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Alpha-linoleic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063950/dietary-alpha-linolenic-acid-linoleic-acid-ratios-modulate-immune-response-physical-barrier-and-related-signaling-molecules-mrna-expression-in-the-gills-of-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#1
Yun-Yun Zeng, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study was conducted to explore the possible effects of dietary ALA/LNA ratios on the gill immunity, tight junction and antioxidant capacity, and the related signaling factor mRNA levels of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets with different ALA/LNA ratios (0.01, 0.34, 0.68, 1.03, 1.41, 1.76 and 2.15) for 60 days. The present results showed that ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 significantly enhanced lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 contents, promoted mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (Hepcidin and liver expression antimicrobial peptide-2), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1) and inhibitor protein κBα, whereas suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor a and interferon γ2), and signal molecules (IκB kinase β, IκB kines γ and nuclear factor κB p65) mRNA levels in the gill, indicating that optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio improve gill immunity of juvenile fish...
January 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058519/stimulation-of-glycerol-kinase-in-grass-carp-preadipocytes-by-epa
#2
Caixia Lei, Jingjing Tian, Hong Ji
This study was conducted to assess the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on grass carp preadipocyte glycerol kinase (GyK) expression, as well as to explore the mechanism. Here, we cloned partial sequence of grass carp GyK gene and analyzed its tissue distribution. The result showed that GyK gene expressed most in the liver, followed by adipose tissue and the kidney. Besides, 400 μM oleic acid (18:1n-9, OA) was used to establish a hypertrophic preadipocyte model. GyK gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly enhanced after model cells were treated with 100 μM eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) for 6, 12, and 24 h...
January 5, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960561/dietary-essential-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-linoleic-acid-differentially-modulate-tnf%C3%AE-induced-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-in-fads2-deficient-hek-293-cells
#3
Ruth Schübel, Anke Jaudszus, Ralf Krüger, Alexander Roth, Martin Klempt, Stephan Wilhelm Barth
The pro- or anti-inflammatory bioactivity of dietary essential linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is mainly attributed to rate-limiting delta-6 desaturase (D6D) activity. The aim of this study was to analyze mechanisms of D6D-substrates ALA, LA and D6D-product gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) under D6D-deficient conditions. Fatty acid profiles (GC-MS), D6D gene expression (real-time RT-PCR) and NFκB activity (luciferase assay) were assessed in HEK293 cells. FADS2 gene expression was approved being marginal...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914508/determinants-of-plasma-phospholipid-arachidonic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-among-adolescent-girls-in-central-mozambique-possible-roles-of-iron-and-zinc
#4
Marja Mutanen, Riitta Freese, Bengt Vessby, Liisa Korkalo, Kerry Selvester, Sangita Kulathinal
We explored if linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) will be efficiently converted to arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the adolescent girls (aged 15-18 years, n=145) in Mozambique consuming habitually low fat diet and if low iron and/or zinc status predicts the conversion. Total fat, LA and ALA intakes were 15-19%, 1.2-3.5% and 0.2-0.3% of energy, respectively in three areas. Iron and zinc intake varied between 9.6-12.3mg/day and 3.6-5.0mg/day. Significant negative association of plasma AA was found with plasma LA and ALA and significant positive association with serum ferritin...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903595/lifelong-imbalanced-linoleic-alpha-linolenic-acid-intake-impairs-emotional-and-cognitive-behavior-in-adult-rats-via-changes-in-brain-endocannabinoid-system
#5
Erica Zamberletti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Valentina De Castro, Elisabetta Murru, Marina Gabaglio, Paola Colucci, Chiara Fanali, Pamela Prini, Tiziana Bisogno, Mauro Maccarrone, Patrizia Campolongo, Sebastiano Banni, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro
Imbalanced dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA content has been associated with a number of neurological conditions. Endocannabinoids are n-6 PUFA derivatives, whose brain concentrations are sensitive to modifications of fatty acid composition of the diet, and play a central role in the regulation of mood and cognition. As such, the endocannabinoid system appears to be an ideal candidate for mediating the effects of dietary fatty acids on mood and cognition. Lifelong administration of isocaloric alpha linolenic acid (ALA) deficient and enriched diets induced short-term memory deficits, whereas only dietary ALA enrichment altered emotional reactivity in adult male rats compared to animals fed a standard diet, balanced in ALA/linoleic (LA) ratio...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856104/the-investigation-of-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-yi-guanjian-decoction-by-serum-metabonomics-approach
#6
Sufang Shui, Xiaorong Cai, Rongqing Huang, Bingkun Xiao, Jianyun Yang
Yi Guanjian (YGJ), one of the Chinese herbal medicines most commonly used in western countries, reported to possess significant anti-inflammatary effects that inhibit the process of inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammation effects remain largely unresolved. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of YGJ and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms by serum metabonomics approach. An xylene-induced mouse right-ear-edema model was used as an inflammatory response in vivo model...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796616/human-milk-fatty-acid-composition-comparison-of-novel-dried-milk-spot-versus-standard-liquid-extraction-methods
#7
Michael C Rudolph, Bridget E Young, Kristina Harris Jackson, Nancy F Krebs, William S Harris, Paul S MacLean
Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries...
December 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771515/metabolically-active-extracellular-vesicles-released-from-hepatocytes-under-drug-induced-liver-damaging-conditions-modify-serum-metabolome-and-might-affect-different-pathophysiological-processes
#8
Felix Royo, Laura Palomo, Justyna Mleczko, Esperanza Gonzalez, Cristina Alonso, Ibon Martínez, Miriam Pérez-Cormenzana, Azucena Castro, Juan M Falcon-Perez
Hepatocytes are involved in the endogenous and drug metabolism; many of the enzymes involved in those processes are incorporated into extracellular vesicles and secreted into the bloodstream. Liver-damaging conditions modify the molecular cargo of those vesicles significantly. However, no information about the effect of these hepatic vesicles on the extracellular environment is available. Drug-induced liver damage increases the number of circulating extracellular vesicles and affects the release and content of hepatocyte-derived vesicles...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669375/designing-a-clean-label-sponge-cake-with-reduced-fat-content
#9
Cristina Eslava-Zomeño, Amparo Quiles, Isabel Hernando
The fat in a sponge cake formulation was partially replaced (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) with OptiSol™5300.This natural functional ingredient derived from flax seeds, rich in fiber and alpha-linoleic acid, provides a natural substitute for guar and xanthan gums, avoiding E-numbers on labels. The structure and some physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined, sensory analysis was conducted and changes in starch digestibility due to adding this ingredient were determined. Increasing quantities of OptiSol™5300 gave harder cakes, with less weight loss during baking, without affecting the final cake height...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613800/compensatory-induction-of-fads1-gene-expression-in-heterozygous-fads2-null-mice-and-by-diet-with-a-high-n-6-n-3-pufa-ratio
#10
Hang Su, Dan Zhou, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Xingguo Wang, Manabu T Nakamura
In mammals, because they share a single synthetic pathway, n-6/n-3 ratios of dietary PUFAs impact tissue arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA content. Likewise, SNPs in the human fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster impact tissue ARA and DHA. Here we tested the feasibility of using heterozygous Fads2-null-mice (HET) as an animal model of human FADS polymorphisms. WT and HET mice were fed diets with linoleate/α-linolenate ratios of 1:1, 7:1, and 44:1 at 7% of diet. In WT liver, ARA and DHA in phospholipids varied >2× among dietary groups, reflecting precursor ratios...
November 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558477/maternal-nutritional-imbalance-between-linoleic-acid-and-alpha-linolenic-acid-increases-offspring-s-anxious-behavior-with-a-sex-dependent-manner-in-mice
#11
Nobuyuki Sakayori, Hisanori Tokuda, Kaichi Yoshizaki, Hiroshi Kawashima, Sheila M Innis, Hiroshi Shibata, Noriko Osumi
Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for normal brain development. The principal dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively, We have previously shown that maternal dietary imbalance between these PUFAs, i.e., rich in LA and poor in ALA, affected brain development and increased anxiety-related behavior in the mouse offspring. Here we further addressed sex difference in anxiety-related behavior in the offspring exposed to maternal LA:ALA imbalance...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507074/comparison-of-fatty-acid-intakes-assessed-by-a-cardiovascular-specific-food-frequency-questionnaire-with-red-blood-cell-membrane-fatty-acids-in-hyperlipidaemic-australian-adults-a-validation-study
#12
EDITORIAL
T L Schumacher, T L Burrows, M E Rollo, L G Wood, R Callister, C E Collins
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Limited dietary intake tools have been validated specifically for hyperlipidaemic adults. The Australian Eating Survey (AES) Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was adapted to include foods with cardio-protective properties (CVD-AES). The aims were to estimate dietary fatty acid (FA) intakes derived from the CVD-AES and AES and compare them with red blood cell (RBC) membrane FA content. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary intake was measured using the semi-quantitative 120-item AES and 177-item CVD-AES...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418185/circulating-linoleic-acid-and-alpha-linolenic-acid-and-glucose-metabolism-the-hoorn-study
#13
Mieke Cabout, Marjan Alssema, Giel Nijpels, Coen D A Stehouwer, Peter L Zock, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Amany K Elshorbagy, Helga Refsum, Jacqueline M Dekker
PURPOSE: Data on the relation between linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of serum LA and ALA with fasting and 2 h post-load plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). METHOD: This study included 667 participants from third examination (2000) of the population-based Hoorn study in which individuals with glucose intolerance were overrepresented...
July 14, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324464/relationships-between-botanical-and-chemical-composition-of-forages-a-multivariate-approach-to-grasslands-in-the-western-italian-alps
#14
Simone Ravetto Enri, Manuela Renna, Massimiliano Probo, Carola Lussiana, Luca M Battaglini, Michele Lonati, Giampiero Lombardi
BACKGROUND: Plant composition of species-rich mountain grasslands can affect the sensorial and chemical attributes of dairy and meat products, with implications for human health. A multivariate approach was used to analyse the complex relationships between vegetation characteristics (botanical composition and plant community variables) and chemical composition (proximate constituent and fatty acid profile) in mesophilic and dry vegetation ecological groups, comprising six different semi-natural grassland types in the Western Italian Alps...
June 21, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282298/regulation-of-rat-plasma-and-cerebral-cortex-oxylipin-concentrations-with-increasing-levels-of-dietary-linoleic-acid
#15
Ameer Y Taha, Marie Hennebelle, Jun Yang, Daisy Zamora, Stanley I Rapoport, Bruce D Hammock, Christopher E Ramsden
Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the North American diet and is a precursor to circulating bioactive fatty acid metabolites implicated in brain disorders. This exploratory study tested the effects of increasing dietary LA on plasma and cerebral cortex metabolites derived from LA, its elongation-desaturation products dihomo-gamma linolenic (DGLA, 20:3n-6) acid and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), as well as omega-3 alpha-linolenic (α-LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3)...
May 11, 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273350/genetic-variants-of-the-fads-gene-cluster-are-associated-with-erythrocyte-membrane-lc-pufa-levels-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
J P Schuchardt, T Köbe, V Witte, J Willers, A Gingrich, V Tesky, J Pantel, D Rujescu, T Illig, A Flöel, A Hahn
BACKGROUND: Long-chain (> 20 C-atoms) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFAs) of both the omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) series are important for the functional integrity of brain and thereby cognition, memory and mood. Clinical studies observed associations between altered LC PUFA levels and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer´s disease and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: The present study examined the LC PUFA status of MCI patients with specific view on the relative LC n-3 PUFA levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocyte membranes (omega-3 index)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193034/ppar-%C3%AE-a-lipid-sensing-transcription-factor-regulates-blood-brain-barrier-efflux-transporter-expression
#17
Vijay R More, Christopher R Campos, Rebecca A Evans, Keith D Oliver, Gary Ny Chan, David S Miller, Ronald E Cannon
Lipid sensor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) is the master regulator of lipid metabolism. Dietary release of endogenous free fatty acids, fibrates, and certain persistent environmental pollutants, e.g. perfluoroalkyl fire-fighting foam components, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligands. Here, we define a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in regulating the expression of three ATP-driven drug efflux transporters at the rat and mouse blood-brain barriers: P-glycoprotein (Abcb1), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2/Abcc2)...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142749/protective-role-of-n6-n3-pufa-supplementation-with-varying-dha-epa-ratios-against-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#18
Liang Liu, Qinling Hu, Huihui Wu, Yihong Xue, Liang Cai, Min Fang, Zhiguo Liu, Ping Yao, Yongning Wu, Zhiyong Gong
The effects of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular disease are controversial. We currently explored the effects of various ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on high-fat-induced atherosclerosis. In model apoE(-/-) mice, high-fat diets (HFD) were partially replaced with fish and algal oils (DHA/EPA 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) and/or plant oils enriched in linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids with an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1. PUFA supplementation significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area, serum lipid profile, inflammatory response, aortic ROS production, proinflammatory factors and scavenger receptor expression as compared to those in the HFD group...
June 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092153/non-targeted-metabolite-profiling-and-scavenging-activity-unveil-the-nutraceutical-potential-of-psyllium-plantago-ovata-forsk
#19
Manish K Patel, Avinash Mishra, Bhavanath Jha
Non-targeted metabolomics implies that psyllium (Plantago ovata) is a rich source of natural antioxidants, PUFAs (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids) and essential and sulfur-rich amino acids, as recommended by the FAO for human health. Psyllium contains phenolics and flavonoids that possess reducing capacity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. In leaves, seeds, and husks, about 76, 78, 58% polyunsaturated, 21, 15, 20% saturated, and 3, 7, 22% monounsaturated fatty acids were found, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073979/diabetic-sensory-and-motor-neuropathy
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
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