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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750783/engineering-bacterial-motility-towards-hydrogen-peroxide
#1
Chelsea Virgile, Pricila Hauk, Hsuan-Chen Wu, Wu Shang, Chen-Yu Tsao, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
Synthetic biologists construct innovative genetic/biological systems to treat environmental, energy, and health problems. Many systems employ rewired cells for non-native product synthesis, while a few have employed the rewired cells as 'smart' devices with programmable function. Building on the latter, we developed a genetic construct to control and direct bacterial motility towards hydrogen peroxide, one of the body's immune response signaling molecules. A motivation for this work is the creation of cells that can target and autonomously treat disease, the latter signaled by hydrogen peroxide release...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729378/leveraging-knowledge-engineering-and-machine-learning-for-microbial-bio-manufacturing
#2
REVIEW
Tolutola Oyetunde, Forrest Sheng Bao, Jiung-Wen Chen, Hector Garcia Martin, Yinjie J Tang
Genome scale modeling (GSM) predicts the performance of microbial workhorses and helps identify beneficial gene targets. GSM integrated with intracellular flux dynamics, omics, and thermodynamics have shown remarkable progress in both elucidating complex cellular phenomena and computational strain design (CSD). Nonetheless, these models still show high uncertainty due to a poor understanding of innate pathway regulations, metabolic burdens, and other factors (such as stress tolerance and metabolite channeling)...
May 2, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728792/carbohydrate-reserves-and-seed-development-an-overview
#3
REVIEW
Manuel Aguirre, Edward Kiegle, Giulia Leo, Ignacio Ezquer
Seeds are one of the most important food sources, providing humans and animals with essential nutrients. These nutrients include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Carbohydrates are one of the main energy sources for both plant and animal cells and play a fundamental role in seed development, human nutrition and the food industry. Many studies have focused on the molecular pathways that control carbohydrate flow during seed development in monocot and dicot species. For this reason, an overview of seed biodiversity focused on the multiple metabolic and physiological mechanisms that govern seed carbohydrate storage function in the plant kingdom is required...
May 4, 2018: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728387/an-escherichia-coli-nitrogen-starvation-response-is-important-for-mutualistic-coexistence-with-rhodopseudomonas-palustris
#4
Alexandra L McCully, Megan G Behringer, Jennifer R Gliessman, Evgeny V Pilipenko, Jeffrey L Mazny, Michael Lynch, D Allan Drummond, James B McKinlay
Microbial mutualistic cross-feeding interactions are ubiquitous and can drive important community functions. Engaging in cross-feeding undoubtedly affects the physiology and metabolism of individual species involved. However, the nature in which an individual's physiology is influenced by cross-feeding and the importance of those physiological changes for the mutualism have received little attention. We previously developed a genetically tractable coculture to study bacterial mutualisms. The coculture consists of fermentative Escherichia coli and phototrophic Rhodopseudomonas palustris In this coculture, E...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719164/genetically-encoded-biosensors-in-plants-pathways-to-discovery
#5
Ankit Walia, Rainer Waadt, Alexander M Jones
Genetically encoded biosensors that directly interact with a molecule of interest were first introduced more than 20 years ago with fusion proteins that served as fluorescent indicators for calcium ions. Since then, the technology has matured into a diverse array of biosensors that have been deployed to improve our spatiotemporal understanding of molecules whose dynamics have profound influence on plant physiology and development. In this review, we address several types of biosensors with a focus on genetically encoded calcium indicators, which are now the most diverse and advanced group of biosensors...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713790/metagenome-metatranscriptome-and-metaproteome-approaches-unraveled-compositions-and-functional-relationships-of-microbial-communities-residing-in-biogas-plants
#6
REVIEW
Julia Hassa, Irena Maus, Sandra Off, Alfred Pühler, Paul Scherer, Michael Klocke, Andreas Schlüter
The production of biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural residues, organic wastes, animal excrements, municipal sludge, and energy crops has a firm place in sustainable energy production and bio-economy strategies. Focusing on the microbial community involved in biomass conversion offers the opportunity to control and engineer the biogas process with the objective to optimize its efficiency. Taxonomic profiling of biogas producing communities by means of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing provided high-resolution insights into bacterial and archaeal structures of AD assemblages and their linkages to fed substrates and process parameters...
April 30, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666628/you-shall-not-pass-root-vacuoles-as-a-symplastic-checkpoint-for-metal-translocation-to-shoots-and-possible-application-to-grain-nutritional-quality
#7
REVIEW
Felipe K Ricachenevsky, Artur T de Araújo Junior, Janette P Fett, Raul A Sperotto
Plant nutrient uptake is performed mostly by roots, which have to acquire nutrients while avoiding excessive amounts of essential and toxic elements. Apoplastic barriers such as the casparian strip and suberin deposition block free diffusion from the rhizosphere into the xylem, making selective plasma membrane transporters able to control elemental influx into the root symplast, efflux into the xylem and therefore shoot translocation. Additionally, transporters localized to the tonoplast of root cells have been demonstrated to regulate the shoot ionome, and may be important for seed elemental translocation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649182/applications-of-microalgal-biotechnology-for-disease-control-in-aquaculture
#8
REVIEW
Patai Charoonnart, Saul Purton, Vanvimon Saksmerprome
Aquaculture industries, and in particular the farming of fish and crustaceans, are major contributors to the economy of many countries and an increasingly important component in global food supply. However, the severe impact of aquatic microbial diseases on production performance remains a challenge to these industries. This article considers the potential applications of microalgal technology in the control of such diseases. At the simplest level, microalgae offer health-promoting benefits as a nutritional supplement in feed meal because of their digestibility and high content of proteins, lipids and essential nutrients...
April 12, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601856/light-optimized-growth-of-cyanobacterial-cultures-growth-phases-and-productivity-of-biomass-and-secreted-molecules-in-light-limited-batch-growth
#9
Ryan L Clark, Laura L McGinley, Hugh M Purdy, Travis C Korosh, Jennifer L Reed, Thatcher W Root, Brian F Pfleger
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms whose metabolism can be modified through genetic engineering for production of a wide variety of molecules directly from CO2 , light, and nutrients. Diverse molecules have been produced in small quantities by engineered cyanobacteria to demonstrate the feasibility of photosynthetic biorefineries. Consequently, there is interest in engineering these microorganisms to increase titer and productivity to meet industrial metrics. Unfortunately, differing experimental conditions and cultivation techniques confound comparisons of strains and metabolic engineering strategies...
March 27, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562229/insulin-resistance-in-cavefish-as-an-adaptation-to-a-nutrient-limited-environment
#10
Misty R Riddle, Ariel C Aspiras, Karin Gaudenz, Robert Peuß, Jenny Y Sung, Brian Martineau, Megan Peavey, Andrew C Box, Julius A Tabin, Suzanne McGaugh, Richard Borowsky, Clifford J Tabin, Nicolas Rohner
Periodic food shortages are a major challenge faced by organisms in natural habitats. Cave-dwelling animals must withstand long periods of nutrient deprivation, as-in the absence of photosynthesis-caves depend on external energy sources such as seasonal floods. Here we show that cave-adapted populations of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, have dysregulated blood glucose homeostasis and are insulin-resistant compared to river-adapted populations. We found that multiple cave populations carry a mutation in the insulin receptor that leads to decreased insulin binding in vitro and contributes to hyperglycaemia...
March 21, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554761/engineered-nanomaterials-for-plant-growth-and-development-a-perspective-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Sandeep Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Das, Manoj Kumar Patel, Ashish Shah, Vinay Kumar, Saikat Gantait
With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541157/effect-of-ammonium-and-high-light-intensity-on-the-accumulation-of-lipids-in-nannochloropsis-oceanica-ccap-849-10-and-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-ccap-1055-1
#12
María Huete-Ortega, Katarzyna Okurowska, Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Matthew P Johnson, D James Gilmour, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
Background: Microalgae accumulate lipids when exposed to stressful conditions such as nutrient limitation that can be used to generate biofuels. Nitrogen limitation or deprivation is a strategy widely employed to elicit this response. However, this strategy is associated with a reduction in the microalgal growth, leading to overall poor lipid productivities. Here, we investigated the combined effect of a reduced source of nitrogen (ammonium) and super-saturating light intensities on the growth and induction of lipid accumulation in two model but diverse microalgal species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis oceanica ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534903/laboratory-evolution-reveals-regulatory-and-metabolic-trade-offs-of-glycerol-utilization-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Tomas Strucko, Katharina Zirngibl, Filipa Pereira, Eleni Kafkia, Elsayed T Mohamed, Mandy Rettel, Frank Stein, Adam M Feist, Paula Jouhten, Kiran Raosaheb Patil, Jochen Forster
Most microbial species, including model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, possess genetic capability to utilize many alternative nutrient sources. Yet, it remains an open question whether these manifest into assimilatory phenotypes. Despite possessing all necessary pathways, S. cerevisiae grows poorly or not at all when glycerol is the sole carbon source. Here we discover, through multiple evolved lineages, genetic determinants underlying glycerol catabolism and the associated fitness trade-offs. Most evolved lineages adapted through mutations in the HOG pathway, but showed hampered osmotolerance...
March 10, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534758/tecs-a-toxin-expression-control-strategy-as-a-tool-for-optimization-of-inducible-promoters
#14
Aleksandra Małachowska, Paweł Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Transcriptional control of gene expression is a widely utilized regulatory mechanism in synthetic biology, biotechnology and recombinant protein production. It is achieved by utilization of naturally occurring promoters responding to nutrients or chemicals. Despite their regulatory properties, these promoters often possess features which diminish their utility for biotechnology. High basal expression level and low induction ratio can be removed using genetic engineering techniques, although this process is often laborious and time-consuming...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526649/2015-evidence-analysis-library-systematic-review-on-advanced-technology-in-food-production
#15
Marianne Smith Edge, Mary Elizabeth Kunkel, Jennifer Schmidt, Constantina Papoutsakis
In the late 20th century, plant breeders began using molecular biology techniques such as recombinant DNA, also known as genetic engineering, along with traditional cross-breeding. Ten plant and one animal food have been approved for commercialization in the United States. Today, foods and ingredients from genetically engineered (GE) crops are present throughout the food supply, which has led to varying levels of acceptance. Much discussion exists among consumers and health professionals about the believability of statements made regarding benefits or risks of GE foods...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522825/glyco-mapper-a-chinese-hamster-ovary-cho-genome-specific-glycosylation-prediction-tool
#16
Benjamin G Kremkow, Kelvin H Lee
Glyco-Mapper is a novel systems biology product quality prediction tool created using a new framework termed: Discretized Reaction Network Modeling using Fuzzy Parameters (DReaM-zyP). Within Glyco-Mapper, users fix the nutrient feed composition and the glycosylation reaction fluxes to fit the model glycoform to the reference experimental glycoform, enabling cell-line specific glycoform predictions as a result of cell engineering strategies. Glyco-Mapper accurately predicts published genetically altered glycoforms resulting in the appearance or disappearance of one or more glycans between 1999 and 2014 with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 96%, 85%, and 97%, respectively...
March 6, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452455/complex-hur-function-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#17
REVIEW
Jonathan R Brody, Dan A Dixon
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with dismal patient outcomes. The underlying core genetic drivers of disease have been identified in human tumor specimens and described in genetically engineered mouse models. These genetic drivers of PDAC include KRAS signaling, TP53 mutations, and genetic loss of the SMAD4 tumor suppressor protein. Beyond the known mutational landscape of PDAC genomes, alternative disrupted targets that extend beyond conventional genetic mutations have been elusive and understudied in the context of PDAC cell therapeutic resistance and survival...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423882/growth-promotion-of-euglena-gracilis-by-ferulic-acid-from-rice-bran
#18
Jiangyu Zhu, Minato Wakisaka
A significant growth promotion of Euglena gracilis was achieved by simply adding ferulic acid from rice bran without diminishing the accumulation of valuable products like paramylon. E. gracilis is a freshwater microalga that is widely applied in cosmetics, food, medicine, and supplements, and it is considered a potential source of biofuel. It is therefore important to enhance its yield at a lower cost for its commercial viability. Introducing a growth regulator derived from agro waste is considered a cheaper and safer strategy to improve biomass productivity compared with other alternatives such as implementing genetic engineering or adding nutrients and plant hormones as growth stimulator...
February 8, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394054/genetic-engineering-of-maize-zea-mays-l-with-improved-grain-nutrients
#19
Xiaotong Guo, Xiaoguang Duan, Yongzhen Wu, Jieshan Cheng, Juan Zhang, Hongxia Zhang, Bei Li
Cell-wall invertase plays important roles in the grain filling of crop plants. However, its functions in the improvement of grain nutrients have not been investigated. In this work, the stable expression of cell-wall-invertase-encoding genes from different plant species and the contents of total starch, protein, amino acid, nitrogen, lipid, and phosphorus were examined in transgenic maize plants. High expressions of the cell-wall-invertase gene conferred enhanced invertase activity and sugar content in transgenic plants, leading to increased grain yield and improved grain nutrients...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359657/heterologous-synthesis-and-recovery-of-advanced-biofuels-from-bacterial-cell-factories
#20
Sana Malik, Ifrah Afzal, Muhammad Aamer Mehmood, Sawsan Abdulaziz Rahimuddin, Munazza Gull, Nazia Nahid
Increasing global demands for drop-in biofuels along with raising environmental concerns have led us to develop sustainable, renewable and cost-effective liquid fuels for transport and industrial sector. Production of a fuel that is economical and compatible with existing infrastructure is crucial. While the lower titer and difficult recovery of the advanced biofuels are the key challenges in this context. By employing metabolic engineering techniques and synthetic biology tools, scientists have developed a variety of potential microbial strains with improved yield of biofuels...
January 22, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
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