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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319589/exercise-improves-v-combining-dot-above-o-2max-and-body-composition-in-adt-treated-prostate-cancer-patients
#1
Bradley A Wall, Daniel A Galvão, Naeem Fatehee, Dennis R Taaffe, Nigel Spry, David Joseph, Jeffrey J Hebert, Robert U Newton
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) experience unfavourbale changes in body composition and associated metabolic complications, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the effect of a 6-month program of aerobic and resistance exercise aimed at improving body composition and cardiorespiratory health in this population. METHODS: Ninety-seven men (43-90 years) with localized prostate cancer receiving ADT were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=50) or usual care (CON, n=47)...
March 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319068/iron-addiction-a-novel-therapeutic-target-in-ovarian-cancer
#2
D Basuli, L Tesfay, Z Deng, B Paul, Y Yamamoto, G Ning, W Xian, F McKeon, M Lynch, C P Crum, P Hegde, M Brewer, X Wang, L D Miller, N Dyment, F M Torti, S V Torti
Ovarian cancer is a lethal malignancy that has not seen a major therapeutic advance in over 30 years. We demonstrate that ovarian cancer exhibits a targetable alteration in iron metabolism. Ferroportin (FPN), the iron efflux pump, is decreased, and transferrin receptor (TFR1), the iron importer, is increased in tumor tissue from patients with high grade but not low grade serous ovarian cancer. A similar profile of decreased FPN and increased TFR1 is observed in a genetic model of ovarian cancer tumor-initiating cells (TICs)...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318368/the-wayward-methyl-group-and-the-cascade-to-cancer
#3
Robert M Hoffman
We propose here a hypothesis of the cause of cancer that brings together fundamental changes in methyl-group metabolism resulting in global DNA hypomethylation which destabilizes the genome leading to aneuploid karyotypes which evolve and stabilize into autonomous cancer. Experimental support for this hypothesis is that methioine dependence is a general metabolic defect in caner. Methionine dependence is due to excess use of methionene for aberrant transmethylation reactions that apparently divert methyl groups from DNA...
March 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315153/effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitory-prodrugs-on-epigenetic-changes-and-dna-damage-response-in-tumor-and-heart-of-glioblastoma-xenograft
#4
Nataly Tarasenko, Abraham Nudelman, Gabriela Rozic, Suzanne M Cutts, Ada Rephaeli
The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory prodrugs of butyric (AN7) and valproic (AN446) acids, which release the active acids upon metabolic degradation, were studied examining their differential effects on the viability, HDAC inhibitory activity and the DNA damage response (DDR), in glioblastoma cell and normal human astrocytes (NHAs). In xenografts of glioblastoma, AN7 or AN446 given or the combination of each of them with Dox augmented the anticancer activity of Dox and protected the heart from its toxicity...
March 17, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314284/altered-levels-of-serum-ceramide-sphingosine-and-sphingomyelin-are-associated-with-colorectal-cancer-a-retrospective-pilot-study
#5
Duska Separovic, Anthony F Shields, Philip A Philip, Jacek Bielawski, Alicja Bielawska, Jason S Pierce, Adi L Tarca
BACKGROUND/AIM: Because patients with cancer of apparently equivalent stage often have different outcomes, it is necessary to gather additional information to complement cancer staging. Dysregulated sphingolipid metabolism contributes to carcinogenesis. In this retrospective pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that changes in serum levels of sphingolipids are associated with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used commercially available serum samples from healthy males and patients with CRC (adenocarcinoma of the large intestine, stage IV with metastases)...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314283/stable-shrna-silencing-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-a-ldha-in-human-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells-fails-to-alter-lactic-acid-production-glycolytic-activity-atp-or-survival
#6
Nzinga Mack, Elizabeth A Mazzio, David Bauer, Hernan Flores-Rozas, Karam F A Soliman
BACKGROUND: In the US, African Americans have a high death rate from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by lack of hormone receptors (ER, PR, HER2/ERRB2) which are otherwise valuable targets of chemotherapy. There is a need to identify novel targets that negatively impact TNBC tumorigenesis. TNBCs release an abundance of lactic acid, under normoxic, hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions; this referred to as the Warburg effect. Accumulated lactic acid sustains peri-cellular acidity which propels metastatic invasion and malignant aggressive transformation...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314183/identification-of-metabolic-biomarkers-using-serial-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-for-prediction-of-recurrence-in-advanced-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#7
Tae Hun Kim, Junhwan Kim, Yeon-Koo Kang, Maria Lee, Hee Seung Kim, Gi Jeong Cheon, Hyun Hoon Chung
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic parameters derived from serial (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: Thirteen patients with advanced EOC who received surgical staging and adjuvant platinum-based combination chemotherapy were prospectively enrolled. (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed before and after the surgical staging, and after third cycle of chemotherapy...
March 14, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304334/kdm2-family-members-are-regulated-by-hif-1-in-hypoxia
#8
Michael Batie, Jimena Druker, Laura D'Ignazio, Sonia Rocha
Hypoxia is not only a developmental cue but also a stress and pathological stimulus in many human diseases. The response to hypoxia at the cellular level relies on the activity of the transcription factor family, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). HIF-1 is responsible for the acute response and transactivates a variety of genes involved in cellular metabolism, cell death, and cell growth. Here, we show that hypoxia results in increased mRNA levels for human lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2 (KDM2) family members, KDM2A and KDM2B, and also for Drosophila melanogaster KDM2, a histone and protein demethylase...
March 17, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304067/lipid-remodelling-in-human-melanoma-cells-in-response-to-uva-exposure
#9
Elisabete Maciel, Juliana Felgueiras, Eduarda M P Silva, Fernando Ricardo, Ana S P Moreira, Tânia Melo, Ana Campos, Margarida Fardilha, Pedro Domingues, M Rosário Domingues
Extensive exposure to UVA is thought to increase the risk of malignancy and the progression of melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer. It is well known that alterations in lipid metabolism represent an early event in carcinogenesis, but the impact of UVA exposure on the lipid composition of cancer cells is still largely unknown. In this study we aimed at investigating lipid remodeling in human melanoma cells in response to UVA exposure. After UVA irradiation, lipid extracts were either immediately collected from SK-MEL-28 cells or collected after a recovery period of 2 h or 24 h...
March 17, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300755/vitamin-d-impacts-the-expression-of-runx2-target-genes-and-modulates-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-membrane-vesicle-biogenesis-gene-networks-in-143b-osteosarcoma-cells
#10
Rama Garimella, Priyanka Tadikonda, Ossama Tawfik, Sumedha Gunewardena, Peter Rowe, Peter Van Veldhuizen
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy of bone affecting children, adolescents and young adults. Understanding vitamin D metabolism and vitamin D regulated genes in OS is an important aspect of vitamin D/cancer paradigm, and in evaluating vitamin D as adjuvant therapy for human OS. Vitamin D treatment of 143B OS cells induced significant and novel changes in the expression of genes that regulate: (a) inflammation and immunity; (b) formation of reactive oxygen species, metabolism of cyclic nucleotides, sterols, vitamins and mineral (calcium), quantity of gap junctions and skeletogenesis; (c) bone mineral density; and (d) cell viability of skeletal cells, aggregation of bone cancer cells and exocytosis of secretory vesicles...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298922/interactions-between-ppar-gamma-and-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-in-type-2-diabetes-and-colon-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Yves Lecarpentier, Victor Claes, Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Louis Hébert
In both colon cancer and type 2 diabetes, metabolic changes induced by upregulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) may help account for the frequent association of these two diseases. In both diseases, PPAR gamma is downregulated while the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated. In colon cancer, upregulation of the canonical Wnt system induces activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and deactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296247/comprehensive-proteome-analysis-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-cachexia-and-sarcopenia-a-pilot-study
#12
H Alexander Ebhardt, Simone Degen, Valentina Tadini, Alain Schilb, Neil Johns, Carolyn A Greig, Kenneth C H Fearon, Ruedi Aebersold, Carsten Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia (cancer-induced muscle wasting) is found in a subgroup of cancer patients leaving the patients with a poor prognosis for survival due to a lower tolerance of the chemotherapeutic drug. The cause of the muscle wasting in these patients is not fully understood, and no predictive biomarker exists to identify these patients early on. Skeletal muscle loss is an inevitable consequence of advancing age. As cancer frequently occurs in old age, identifying and differentiating the molecular mechanisms mediating muscle wasting in cancer cachexia vs...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294105/breath-acetone-as-a-potential-marker-in-clinical-practice
#13
Vera Ruzsanyi, Miklós Kalapos
In recent decades, two facts have changed the opinion of researchers about the function of acetone in humans. Firstly, it has turned out that acetone cannot be regarded as simply a waste product of metabolism, because there are several pathways in which acetone is produced or broken down. Secondly, methods have emerged making possible its detection in exhaled breath, thereby offering an attractive alternative to investigation of blood and urine samples. From a clinical point of view the measurement of breath acetone levels are important, but there are limitations to its wide application...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293641/functional-effects-of-prebiotic-fructans-in-colon-cancer-and-calcium-metabolism-in-animal-models
#14
Marisol Rivera-Huerta, Vania Lorena Lizárraga-Grimes, Ibrahim Guillermo Castro-Torres, Mabel Tinoco-Méndez, Lucía Macías-Rosales, Francisco Sánchez-Bartéz, Graciela Guadalupe Tapia-Pérez, Laura Romero-Romero, María Isabel Gracia-Mora
Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin "Synergy 1®" and inulin from Mexican agave "Metlin®" in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292921/genetic-determinants-of-1-3-butadiene-metabolism-and-detoxification-in-three-populations-of-smokers-with-different-risks-of-lung-cancer
#15
Emily J Boldry, Yesha M Patel, Srikanth Kotapati, Amanda Esades, Sungshim L Park, Maarit Tiirikainen, Daniel O Stram, Loic LeMarchand, Natalia Tretyakova
Background: 1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important carcinogen in tobacco smoke that undergoes metabolic activation to DNA-reactive epoxides. These species can be detoxified via glutathione conjugation and excreted in urine as the corresponding N-acetylcysteine conjugates. We hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms in BD-metabolizing genes may change the balance of BD bioactivation and detoxification in White, Japanese American, and African American smokers, potentially contributing to ethnic differences in lung cancer risk...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281169/complications-of-chronic-pancreatitis
#16
REVIEW
Mitchell L Ramsey, Darwin L Conwell, Phil A Hart
Chronic pancreatitis is a disease that leads to irreversible changes in the pancreatic morphology and function. The loss of function can lead to diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The inflammation and fibrosis can also lead to other complications including a chronic abdominal pain syndrome, metabolic bone disease, and pancretic cancer. This article reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms and management of these complications of chronic pancreatitis.
March 9, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281102/glutamine-addiction-in-gliomas
#17
Javier Márquez, Francisco J Alonso, José M Matés, Juan A Segura, Mercedes Martín-Rufián, José A Campos-Sandoval
Cancer cells develop and succeed by shifting to different metabolic programs compared with their normal cell counterparts. One of the classical hallmarks of cancer cells is their higher glycolysis rate and lactate production even in the presence of abundant O2 (Warburg effect). Another common metabolic feature of cancer cells is a high rate of glutamine (Gln) consumption normally exceeding their biosynthetic and energetic needs. The term Gln addiction is now widely used to reflect the strong dependence shown by most cancer cells for this essential nitrogen substrate after metabolic reprogramming...
March 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279183/circles-reshaping-the-rna-world-from-waste-to-treasure
#18
REVIEW
Jing Liu, Tian Liu, Xiaman Wang, Aili He
A new type of RNAs was identified from genes traditionally thought to express messenger or linear ncRNA (noncoding RNA) only. They were subsequently named as circRNAs (circular RNAs) due to the covalently closed structure. Accumulating studies were performed to explore the expression profile of circRNAs in different cell types and diseases, the outcomes totally changed our view of ncRNAs, which was thought to be junk by-products in the process of gene transcription, and enriched our poor understanding of its underlying functions...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277986/bardoxolone-methyl-inhibits-migration-and-metabolism-in-mcf7-cells
#19
Alaa Refaat, Chathyan Pararasa, Muhammed Arif, James E P Brown, Amtul Carmichael, Sameh S Ali, Hiroaki Sakurai, Helen R Griffiths
Bardoxolone-methyl (BAR) is reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-fibrotic effects. BAR activates Nrf2 and may ameliorate oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant genes. However, off-target effects, probably concentration and NFkB-dependent, have limited the clinical use of BAR. Nrf2 regulates expression of antioxidant and mitochondrial genes and has been proposed as a target for both obesity and breast cancer. Therefore, we explored whether BAR can alter migration and proliferation in the MCF7 cell line and whether metabolic function is affected by BAR...
February 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275201/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-of-all-trans-retinoic-acid-with-application-to-cancer-populations-and-drug-interactions
#20
Jing Jing, Cara Nelson, Jisun Paik, Yoshiyuki Shirasaka, John K Amory, Nina Isoherranen
All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is a front-line treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Due to its activity in regulating the cell cycle, it has also been evaluated for the treatment of other cancers. However, the efficacy of atRA has been limited by atRA inducing its own metabolism during therapy, resulting in a decrease of atRA exposure during continuous dosing. Frequent relapse occurs in patients receiving atRA monotherapy. In an attempt to combat therapy resistance, inhibitors of atRA metabolism have been developed...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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