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Alpha-linoleic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934766/new-zealand-women-have-suboptimal-intakes-of-long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Michele Eickstaedt, Kathryn L Beck, Cathryn A Conlon
AIM: To investigate dietary intakes and food sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids in New Zealand pregnant women. METHOD: Women (n=596) 16 years plus in trimester three of pregnancy completed an online food frequency questionnaire validated for omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. RESULTS: Estimated median [25th, 75th percentile] intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were: 1,300 [790, 2,120] mg/d alpha-linolenic acid (adequate intake 1,000mg/d); 220 [120, 520] mg/d total long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (adequate intake 115mg/d); and 110 [50, 250] mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (recommended 200mg/d)...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899689/enhanced-expression-of-genes-related-to-xenobiotic-metabolism-in-the-skin-of-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis-but-not-with-ichthyosis-vulgaris
#2
Stefan Blunder, Sulev Kõks, Gea Kõks, Ene Reimann, Hubert Hackl, Robert Gruber, Verena Moosbrugger-Martinz, Matthias Schmuth, Sandrine Dubrac
Previous transcriptome analyses underscored the importance of immunological and skin barrier abnormalities in atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to identify novel pathogenic pathways involved in AD by comparing the transcriptomes of AD patients stratified for filaggrin (FLG) null mutations to those of both healthy donors and patients with ichthyosis vulgaris (IV). We applied RNA-sequencing to analyze the whole transcriptome of nonlesional skin. Six-hundred and seven genes (476 up-regulated and 131 down-regulated by greater than 2-fold) and one-hundred and ninety-three genes (172 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated by greater than 2-fold) were differentially expressed when all AD or IV patients were compared to healthy donors, respectively...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858264/comparison-of-chemical-profiles-anti-inflammatory-activity-and-uplc-q-tof-ms-based-metabolomics-in-endotoxic-fever-rats-between-synthetic-borneol-and-natural-borneol
#3
Liang Zou, Yan Zhang, Wei Li, Jinming Zhang, Dan Wang, Jia Fu, Ping Wang
Natural borneol (NB, called "Bingpian") is an important traditional Chinese medicine to restore consciousness, remove heat and relieve pain, all of which are inflammation-related diseases. Recently, due to the limited source of NB, synthetic borneol (SB) is widely used as a substitute for NB in clinics. However, little is known about the effects of SB instead of NB. Herein, the aim of the present study was to compare NB and SB on chemical profiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis, anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264...
August 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839358/wound-healing-activity-of-zanthoxylum-bungeanum-maxim-seed-oil-on-experimentally-burned-rats
#4
Xiao-Qiang Li, Rong Kang, Jun-Cheng Huo, Yan-Hua Xie, Si-Wang Wang, Wei Cao
BACKGROUND: The seed oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim (ZBSO) is considered to be rich source of fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic acids, and has been used for the treatment of burns in Chinese medicine. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the healing efficacy of ZBSO and explored its possible mechanism on scalded rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rat models with deep second-degree burns were set up, and ZBSO (500 and 1000 μl/wound) was topically applied twice daily for 7 days and then once daily until wound healing...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807874/docosahexaenoic-acid-increases-the-expression-of-oxidative-stress-induced-growth-inhibitor-1-through-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Chia-Han Tsai, You-Cheng Shen, Haw-Wen Chen, Kai-Li Liu, Jer-Wei Chang, Pei-Yin Chen, Chen-Yu Lin, Hsien-Tsung Yao, Chien-Chun Li
Oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 (OSGIN1), a tumor suppressor, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death. N-6 and n-3 PUFAs protect against breast cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of this effect are not clear. We investigated the effect of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs on OSGIN1 expression and whether OSGIN1 is involved in PUFA-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We used 100 μM of n-6 PUFAs including arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and gamma-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFAs including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
August 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795443/effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-with-or-without-resistance-training-on-muscle-mass-in-high-fat-diet-fed-middle-aged-mice
#6
Sang-Rok Lee, Andy V Khamoui, Edward Jo, Michael C Zourdos, Lynn B Panton, Michael J Ormsbee, Jeong-Su Kim
What is the central question of this study? This study examined the effects of 20 weeks of administration of conjugated linoleic acids/omega-3 fatty acids with or without programed resistance exercise training on body composition, skeletal muscle properties and functional capacity in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet. What is the main finding and its importance? Chronic daily administration of conjugated linoleic acids/omega-3 fatty acids with resistance exercise training can help to blunt fat gain, alleviate loss of myogenic capacity and sensorimotor function and lower tissue inflammation in middle-aged mice during chronic high-fat diet-induced catabolism...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716367/redefining-essential-fatty-acids-in-the-era-of-novel-intravenous-lipid-emulsions
#7
REVIEW
Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Duy T Dao, Gillian L Fell, Meredith A Baker, Kathleen M Gura, Bruce R Bistrian, Mark Puder
The essentiality of fatty acids was determined by the Burrs in the 1920s. It is commonly accepted that provision of linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA) prevents and reverses essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Development of alternative injectable lipid emulsions (ILE) low in LA and ALA has raised concern about their ability to prevent EFAD. This review provides biochemical evidence coupled with observations from animal and human studies that aim to characterize which fatty acids are truly essential to prevent EFAD...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631807/compositional-analyses-and-shelf-life-modeling-of-njangsa-ricinodendron-heudelotii-seed-oil-using-the-weibull-hazard-analysis
#8
Harold K Abaidoo-Ayin, Prince G Boakye, Kerby C Jones, Victor T Wyatt, Samuel A Besong, Stephen E Lumor
This study investigated the compositional characteristics and shelf-life of Njangsa seed oil (NSO). Oil from Njangsa had a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of which alpha eleostearic acid (α-ESA), an unusual conjugated linoleic acid was the most prevalent (about 52%). Linoleic acid was also present in appreciable amounts (approximately 34%). Our investigations also indicated that the acid-catalyzed transesterification of NSO resulted in lower yields of α-ESA methyl esters, due to isomerization, a phenomenon which was not observed under basic conditions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588266/rumen-fluid-metabolomics-analysis-associated-with-feed-efficiency-on-crossbred-steers
#9
Virginia M Artegoitia, Andrew P Foote, Ronald M Lewis, Harvey C Freetly
The rumen has a central role in the efficiency of digestion in ruminants. To identify potential differences in rumen function that lead to differences in average daily gain (ADG), rumen fluid metabolomic analysis by LC-MS and multivariate/univariate statistical analysis were used to identify differences in rumen metabolites. Individual feed intake and body-weight was measured on 144 steers during 105 d on a high concentrate ration. Eight steers with the greatest ADG and 8 steers with the least-ADG with dry matter intake near the population average were selected...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575756/dietary-fatty-acids-modulate-adipocyte-tnfa-production-via-regulation-of-its-dna-promoter-methylation-levels
#10
Eva García-Escobar, Roberto Monastero, Sara García-Serrano, Juan M Gómez-Zumaquero, Ana Lago-Sampedro, Elehazara Rubio-Martín, Natalia Colomo, Francisca Rodríguez-Pacheco, Federico Soriguer, Gemma Rojo-Martínez
The factors regulating TNF alpha (TNFa) levels could be considered therapeutic targets against metabolic syndrome development. DNA methylation is a potent regulator of gene expression and may be associated with protein levels. In this study we investigate whether the effect of dietary fatty acids on TNFa released from adipocytes might be associated with modifications of the TNFa promoter DNA methylation status. A group of rats was assigned to three diets with a different composition of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570944/oral-feeding-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-fosters-hematopoiesis-and-thrombopoiesis-in-healthy-and-bone-marrow-transplanted-mice
#11
Kedar Limbkar, Ankita Dhenge, Dipesh D Jadhav, Hirekodathakallu V Thulasiram, Vaijayanti Kale, Lalita Limaye
Hematopoietic stem cells play the vital role of maintaining appropriate levels of cells in blood. Therefore, regulation of their fate is essential for their effective therapeutic use. Here we report the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in regulating hematopoiesis which has not been explored well so far. Mice were fed daily for 10 days with n-6/n-3 PUFAs, viz. linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in four separate test groups with phosphate-buffered saline fed mice as control set...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566642/modulatory-effect-of-an-isolated-triglyceride-from-fenugreek-seed-oil-on-of-%C3%AE-amylase-lipase-and-ace-activities-liver-kidney-functions-and-metabolic-disorders-of-diabetic-rats
#12
Khaled Hamden, Henda Keskes, Othman Elgomdi, Abdelfattah Feki, Noureddine Alouche
This study was designed to examine physicochemical characteristics, chemical compositions and biological activities of fenugreek seed oil (FSO) and its pure triglyceride (TG). One fenugreek TG was purified using a bioassay-guided fractionation and administrated to surviving diabetic rats. The free fatty acids percentage as well as, the peroxide, the saponification and the iodine values were 2%, 12 mequiv. O2/kg of oil, 189 (mg KOH/g) and 110 (g/100 g of oil), respectively. Linolenic acid (C18:3 26.14%), Linoleic acid (C18:2 41...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555106/high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-18-carbon-fatty-acids-accumulation-up-regulates-cyp2a5-cyp2a6-via-nf-e2-related-factor-2
#13
Xing-He Wang, Xiao-Xu Cui, Xiao-Qi Sun, Xing-Hui Wang, Xiao-Chong Li, Yue Qi, Wei Li, Mei-Yu Han, Ishfaq Muhammad, Xiu-Ying Zhang
To investigate the role of hepatic 18-carbon fatty acids (FA) accumulation in regulating CYP2A5/2A6 and the significance of Nrf2 in the process during hepatocytes steatosis, Nrf2-null, and wild type mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD), and Nrf2 silenced or over expressed HepG2 cells administered with 18-carbon FA were used. HE and Oil Red O staining were used for mice hepatic pathological examination. The mRNA and protein expressions were measured with real-time PCR and Western blot. The results showed that hepatic CYP2A5 and Nrf2 expression levels were increased in HFD fed mice accompanied with hepatic 18-carbon FA accumulation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540526/high-fat-diet-inhibits-pgc-1%C3%AE-suppressive-effect-on-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-hepatocytes
#14
Wermerson Assunção Barroso, Vanessa Jacob Victorino, Isabela Casagrande Jeremias, Ricardo Costa Petroni, Suely Kunimi Kubo Ariga, Thiago A Salles, Denise Frediani Barbeiro, Thais Martins de Lima, Heraldo Possolo de Souza
PURPOSE: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) regulates the expression of genes implicated in fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. Its role in liver steatosis is well established, since mice with liver-specific deletion of PGC-1α exhibit lipid accumulation and high-fat diet reduces hepatic PGC-1α expression in mice. In this study, we investigated the role of PGC-1α in the inflammatory changes observed in steatohepatitis induced by high-fat diet...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504119/the-ratio-of-1-3-linoleic-acid-to-alpha-linolenic-acid-is-optimal-for-oligodendrogenesis-of-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#15
Hossein Hejr, Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Maryam Ghafari, Farzad Sadri, Zinab Salehpour, Azadeh Hamedi, Koresh Negintaji, Hassan Azari, Amir Ghanbari
During neural development, embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) differentiate toward glial, oligodendrocytic, and neuronal cells. Dysregulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce a wide range of neurological and developmental disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect of various concentrations and ratios of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA), which belong respectively to omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, on the proliferation and differentiation of eNSCs.Results showed that low (25 and 50μM) or high (100 and 200μM) concentrations of ALA, but not LA, and the ratio of 1:3 of LA/ALA significantly increased neurospheres size, frequency and cell numbers, in comparison to controls...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503432/nutrient-patterns-and-risk-of-cataract-a-case-control-study
#16
Fatemeh Sedaghat, Matin Ghanavati, Parisa Nezhad Hajian, Sara Hajishirazi, Mehdi Ehteshami, Bahram Rashidkhani
AIM: To assess the relation between nutrient patterns and cataract risk. METHODS: This is a hospital-based case-control study with 97 cataract patients and 198 matched controls. Dietary consumption was collected through a valid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient patterns were detected by applying factor analysis. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (ORs) and 95%CIs. RESULTS: We extracted 5 main nutrient patterns...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450497/integrating-3-omics-data-analyze-rat-lung-tissue-of-copd-states-and-medical-intervention-by-delineation-of-molecular-and-pathway-alterations
#17
Jiansheng Li, Peng Zhao, Liping Yang, Ya Li, Yange Tian, Suyun Li, Yunping Bai
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious health problem. However, the molecular pathogenesis of COPD remains unknown. Here, we explored the molecular effects of cigarette smoke and bacterial infection in lung tissues of COPD rats. We also investigated therapeutic effects of aminophylline (APL) on the COPD rats and integrated transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome data for a global view of molecular mechanisms of COPD progression. Using molecular function and pathway analyses, the genes and proteins regulated in COPD and APL-treated rats were mainly attributed to oxidoreductase, antioxidant activity, energy and fatty acid metabolism...
June 30, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409336/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-differentially-alter-oxylipin-profiles-in-mouse-periuterine-adipose-tissue
#18
Yuriko Adkins, Benjamin J Belda, Theresa L Pedersen, Dawn M Fedor, Bruce E Mackey, John W Newman, Darshan S Kelley
Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting...
April 13, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395666/hydroxytyrosol-prevents-reduction-in-liver-activity-of-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-6-desaturases-oxidative-stress-and-depletion-in-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-content-in-different-tissues-of-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#19
Rodrigo Valenzuela, Francisca Echeverria, Macarena Ortiz, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Alejandra Espinosa, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Paola Illesca, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues...
April 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391893/red-blood-cell-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-mortality-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-memory-study
#20
William S Harris, Juhua Luo, James V Pottala, Mark A Espeland, Karen L Margolis, Joann E Manson, Lu Wang, Theodore M Brasky, Jennifer G Robinson
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) PUFA levels and risk for death. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 6501 women aged 65 to 80 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (enrolment began 1996). RBC PUFA levels were measured at baseline and expressed as a percent of total RBC PUFAs...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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