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Alpha-linoleic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504119/the-ratio-of-1-3-linoleic-acid-to-alpha-linolenic-acid-is-optimal-for-oligodendrogenesis-of-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#1
Hossein Hejr, Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Maryam Ghafari, Farzad Sadri, Zinab Salehpour, Azadeh Hamedi, Koresh Negintaji, Hassan Azari, Amir Ghanbari
During neural development, embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) differentiate toward glial, oligodendrocytic, and neuronal cells. Dysregulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce a wide range of neurological and developmental disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect of various concentrations and ratios of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA), which belong respectively to omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, on the proliferation and differentiation of eNSCs.Results showed that low (25 and 50μM) or high (100 and 200μM) concentrations of ALA, but not LA, and the ratio of 1:3 of LA/ALA significantly increased neurospheres size, frequency and cell numbers, in comparison to controls...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503432/nutrient-patterns-and-risk-of-cataract-a-case-control-study
#2
Fatemeh Sedaghat, Matin Ghanavati, Parisa Nezhad Hajian, Sara Hajishirazi, Mehdi Ehteshami, Bahram Rashidkhani
AIM: To assess the relation between nutrient patterns and cataract risk. METHODS: This is a hospital-based case-control study with 97 cataract patients and 198 matched controls. Dietary consumption was collected through a valid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient patterns were detected by applying factor analysis. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (ORs) and 95%CIs. RESULTS: We extracted 5 main nutrient patterns...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450497/integrating-3-omics-data-analyze-rat-lung-tissue-of-copd-states-and-medical-intervention-by-delineation-of-molecular-and-pathway-alterations
#3
Jiansheng Li, Peng Zhao, Liping Yang, Ya Li, Yange Tian, Suyun Li
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious health problem. However, molecular pathogenesis of COPD remains unknown. Here, we explored the molecular effects of cigarette smoke and bacterial infection in lung tissues of COPD rats. We also investigated therapeutic effects of aminophylline (APL) on the COPD rats, and integrated transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome data for a global view of molecular mechanisms of COPD progression. Using molecular function and pathway analyses, the genes and proteins regulated in COPD and APL-treated rats were mainly attributed to oxidoreductase, antioxidant activity, energy and fatty acid metabolism...
April 27, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409336/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-differentially-alter-oxylipin-profiles-in-mouse-periuterine-adipose-tissue
#4
Yuriko Adkins, Benjamin J Belda, Theresa L Pedersen, Dawn M Fedor, Bruce E Mackey, John W Newman, Darshan S Kelley
Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting...
April 13, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395666/hydroxytyrosol-prevents-reduction-in-liver-activity-of-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-6-desaturases-oxidative-stress-and-depletion-in-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-content-in-different-tissues-of-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#5
Rodrigo Valenzuela, Francisca Echeverria, Macarena Ortiz, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Alejandra Espinosa, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Paola Illesca, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues...
April 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391893/red-blood-cell-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-mortality-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-memory-study
#6
William S Harris, Juhua Luo, James V Pottala, Mark A Espeland, Karen L Margolis, Joann E Manson, Lu Wang, Theodore M Brasky, Jennifer G Robinson
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) PUFA levels and risk for death. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 6501 women aged 65 to 80 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (enrolment began 1996). RBC PUFA levels were measured at baseline and expressed as a percent of total RBC PUFAs...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390839/validation-of-an-equation-predicting-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acid-hufa-compositions-of-human-blood-fractions-from-dietary-intakes-of-both-hufas-and-their-precursors
#7
Sarah E Strandjord, Bill Lands, Joseph R Hibbeln
Proportions of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) in 20- and 22-carbon highly unsaturated fatty acids with 3 or more double bonds (HUFA) accumulated in tissue HUFA (e.g., the %n-6 in HUFA) are biomarkers reflecting intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. An empirical equation, referred to here as the Lands' Equation, was developed previously to use dietary intakes of n-6 and n-3 HUFA and their 18-carbon precursors to estimate the %n-6 in HUFA of humans. From the PubMed database, we identified clinical trials reporting (a) dietary intake of at least linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), and (b) the amounts of at least arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in lipids of plasma, serum, or red blood cell...
March 8, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325998/glucomannan-and-glucomannan-plus-spirulina-enriched-pork-affect-liver-fatty-acid-profile-ldl-receptor-expression-and-antioxidant-status-in-zucker-fa-fa-rats-fed-atherogenic-diets
#8
Laura González-Torres, Cátia Matos, Miguel Vázquez-Velasco, Jorge A Santos-López, Iria Sánchez-Martínez, Camino García-Fernández, Sara Bastida, Juana Benedí, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
We evaluated the effects of glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina-restructured pork (RP) on liver fatty acid profile, desaturase/elongase enzyme activities and oxidative status of Zucker fa/fa rats for seven weeks. Control (C), glucomannan (G) and glucomannan/spirulina (GS)-RP; HC (cholesterol-enriched control), HG and HGS (cholesterol-enriched glucomannan and glucomannan/spirulina-RP) experimental diets were tested. Increased metabolic syndrome markers were found in C, G and GS rats. Cholesterol feeding increased liver size, fat, and cholesterol and reduced antioxidant enzyme levels and expressions...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281303/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-infants-born-at-term
#9
REVIEW
Bonny Jasani, Karen Simmer, Sanjay K Patole, Shripada C Rao
BACKGROUND: The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are considered essential for maturation of the developing brain, retina and other organs in newborn infants. Standard infant milk formulae are not supplemented with LCPUFA; they contain only alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, from which formula-fed infants must synthesise their own DHA and AA, respectively. Over the past few years, some manufacturers have added LCPUFA to formula milk and have marketed these products as providing an advantage for the overall development of full-term infants...
March 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237088/low-long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acid-status-in-middle-aged-women
#10
Sandra Gellert, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn
INTRODUCTION: Long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and cognitive decline. Several studies have shown that the LC n-3 PUFA status in women in western countries is low. The aim of this study was to assess the LC n-3 PUFA status in middle-aged German women and to identify variables that might affect the status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the nationwide and cross-sectional German VitaMinFemin study, fatty acid levels in the erythrocyte membrane (% of total erythrocyte fatty acids) were ascertained for 446 women (40-60 years)...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237085/effects-of-a-lipid-based-nutrient-supplement-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-maternal-plasma-fatty-acid-status-and-lipid-profile-results-of-two-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Brietta M Oaks, Rebecca R Young, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Ulla Ashorn, Kristina H Jackson, Anna Lartey, Kenneth Maleta, Harriet Okronipa, John Sadalaki, Lacey M Baldiviez, Setti Shahab-Ferdows, Per Ashorn, Kathryn G Dewey
It is unknown whether a novel small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) containing alpha-linolenic (ALA) and linoleic acids impacts maternal plasma lipids and fatty acid status. We measured plasma fatty acids (wt%) and lipid concentrations at 36 wk gestation and breast milk fatty acids (wt%) at 6 months postpartum in a subsample of women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial studying the effects of SQ-LNS on birth outcomes and child growth. Women≤20 wk gestation in Ghana (n=1,320) and Malawi (n=1,391) were assigned to receive daily either: 1) iron-folic acid (pregnancy); 2) multiple micronutrients (pregnancy and lactation); or 3) SQ-LNS (pregnancy and lactation)...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157380/omega-3-fatty-acid-plasma-levels-before-and-after-supplementation-correlations-with-mood-and-clinical-outcomes-in-the-omega-3-and-therapy-studies
#12
L Eugene Arnold, Andrea S Young, Martha A Belury, Rachel M Cole, Barbara Gracious, Adina M Seidenfeld, Hannah Wolfson, Mary A Fristad
OBJECTIVE: To examine fatty acid profiles, their response to omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3) supplementation, and associations with clinical status and treatment response in youth with mood disorders. METHODS: In a placebo-controlled 2X2 design, 7-14 year-olds (N = 95) in parallel pilot trials (depression N = 72; bipolar N = 23) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of Ω3 supplementation (1.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 0.2 g docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], and 0...
April 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157307/lipidomic-analysis-of-oxidized-fatty-acids-in-plant-and-algae-oils
#13
Christine E Richardson, Marie Hennebelle, Yurika Otoki, Daisy Zamora, Jun Yang, Bruce D Hammock, Ameer Y Taha
Linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) in plant or algae oils are precursors to oxidized fatty acid metabolites known as oxylipins. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify oxylipins in soybean, corn, olive, canola, and four high-oleic acid algae oils at room temperature or after heating for 10 min at 100 °C. Flaxseed oil oxylipin concentrations were determined in a follow-up experiment that compared it to soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil. Published consumption data for soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil were used to estimate daily oxylipin intake...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146136/consumption-of-red-meat-but-not-cooking-oils-high-in-polyunsaturated-fat-is-associated-with-higher-arachidonic-acid-status-in-singapore-chinese-adults
#14
Jowy Yi Hoong Seah, Gibson Ming Wei Gay, Jin Su, E-Shyong Tai, Jian-Min Yuan, Woon-Puay Koh, Choon Nam Ong, Rob M van Dam
High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n - 6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n - 6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies...
January 31, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109294/probing-the-intermolecular-interactions-of-ppar%C3%AE-lbd-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-anti-inflammatory-metabolites-to-infer-most-potential-binding-moieties
#15
Shalini Muralikumar, Umashankar Vetrivel, Angayarkanni Narayanasamy, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: PPARγ is an isoform of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belonging to a super family of nuclear receptors. PPARγ receptor is found to play a crucial role in the modulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Its commotion has been reported to play a significant role in a broad spectrum of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and in some cancers. Hence, PPARγ is an important therapeutic target. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolites (henceforth referred to as bioactive lipids) are known to function as agonists of PPARγ...
January 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063950/dietary-alpha-linolenic-acid-linoleic-acid-ratios-modulate-immune-response-physical-barrier-and-related-signaling-molecules-mrna-expression-in-the-gills-of-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#16
Yun-Yun Zeng, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study was conducted to explore the possible effects of dietary ALA/LNA ratios on the gill immunity, tight junction and antioxidant capacity, and the related signaling factor mRNA levels of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets with different ALA/LNA ratios (0.01, 0.34, 0.68, 1.03, 1.41, 1.76 and 2.15) for 60 days. The present results showed that ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 significantly enhanced lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 contents, promoted mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (Hepcidin and liver expression antimicrobial peptide-2), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1) and inhibitor protein κBα, whereas suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor a and interferon γ2), and signal molecules (IκB kinase β, IκB kines γ and nuclear factor κB p65) mRNA levels in the gill, indicating that optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio improve gill immunity of juvenile fish...
March 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058519/stimulation-of-glycerol-kinase-in-grass-carp-preadipocytes-by-epa
#17
Caixia Lei, Jingjing Tian, Hong Ji
This study was conducted to assess the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on grass carp preadipocyte glycerol kinase (GyK) expression, as well as to explore the mechanism. Here, we cloned partial sequence of grass carp GyK gene and analyzed its tissue distribution. The result showed that GyK gene expressed most in the liver, followed by adipose tissue and the kidney. Besides, 400 μM oleic acid (18:1n-9, OA) was used to establish a hypertrophic preadipocyte model. GyK gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly enhanced after model cells were treated with 100 μM eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) for 6, 12, and 24 h...
June 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960561/dietary-essential-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-linoleic-acid-differentially-modulate-tnf%C3%AE-induced-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-in-fads2-deficient-hek-293-cells
#18
Ruth Schübel, Anke Jaudszus, Ralf Krüger, Alexander Roth, Martin Klempt, Stephan Wilhelm Barth
The pro- or anti-inflammatory bioactivity of dietary essential linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is mainly attributed to rate-limiting delta-6 desaturase (D6D) activity. The aim of this study was to analyze mechanisms of D6D-substrates ALA, LA and D6D-product gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) under D6D-deficient conditions. Fatty acid profiles (GC-MS), D6D gene expression (real-time RT-PCR) and NFκB activity (luciferase assay) were assessed in HEK293 cells. FADS2 gene expression was approved being marginal...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914508/determinants-of-plasma-phospholipid-arachidonic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-among-adolescent-girls-in-central-mozambique-possible-roles-of-iron-and-zinc
#19
Marja Mutanen, Riitta Freese, Bengt Vessby, Liisa Korkalo, Kerry Selvester, Sangita Kulathinal
We explored if linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) will be efficiently converted to arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the adolescent girls (aged 15-18 years, n=145) in Mozambique consuming habitually low fat diet and if low iron and/or zinc status predicts the conversion. Total fat, LA and ALA intakes were 15-19%, 1.2-3.5% and 0.2-0.3% of energy, respectively in three areas. Iron and zinc intake varied between 9.6-12.3mg/day and 3.6-5.0mg/day. Significant negative association of plasma AA was found with plasma LA and ALA and significant positive association with serum ferritin...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903595/lifelong-imbalanced-la-ala-intake-impairs-emotional-and-cognitive-behavior-via-changes-in-brain-endocannabinoid-system
#20
Erica Zamberletti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Valentina De Castro, Elisabetta Murru, Marina Gabaglio, Paola Colucci, Chiara Fanali, Pamela Prini, Tiziana Bisogno, Mauro Maccarrone, Patrizia Campolongo, Sebastiano Banni, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro
Imbalanced dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA content has been associated with a number of neurological conditions. Endocannabinoids are n-6 PUFA derivatives, whose brain concentrations are sensitive to modifications of fatty acid composition of the diet and play a central role in the regulation of mood and cognition. As such, the endocannabinoid system appears to be an ideal candidate for mediating the effects of dietary fatty acids on mood and cognition. Lifelong administration of isocaloric α-linolenic acid (ALA)-deficient and -enriched diets induced short-term memory deficits, whereas only dietary ALA enrichment altered emotional reactivity in adult male rats compared with animals fed a standard diet that was balanced in ALA/linoleic acid (LA) ratio...
February 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
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