily for two weeks...
March 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Seong Ho Choi, Sung Kwon Park, Chang Weon Choi, Xiang Zi Li, Kyoung Hoon Kim, Won Young Kim, Joon Jeong, Bradley J Johnson, Linsen Zan, Stephen B Smith
We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments...
March 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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