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Nutrient genetic engineer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898053/microbial-mutualism-dynamics-governed-by-dose-dependent-toxicity-of-cross-fed-nutrients
#1
Breah LaSarre, Alexandra L McCully, Jay T Lennon, James B McKinlay
Microbial interactions, including mutualistic nutrient exchange (cross-feeding), underpin the flow of energy and materials in all ecosystems. Metabolic exchanges are difficult to assess within natural systems. As such, the impact of exchange levels on ecosystem dynamics and function remains unclear. To assess how cross-feeding levels govern mutualism behavior, we developed a bacterial coculture amenable to both modeling and experimental manipulation. In this coculture, which resembles an anaerobic food web, fermentative Escherichia coli and photoheterotrophic Rhodopseudomonas palustris obligately cross-feed carbon (organic acids) and nitrogen (ammonium)...
November 29, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822308/advantageous-characteristics-of-the-diatom-chaetoceros-gracilis-as-a-sustainable-biofuel-producer
#2
Hiromi Tokushima, Natsuko Inoue-Kashino, Yukine Nakazato, Atsunori Masuda, Kentaro Ifuku, Yasuhiro Kashino
BACKGROUND: Diatoms have attracted interest as biofuel producers. Here, the contents of lipids and photosynthetic pigments were analyzed in a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis. This diatom can be genetically engineered using our previously reported transformation technique and has a potential to produce valuable materials photosynthetically. Sustainable culture conditions for cost-effective production of biological materials under autotrophic conditions with atmospheric carbon dioxide were investigated in the laboratory...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818663/grafting-a-technique-to-modify-ion-accumulation-in-horticultural-crops
#3
REVIEW
Muhammad A Nawaz, Muhammad Imtiaz, Qiusheng Kong, Fei Cheng, Waqar Ahmed, Yuan Huang, Zhilong Bie
Grafting is a centuries-old technique used in plants to obtain economic benefits. Grafting increases nutrient uptake and utilization efficiency in a number of plant species, including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Selected rootstocks of the same species or close relatives are utilized in grafting. Rootstocks absorb more water and ions than self-rooted plants and transport these water and ions to the aboveground scion. Ion uptake is regulated by a complex communication mechanism between the scion and rootstock...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801985/global-regulatory-framework-for-production-and-marketing-of-crops-biofortified-with-vitamins-and-minerals
#4
Luis A Mejia, Omar Dary, Hala Boukerdenna
Biofortification of crops is being introduced in several countries as a strategy to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortified products, with increased contents of micronutrients, are currently produced by conventional plant breeding, genetic modification, or nutrient-enhanced fertilization. Corn, rice, wheat, beans, pearl millet, sweet potato, and cassava have been biofortified with increased contents of provitamin A carotenoids, iron, or zinc. However, regulatory considerations are rare or nonexistent...
November 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799657/lkb1-loss-links-serine-metabolism-to-dna-methylation-and-tumorigenesis
#5
Filippos Kottakis, Brandon N Nicolay, Ahlima Roumane, Rahul Karnik, Hongcang Gu, Julia M Nagle, Myriam Boukhali, Michele C Hayward, Yvonne Y Li, Ting Chen, Marc Liesa, Peter S Hammerman, Kwok Kin Wong, D Neil Hayes, Orian S Shirihai, Nicholas J Dyson, Wilhelm Haas, Alexander Meissner, Nabeel Bardeesy
Intermediary metabolism generates substrates for chromatin modification, enabling the potential coupling of metabolic and epigenetic states. Here we identify a network linking metabolic and epigenetic alterations that is central to oncogenic transformation downstream of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1, also known as STK11) tumour suppressor, an integrator of nutrient availability, metabolism and growth. By developing genetically engineered mouse models and primary pancreatic epithelial cells, and employing transcriptional, proteomics, and metabolic analyses, we find that oncogenic cooperation between LKB1 loss and KRAS activation is fuelled by pronounced mTOR-dependent induction of the serine-glycine-one-carbon pathway coupled to S-adenosylmethionine generation...
October 31, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630626/current-state-of-knowledge-in-microbial-degradation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Debajyoti Ghosal, Shreya Ghosh, Tapan K Dutta, Youngho Ahn
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604481/molecular-genetic-improvements-of-cyanobacteria-to-enhance-the-industrial-potential-of-the-microbe-a-review
#7
Tylor J Johnson, Jaimie L Gibbons, Liping Gu, Ruanbao Zhou, William R Gibbons
The rapid increase in worldwide population coupled with the increasing demand for fossil fuels has led to an increased urgency to develop sustainable sources of energy and chemicals from renewable resources. Using microorganisms to produce high-value chemicals and next-generation biofuels is one sustainable option and is the focus of much current research. Cyanobacteria are ideal platform organisms for chemical and biofuel production because they can be genetically engineered to produce a broad range of products directly from CO2, H2 O and sunlight, and require minimal nutrient inputs...
September 7, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527405/the-effect-of-supplementation-of-amino-acids-and-taurine-to-modified-ksom-culture-medium-on-rat-embryo-development
#8
Kazuomi Nakamura, Kayoko Morimoto, Kaoru Shima, Yuki Yoshimura, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Osamu Suzuki, Junichiro Matsuda, Tetsuya Ohbayashi
The rat is widely used as a laboratory animal for research. In particular, genetically engineered rats are essential for production of animal models of several diseases. Although embryo manipulation techniques are needed to produce them, such technology for rat preimplantation embryos is not as advanced as it is for mouse embryos. One reason is that in vitro culture systems for preimplantation embryos are limited in rats. Therefore, we intended to develop a new culture system for rat preimplantation embryos focusing on supplementation of amino acids as nutrition to the culture media...
November 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516533/autophagy-provides-metabolic-substrates-to-maintain-energy-charge-and-nucleotide-pools-in-ras-driven-lung-cancer-cells
#9
Jessie Yanxiang Guo, Xin Teng, Saurabh V Laddha, Sirui Ma, Stephen C Van Nostrand, Yang Yang, Sinan Khor, Chang S Chan, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Eileen White
Autophagy degrades and is thought to recycle proteins, other macromolecules, and organelles. In genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) for Kras-driven lung cancer, autophagy prevents the accumulation of defective mitochondria and promotes malignancy. Autophagy-deficient tumor-derived cell lines are respiration-impaired and starvation-sensitive. However, to what extent their sensitivity to starvation arises from defective mitochondria or an impaired supply of metabolic substrates remains unclear. Here, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of wild-type or autophagy-deficient (Atg7(-/-)) Kras-driven lung tumors...
August 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499678/enhancement-of-plant-productivity-in-the-post-genomics-era
#10
Nguyen Phuong Thao, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Obtaining high plant yield is not always achievable in agricultural activity as it is determined by various factors, including cultivar quality, nutrient and water supplies, degree of infection by pathogens, natural calamities and soil conditions, which affect plant growth and development. More noticeably, sustainable plant productivity to provide sufficient food for the increasing human population has become a thorny issue to scientists in the era of unpredictable global climatic changes, appearance of more tremendous or multiple stresses, and land restriction for cultivation...
August 2016: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451446/leveraging-genetic-background-effects-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-improve-lignocellulosic-hydrolysate-tolerance
#11
Maria Sardi, Nikolay Rovinskiy, Yaoping Zhang, Audrey P Gasch
UNLABELLED: A major obstacle to sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel production is microbe inhibition by the combinatorial stresses in pretreated plant hydrolysate. Chemical biomass pretreatment releases a suite of toxins that interact with other stressors, including high osmolarity and temperature, which together can have poorly understood synergistic effects on cells. Improving tolerance in industrial strains has been hindered, in part because the mechanisms of tolerance reported in the literature often fail to recapitulate in other strain backgrounds...
October 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379117/micrornas-as-potential-targets-for-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-plants
#12
REVIEW
Varsha Shriram, Vinay Kumar, Rachayya M Devarumath, Tushar S Khare, Shabir H Wani
The microRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20-24 nt) sized, non-coding, single stranded riboregulator RNAs abundant in higher organisms. Recent findings have established that plants assign miRNAs as critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in sequence-specific manner to respond to numerous abiotic stresses they face during their growth cycle. These small RNAs regulate gene expression via translational inhibition. Usually, stress induced miRNAs downregulate their target mRNAs, whereas, their downregulation leads to accumulation and function of positive regulators...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329217/genome-wide-identification-of-the-expansin-gene-family-in-tobacco-nicotiana-tabacum
#13
Anming Ding, Prince Marowa, Yingzhen Kong
Expansins are pH-dependent cell wall loosening proteins which form a large family in plants. They have been shown to be involved in various developmental processes and been implicated in enabling plants' ability to absorb nutrients from the soil as well as conferring biotic and abiotic stress resistances. It is therefore clear that they can be potential targets in genetic engineering for crop improvement. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a major crop species as well as a model organism. Considering that only a few tobacco expansins have been studied, a genome-wide analysis of the tobacco expansin gene family is necessary...
October 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27200009/astaxanthin-producing-green-microalga-haematococcus-pluvialis-from-single-cell-to-high-value-commercial-products
#14
REVIEW
Md Mahfuzur R Shah, Yuanmei Liang, Jay J Cheng, Maurycy Daroch
Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed, and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as "super anti-oxidant." Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. It is now evident that, astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186362/engineering-the-gut-for-insulin-replacement-to-treat-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Majid Mojibian, Maria M Glavas, Timothy J Kieffer
The gut epithelium's large surface area, its direct exposure to ingested nutrients, its vast stem cell population and its immunotolerogenic environment make it an excellent candidate for therapeutic cells to treat diabetes. Thus, several attempts have been made to coax immature gut cells to differentiate into insulin-producing cells by altering the expression patterns of specific transcription factors. Furthermore, because of similarities in enteroendocrine and pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation pathways, other approaches have used genetically engineered enteroendocrine cells to produce insulin in addition to their endogenous secreted hormones...
April 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159665/engineered-bacteria-detect-spatial-profiles-in-glucose-concentration-within-solid-tumor-cell-masses
#16
Jan T Panteli, Neil S Forbes
Tumor heterogeneity makes cancer difficult to treat. Many small molecule cancer drugs target rapidly dividing cells on the periphery of tumors but have difficulty in penetrating deep into tumors and are ineffective at treating entire tumors. Targeting both rapidly dividing and slower growing regions of tumors is essential to effectively treat cancer. A cancer drug carrier that penetrates deep into tumors and identifies metabolically activity could supply treatment to those areas based on the local microenvironment...
November 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148218/cyanobacteria-a-precious-bio-resource-in-agriculture-ecosystem-and-environmental-sustainability
#17
REVIEW
Jay Shankar Singh, Arun Kumar, Amar N Rai, Devendra P Singh
Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092155/emerging-roles-of-strigolactones-in-plant-responses-to-stress-and-development
#18
REVIEW
Amita Pandey, Manisha Sharma, Girdhar K Pandey
Our environment constantly undergoes changes either natural or manmade affecting growth and development of all the organisms including plants. Plants are sessile in nature and therefore to counter environmental changes such as light, temperature, nutrient and water availability, pathogen, and many others; plants have evolved intricate signaling mechanisms, composed of multiple components including several plant hormones. Research conducted in the last decade has placed Strigolactones (SLs) in the growing list of plant hormones involved in coping with environmental changes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066395/field-trial-evaluation-of-the-accumulation-of-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-transgenic-camelina-sativa-making-fish-oil-substitutes-in-plants
#19
Sarah Usher, Richard P Haslam, Noemi Ruiz-Lopez, Olga Sayanova, Johnathan A Napier
The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops...
December 2015: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058920/arsenic-uptake-and-speciation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-under-hydroponic-conditions
#20
Jin Hee Park, Young-Soo Han, Hye Jin Seong, Joo Sung Ahn, In-Hyun Nam
Arsenic (As) uptake and species in Arabidopsis thaliana were evaluated under hydroponic conditions. Plant nutrient solutions were treated with arsenite [As(III)] or arsenate [As(V)], and aqueous As speciation was conducted using a solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Arabidopsis reduced As(V) to As(III) in the nutrient solution, possibly due to root exudates such as organic acids or the efflux of As(III) from plant roots after in vivo reduction of As(V) to As(III). Arsenic uptake by Arabidopsis was associated with increased levels of Ca and Fe, and decreased levels of K in plant tissues...
July 2016: Chemosphere
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