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Fibrosis AND diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222269/restoring-cftr-function-reduces-airway-bacteria-and-inflammation-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-chronic-lung-infections
#1
Katherine B Hisert, Sonya L Heltshe, Christopher Pope, Peter Jorth, Xia Wu, Rachael M Edwards, Matthew Radey, Frank J Accurso, Daniel J Wolter, Gordon Cooke, Ryan J Adam, Suzanne Carter, Brenda Grogan, Jan L Launspach, Seamas C Donnelly, Charles Gallagher, James E Bruce, David Stoltz, Michael J Welsh, Lucas R Hoffman, Edward F McKone, Pradeep K Singh
RATIONALE: Previous work indicates that ivacaftor improves CFTR activity and lung function in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and G551D-CFTR mutations, but does not reduce density of bacteria or markers of inflammation in the airway. These findings raise the possibility that infection and inflammation may progress independently of CFTR activity once CF lung disease is established. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the relationship between CFTR activity, airway microbiology and inflammation, and lung function in subjects with CF and chronic airway infections...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222031/a-retrospective-analysis-of-longitudinal-changes-in-bone-mineral-content-in-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Adela Chirita-Emandi, Sheila Shepherd, Andreas Kyriakou, Jane D McNeilly, Carol Dryden, Donna Corrigan, Anne Devenny, Syed Faisal Ahmed
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the longitudinal changes in bone mineral content and influencing factors, in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: One hundred children (50 females) had dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed. Of these, 48 and 24 children had two to three scans, respectively over 10 years of follow-up. DXA data were expressed as lumbar spine bone mineral content standard deviation score (LSBMCSDS) adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and bone area...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220034/exhaled-and-nasal-nitric-oxide-in-relation-to-lung-function-blood-cell-counts-and-disease-characteristics-in-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Christina Krantz, Christer Janson, Annika Hollsing, Kjell Alving, Andrei Malinovschi
BACKGROUND: Patients with CF have similar or lower exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and lower nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels than controls. There are divergent results on alveolar NO (CalvNO) concentrations in relation to CF. There are inconsistent results on correlation between different nitric oxide parameters and lung function and inflammation in CF. AIM: To compare FeNO, CalvNO and nNO levels between subjects with CF, asthma and healthy controls and to study whether these parameters are related to lung function, blood cell counts or clinical characteristics in CF patients...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220029/a-novel-inhibitor-of-homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-2-mitigates-kidney-fibrosis-through-inhibition-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-pathway
#4
Ruijie Liu, Bhaskar Das, Wenzhen Xiao, Zhengzhe Li, Huilin Li, Kyung Lee, John Cijiang He
Homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a critical regulator of multiple profibrotic pathways, including that of TGF-β1/Smad3. Genetic ablation of HIPK2 was shown previously to significantly reduce renal fibrosis in the experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction model and Tg26 mice, a model of HIV-associated nephropathy. To develop specific pharmacologic inhibitors of HIPK2 for antifibrotic therapy, we designed and synthesized small molecule inhibitor compounds on the basis of the predicted structure of HIPK2...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219345/biomarkers-for-the-detection-of-renal-fibrosis-and-prediction-of-renal-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#5
Sherry G Mansour, Jeremy Puthumana, Steven G Coca, Mark Gentry, Chirag R Parikh
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is the unifying pathway leading to chronic kidney disease. Identifying biomarkers of fibrosis may help predict disease progression. METHODS: We performed a systematic review to evaluate the reliability of blood and urine biomarkers in identifying fibrosis on biopsy as well as predicting renal outcomes. Using MEDLINE and EMBASE, a two-stage search strategy was implemented. Stage I identified a library of biomarkers correlating with fibrosis on biopsy...
February 20, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219179/-function-and-modulation-of-type-%C3%A2-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-their-role-in-chronic-upper-airway-inflammatory-diseases
#6
Y Liu, Z Liu
Type Ⅱ innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) is a family of innate immune lymphocytes, which provide effective immune responses to cytokines. ILC2 are regulated by the nuclear transcription factor ROR alpha and GATA3, secreting cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, etc. Animal models have shown that ILC2 are involved in allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, and also play a very important role in the metabolic balance. In addition, recent reports suggest that ILC2 not only play a role in the initial stages of the disease, but also can lead to chronic pathological changes in the disease, such as fibrosis, and may have an effect on acquired immunity...
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219123/identification-of-core-gene-networks-and-hub-genes-associated-with-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-rna-sequencing
#7
Kikuko Hotta, Masataka Kikuchi, Takuya Kitamoto, Aya Kitamoto, Yuji Ogawa, Yasushi Honda, Takaomi Kessoku, Kaori Kobayashi, Masato Yoneda, Kento Imajo, Wataru Tomeno, Akihiro Nakaya, Yutaka Suzuki, Satoru Saito, Atsushi Nakajima
AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progresses because of the interaction between numerous genes. Thus, we performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify core gene networks and key genes associated with NAFLD progression. METHODS: We enrolled 39 patients with mild NAFLD (fibrosis stages 0 to 2) and 21 with advanced NAFLD (fibrosis stages 3 or 4). Total RNA was extracted from frozen liver biopsies, and sequenced to capture a large dynamic range of expression levels...
February 20, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219095/kaempferol-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-via-regulation-of-ask1-mapk-signaling-pathway-and-oxidative-stress
#8
Hong Feng, Jianlei Cao, Guangyu Zhang, Yanggan Wang
Kaempferol has been demonstrated to provide benefits for the treatment of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of kaempferol on cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanism. Mice subjected to aorta banding were treated with or without kaempferol (100 mg/kg/d, p. o.) for 6 weeks. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function...
February 20, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219060/steady-state-therapy-with-azithromycin-or-low-dose-prednisolone-in-paediatric-cystic-fibrosis-patients-inflammatory-markers-and-disease-progression
#9
Galina Shmarina, Alexander Pukhalsky, Lucine Avakian, Sergey Semykin, Daria Pukhalskaya, Vladimir Alioshkin
BACKGROUND: Anti-inflammatory therapy is a logical approach to slowing the inevitable lung function deterioration in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study's aim was to evaluate inflammatory markers and disease progression in paediatric CF patients chronically treated with azithromycin or low-dose prednisolone. METHODS: The study included 204 patients with CF and 100 healthy controls; 102 CF patients were treated with basic therapy only (without anti-inflammatory treatment; WAT), and 102 individuals received basic therapy along with azithromycin (n = 59) or low-dose prednisolone (n = 43)...
February 21, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218867/-screening-diagnosis-treatment-and-follow-up-of-hepatitis-c-virus-related-liver-disease-national-consensus-guideline-in-hungary-from-15-october-2016
#10
Béla Hunyady, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Judit Gervain, Gábor Horváth, Gabriella Lengyel, Alajos Pár, Zoltán Péter, László Rókusz, Ferenc Schneider, Ferenc Szalay, István Tornai, Klára Werling, Mihály Makara
Treatment of hepatitis C is based on a national consensus guideline updated six-monthly according to local availability and affordability of approved therapies through a transparent allocation system in Hungary. This updated guideline incorporates some special new aspects, including recommendations for screening, diagnostics, use and allocation of novel direct acting antiviral agents. Indication of therapy in patients with no contraindication is based on demonstration of viral replication with consequent inflammation and/or fibrosis in the liver...
February 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218832/a-non-invasive-strategy-based-on-real-time-in-vivo-cataluminescence-monitoring-for-clinical-breath-analysis
#11
Runkun Zhang, Wanting Huang, Gongke Li, Yufei Hu
The development of non-invasive methods for real-time in vivo analysis is of great significant, which provides powerful tools for medical research and clinical diagnosis. In the present work, we described a new strategy based on cataluminescence (CTL) for real-time in vivo clinical breath analysis. To illustrate such strategy, a homemade real-time CTL monitoring system characterized by coupling an on-line sampling device with a CTL sensor for sevoflurane (SVF) was designed, and a real-time in vivo method for the monitoring of SVF in exhaled breath was proposed...
February 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218802/non-invasive-ventilation-for-cystic-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
Fidelma Moran, Judy M Bradley, Amanda J Piper
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis by providing ventilatory support and avoiding tracheal intubation. Using non-invasive ventilation, in the appropriate situation or individuals, can improve lung mechanics through increasing airflow and gas exchange and decreasing the work of breathing. Non-invasive ventilation thus acts as an external respiratory muscle. This is an update of a previously published review...
February 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218781/study-on-the-effects-of-blueberry-treatment-on-histone-acetylation-modification-of-ccl4-induced-liver-disease-in-rats
#13
W Zhan, X Liao, T Tian, L Yu, X Liu, B Li, J Liu, B Han, R J Xie, Q H Ji, Q Yang
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of blueberry treatment on histone acetylation modification of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver disease in rats. Laboratory rats were randomly divided into control, hepatic fibrosis, blueberry treatment, blueberry intervention, and natural recovery groups. Rats in the model groups were treated with CCl4 administered subcutaneously at 4- and 8-week intervals, and then executed. Both the 4- and 8-week treatment groups were treated with blueberry juice for 8 weeks, and then executed after 12 and 16 weeks, respectively...
February 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218655/taste-receptors-mediate-sinonasal-immunity-and-respiratory-disease
#14
REVIEW
Jennifer E Douglas, Noam A Cohen
The bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), where the receptor functions to enhance upper respiratory innate immunity through a triad of beneficial immune responses. Individuals with a functional version of T2R38 are tasters for the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and exhibit an anti-microbial response in the upper airway to certain invading pathogens, while those individuals with a non-functional version of the receptor are PTC non-tasters and lack this beneficial response...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218266/crystal-nephropathies-mechanisms-of-crystal-induced-kidney-injury
#15
REVIEW
Shrikant R Mulay, Hans-Joachim Anders
Crystals can trigger a wide range of kidney injuries that can lead to acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal colic or nephrocalcinosis, depending on the localization and dynamics of crystal deposition. Studies of the biology of crystal handling by the kidney have shown that the formation of different crystals and other microparticles and the associated mechanisms of renal damage share molecular mechanisms, such as stimulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome or direct cytotoxicity through activation of the necroptosis signalling pathway...
February 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217927/hypertension-induced-remodelling-on-the-interactions-of-cardiac-risk-factors
#16
Jakub Tomek, Gil Bub
Hypertension induces considerable cardiac remodelling, such as hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and abnormal activity of cardiac sympathetic nervous system, which are established risk factors in several highly dangerous heart diseases, such as ventricular fibrillation and congestive heart failure. All these risk factors and heart diseases are studied extensively in isolation, but to our knowledge, there is no comprehensive review of their interactions. At the same time, there is growing evidence suggesting that such interactions are numerous and that a successful therapy against a particular condition may have unexpectedly weak effects on mortality, as treated patients may die of a different cause exacerbated by the therapy...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217832/gestational-protein-restriction-study-of-the-probable-effects-on-cardiac-muscle-structure-and-function-in-adult-rats
#17
Mona G Amer, Nader M Mohamed, Aly A M Shaalan
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been linked to heart disease in adulthood. This study aimed to examine the effect of gestational protein restriction during fetal and early postnatal life on the cardiac muscle structure and function in adult offspring. Pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups: normal-protein diet (NP) and low-protein diet (LP). Fifteen male offspring from each group were included in the study. Offspring body weights were recorded at birth and monthly from weaning until 24 weeks of age while systolic blood pressure was measured weekly...
February 20, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217450/understanding-the-cellular-basis-and-pathophysiology-of-peyronie-s-disease-to-optimize-treatment-for-erectile-dysfunction
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey Campbell, Raidh Alzubaidi
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition that significantly impacts a man's physical and psychological well-being. ED is often associated with Peyronie's disease (PD), which is an abnormal curvature of the penis. Delayed treatment of or surgical invention for PD often results in ED and therefore unsatisfied patients. The pathophysiology of PD is incompletely understood, but has been studied extensively and based on our current understanding of PD physiology, many medical treatment options have been proposed...
February 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217371/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-pancreatitis
#19
REVIEW
Murli Manohar, Alok Kumar Verma, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Nathan L Sanders, Anil Mishra
Pancreatitis is inflammation of pancreas and caused by a number of factors including pancreatic duct obstruction, alcoholism, and mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Pancreatitis is represented as acute pancreatitis with acute inflammatory responses and; chronic pancreatitis characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils), monocytes, macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These inflammatory cells are known to play a central role in initiating and promoting inflammation including pancreatic fibrosis, i...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217233/bidirectional-ventricular-tachycardia-in-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#20
Mina M Benjamin, Kevin Hayes, Michael E Field, Melvin M Scheinman, Kurt S Hoffmayer
A 73-year-old man with history of pulmonary sarcoidosis was found to have runs of non-sustained bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (BVT) with two different QRS morphologies on a Holter monitor. Cardiac magnetic resonance delayed gadolinium imaging revealed a region of patchy mid-myocardial enhancement within the left ventricular basal inferolateral myocardium. An 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed increased uptake in the same area, consistent with active sarcoid, with no septal involvement...
February 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
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