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Alpha-linoleic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716367/redefining-essential-fatty-acids-in-the-era-of-novel-intravenous-lipid-emulsions
#1
REVIEW
Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Duy T Dao, Gillian L Fell, Meredith A Baker, Kathleen M Gura, Bruce R Bistrian, Mark Puder
The essentiality of fatty acids was determined by the Burrs in the 1920s. It is commonly accepted that provision of linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA) prevents and reverses essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Development of alternative injectable lipid emulsions (ILE) low in LA and ALA has raised concern about their ability to prevent EFAD. This review provides biochemical evidence coupled with observations from animal and human studies that aim to characterize which fatty acids are truly essential to prevent EFAD...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631807/compositional-analyses-and-shelf-life-modeling-of-njangsa-ricinodendron-heudelotii-seed-oil-using-the-weibull-hazard-analysis
#2
Harold K Abaidoo-Ayin, Prince G Boakye, Kerby C Jones, Victor T Wyatt, Samuel A Besong, Stephen E Lumor
This study investigated the compositional characteristics and shelf-life of Njangsa seed oil (NSO). Oil from Njangsa had a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of which alpha eleostearic acid (α-ESA), an unusual conjugated linoleic acid was the most prevalent (about 52%). Linoleic acid was also present in appreciable amounts (approximately 34%). Our investigations also indicated that the acid-catalyzed transesterification of NSO resulted in lower yields of α-ESA methyl esters, due to isomerization, a phenomenon which was not observed under basic conditions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588266/rumen-fluid-metabolomics-analysis-associated-with-feed-efficiency-on-crossbred-steers
#3
Virginia M Artegoitia, Andrew P Foote, Ronald M Lewis, Harvey C Freetly
The rumen has a central role in the efficiency of digestion in ruminants. To identify potential differences in rumen function that lead to differences in average daily gain (ADG), rumen fluid metabolomic analysis by LC-MS and multivariate/univariate statistical analysis were used to identify differences in rumen metabolites. Individual feed intake and body-weight was measured on 144 steers during 105 d on a high concentrate ration. Eight steers with the greatest ADG and 8 steers with the least-ADG with dry matter intake near the population average were selected...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575756/dietary-fatty-acids-modulate-adipocyte-tnfa-production-via-regulation-of-its-dna-promoter-methylation-levels
#4
Eva García-Escobar, Roberto Monastero, Sara García-Serrano, Juan M Gómez-Zumaquero, Ana Lago-Sampedro, Elehazara Rubio-Martín, Natalia Colomo, Francisca Rodríguez-Pacheco, Federico Soriguer, Gemma Rojo-Martínez
The factors regulating TNF alpha (TNFa) levels could be considered therapeutic targets against metabolic syndrome development. DNA methylation is a potent regulator of gene expression and may be associated with protein levels. In this study we investigate whether the effect of dietary fatty acids on TNFa released from adipocytes might be associated with modifications of the TNFa promoter DNA methylation status. A group of rats was assigned to three diets with a different composition of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570944/oral-feeding-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-fosters-hematopoiesis-and-thrombopoiesis-in-healthy-and-bone-marrow-transplanted-mice
#5
Kedar Limbkar, Ankita Dhenge, Dipesh D Jadhav, Hirekodathakallu V Thulasiram, Vaijayanti Kale, Lalita Limaye
Hematopoietic stem cells play the vital role of maintaining appropriate levels of cells in blood. Therefore, regulation of their fate is essential for their effective therapeutic use. Here we report the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in regulating hematopoiesis which has not been explored well so far. Mice were fed daily for 10 days with n-6/n-3 PUFAs, viz. linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in four separate test groups with phosphate-buffered saline fed mice as control set...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566642/modulatory-effect-of-an-isolated-triglyceride-from-fenugreek-seed-oil-on-of-%C3%AE-amylase-lipase-and-ace-activities-liver-kidney-functions-and-metabolic-disorders-of-diabetic-rats
#6
Khaled Hamden, Henda Keskes, Othman Elgomdi, Abdelfattah Feki, Noureddine Alouche
This study was designed to examine physicochemical characteristics, chemical compositions and biological activities of fenugreek seed oil (FSO) and its pure triglyceride (TG). One fenugreek TG was purified using a bioassay-guided fractionation and administrated to surviving diabetic rats. The free fatty acids percentage as well as, the peroxide, the saponification and the iodine values were 2%, 12 mequiv. O2/kg of oil, 189 (mg KOH/g) and 110 (g/100 g of oil), respectively. Linolenic acid (C18:3 26.14%), Linoleic acid (C18:2 41...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555106/high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-18-carbon-fatty-acids-accumulation-up-regulates-cyp2a5-cyp2a6-via-nf-e2-related-factor-2
#7
Xing-He Wang, Xiao-Xu Cui, Xiao-Qi Sun, Xing-Hui Wang, Xiao-Chong Li, Yue Qi, Wei Li, Mei-Yu Han, Ishfaq Muhammad, Xiu-Ying Zhang
To investigate the role of hepatic 18-carbon fatty acids (FA) accumulation in regulating CYP2A5/2A6 and the significance of Nrf2 in the process during hepatocytes steatosis, Nrf2-null, and wild type mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD), and Nrf2 silenced or over expressed HepG2 cells administered with 18-carbon FA were used. HE and Oil Red O staining were used for mice hepatic pathological examination. The mRNA and protein expressions were measured with real-time PCR and Western blot. The results showed that hepatic CYP2A5 and Nrf2 expression levels were increased in HFD fed mice accompanied with hepatic 18-carbon FA accumulation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540526/high-fat-diet-inhibits-pgc-1%C3%AE-suppressive-effect-on-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-hepatocytes
#8
Wermerson Assunção Barroso, Vanessa Jacob Victorino, Isabela Casagrande Jeremias, Ricardo Costa Petroni, Suely Kunimi Kubo Ariga, Thiago A Salles, Denise Frediani Barbeiro, Thais Martins de Lima, Heraldo Possolo de Souza
PURPOSE: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) regulates the expression of genes implicated in fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. Its role in liver steatosis is well established, since mice with liver-specific deletion of PGC-1α exhibit lipid accumulation and high-fat diet reduces hepatic PGC-1α expression in mice. In this study, we investigated the role of PGC-1α in the inflammatory changes observed in steatohepatitis induced by high-fat diet...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504119/the-ratio-of-1-3-linoleic-acid-to-alpha-linolenic-acid-is-optimal-for-oligodendrogenesis-of-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#9
Hossein Hejr, Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Maryam Ghafari, Farzad Sadri, Zinab Salehpour, Azadeh Hamedi, Koresh Negintaji, Hassan Azari, Amir Ghanbari
During neural development, embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) differentiate toward glial, oligodendrocytic, and neuronal cells. Dysregulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce a wide range of neurological and developmental disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect of various concentrations and ratios of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA), which belong respectively to omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, on the proliferation and differentiation of eNSCs.Results showed that low (25 and 50μM) or high (100 and 200μM) concentrations of ALA, but not LA, and the ratio of 1:3 of LA/ALA significantly increased neurospheres size, frequency and cell numbers, in comparison to controls...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503432/nutrient-patterns-and-risk-of-cataract-a-case-control-study
#10
Fatemeh Sedaghat, Matin Ghanavati, Parisa Nezhad Hajian, Sara Hajishirazi, Mehdi Ehteshami, Bahram Rashidkhani
AIM: To assess the relation between nutrient patterns and cataract risk. METHODS: This is a hospital-based case-control study with 97 cataract patients and 198 matched controls. Dietary consumption was collected through a valid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient patterns were detected by applying factor analysis. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (ORs) and 95%CIs. RESULTS: We extracted 5 main nutrient patterns...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450497/integrating-3-omics-data-analyze-rat-lung-tissue-of-copd-states-and-medical-intervention-by-delineation-of-molecular-and-pathway-alterations
#11
Jiansheng Li, Peng Zhao, Liping Yang, Ya Li, Yange Tian, Suyun Li, Yunping Bai
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious health problem. However, the molecular pathogenesis of COPD remains unknown. Here, we explored the molecular effects of cigarette smoke and bacterial infection in lung tissues of COPD rats. We also investigated therapeutic effects of aminophylline (APL) on the COPD rats and integrated transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome data for a global view of molecular mechanisms of COPD progression. Using molecular function and pathway analyses, the genes and proteins regulated in COPD and APL-treated rats were mainly attributed to oxidoreductase, antioxidant activity, energy and fatty acid metabolism...
June 30, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409336/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-differentially-alter-oxylipin-profiles-in-mouse-periuterine-adipose-tissue
#12
Yuriko Adkins, Benjamin J Belda, Theresa L Pedersen, Dawn M Fedor, Bruce E Mackey, John W Newman, Darshan S Kelley
Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting...
April 13, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395666/hydroxytyrosol-prevents-reduction-in-liver-activity-of-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-6-desaturases-oxidative-stress-and-depletion-in-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-content-in-different-tissues-of-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#13
Rodrigo Valenzuela, Francisca Echeverria, Macarena Ortiz, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Alejandra Espinosa, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Paola Illesca, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues...
April 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391893/red-blood-cell-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-mortality-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-memory-study
#14
William S Harris, Juhua Luo, James V Pottala, Mark A Espeland, Karen L Margolis, Joann E Manson, Lu Wang, Theodore M Brasky, Jennifer G Robinson
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) PUFA levels and risk for death. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 6501 women aged 65 to 80 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (enrolment began 1996). RBC PUFA levels were measured at baseline and expressed as a percent of total RBC PUFAs...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390839/validation-of-an-equation-predicting-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acid-hufa-compositions-of-human-blood-fractions-from-dietary-intakes-of-both-hufas-and-their-precursors
#15
Sarah E Strandjord, Bill Lands, Joseph R Hibbeln
Proportions of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) in 20- and 22-carbon highly unsaturated fatty acids with 3 or more double bonds (HUFA) accumulated in tissue HUFA (e.g., the %n-6 in HUFA) are biomarkers reflecting intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. An empirical equation, referred to here as the Lands' Equation, was developed previously to use dietary intakes of n-6 and n-3 HUFA and their 18-carbon precursors to estimate the %n-6 in HUFA of humans. From the PubMed database, we identified clinical trials reporting (a) dietary intake of at least linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), and (b) the amounts of at least arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in lipids of plasma, serum, or red blood cell...
March 8, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325998/glucomannan-and-glucomannan-plus-spirulina-enriched-pork-affect-liver-fatty-acid-profile-ldl-receptor-expression-and-antioxidant-status-in-zucker-fa-fa-rats-fed-atherogenic-diets
#16
Laura González-Torres, Cátia Matos, Miguel Vázquez-Velasco, Jorge A Santos-López, Iria Sánchez-Martínez, Camino García-Fernández, Sara Bastida, Juana Benedí, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
We evaluated the effects of glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina-restructured pork (RP) on liver fatty acid profile, desaturase/elongase enzyme activities and oxidative status of Zucker fa/fa rats for seven weeks. Control (C), glucomannan (G) and glucomannan/spirulina (GS)-RP; HC (cholesterol-enriched control), HG and HGS (cholesterol-enriched glucomannan and glucomannan/spirulina-RP) experimental diets were tested. Increased metabolic syndrome markers were found in C, G and GS rats. Cholesterol feeding increased liver size, fat, and cholesterol and reduced antioxidant enzyme levels and expressions...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281303/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-infants-born-at-term
#17
REVIEW
Bonny Jasani, Karen Simmer, Sanjay K Patole, Shripada C Rao
BACKGROUND: The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are considered essential for maturation of the developing brain, retina and other organs in newborn infants. Standard infant milk formulae are not supplemented with LCPUFA; they contain only alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, from which formula-fed infants must synthesise their own DHA and AA, respectively. Over the past few years, some manufacturers have added LCPUFA to formula milk and have marketed these products as providing an advantage for the overall development of full-term infants...
March 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237088/low-long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acid-status-in-middle-aged-women
#18
Sandra Gellert, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn
INTRODUCTION: Long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and cognitive decline. Several studies have shown that the LC n-3 PUFA status in women in western countries is low. The aim of this study was to assess the LC n-3 PUFA status in middle-aged German women and to identify variables that might affect the status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the nationwide and cross-sectional German VitaMinFemin study, fatty acid levels in the erythrocyte membrane (% of total erythrocyte fatty acids) were ascertained for 446 women (40-60 years)...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237085/effects-of-a-lipid-based-nutrient-supplement-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-maternal-plasma-fatty-acid-status-and-lipid-profile-results-of-two-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
Brietta M Oaks, Rebecca R Young, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Ulla Ashorn, Kristina H Jackson, Anna Lartey, Kenneth Maleta, Harriet Okronipa, John Sadalaki, Lacey M Baldiviez, Setti Shahab-Ferdows, Per Ashorn, Kathryn G Dewey
It is unknown whether a novel small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) containing alpha-linolenic (ALA) and linoleic acids impacts maternal plasma lipids and fatty acid status. We measured plasma fatty acids (wt%) and lipid concentrations at 36 wk gestation and breast milk fatty acids (wt%) at 6 months postpartum in a subsample of women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial studying the effects of SQ-LNS on birth outcomes and child growth. Women≤20 wk gestation in Ghana (n=1,320) and Malawi (n=1,391) were assigned to receive daily either: 1) iron-folic acid (pregnancy); 2) multiple micronutrients (pregnancy and lactation); or 3) SQ-LNS (pregnancy and lactation)...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157380/omega-3-fatty-acid-plasma-levels-before-and-after-supplementation-correlations-with-mood-and-clinical-outcomes-in-the-omega-3-and-therapy-studies
#20
L Eugene Arnold, Andrea S Young, Martha A Belury, Rachel M Cole, Barbara Gracious, Adina M Seidenfeld, Hannah Wolfson, Mary A Fristad
OBJECTIVE: To examine fatty acid profiles, their response to omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3) supplementation, and associations with clinical status and treatment response in youth with mood disorders. METHODS: In a placebo-controlled 2X2 design, 7-14 year-olds (N = 95) in parallel pilot trials (depression N = 72; bipolar N = 23) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of Ω3 supplementation (1.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 0.2 g docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], and 0...
April 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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