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Nutrient genetic engineer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431252/engineered-regulatory-systems-modulate-gene-expression-of-human-commensals-in-the-gut
#1
Bentley Lim, Michael Zimmermann, Natasha A Barry, Andrew L Goodman
The gut microbiota is implicated in numerous aspects of health and disease, but dissecting these connections is challenging because genetic tools for gut anaerobes are limited. Inducible promoters are particularly valuable tools because these platforms allow real-time analysis of the contribution of microbiome gene products to community assembly, host physiology, and disease. We developed a panel of tunable expression platforms for the prominent genus Bacteroides in which gene expression is controlled by a synthetic inducer...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235716/genomic-dissection-of-host-microbe-and-microbe-microbe-interactions-for-advanced-plant-breeding
#2
REVIEW
Samuel Kroll, Matthew T Agler, Eric Kemen
Agriculture faces many emerging challenges to sustainability, including limited nutrient resources, losses from diseases caused by current and emerging pathogens and environmental degradation. Microorganisms have great importance for plant growth and performance, including the potential to increase yields, nutrient uptake and pathogen resistance. An urgent need is therefore to understand and engineer plants and their associated microbial communities. Recent massive genomic sequencing of host plants and associated microbes offers resources to identify novel mechanisms of communal assembly mediated by the host...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202725/stretchable-living-materials-and-devices-with-hydrogel-elastomer-hybrids-hosting-programmed-cells
#3
Xinyue Liu, Tzu-Chieh Tang, Eléonore Tham, Hyunwoo Yuk, Shaoting Lin, Timothy K Lu, Xuanhe Zhao
Living systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, and mammalian cells, can be genetically programmed with synthetic circuits that execute sensing, computing, memory, and response functions. Integrating these functional living components into materials and devices will provide powerful tools for scientific research and enable new technological applications. However, it has been a grand challenge to maintain the viability, functionality, and safety of living components in freestanding materials and devices, which frequently undergo deformations during applications...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097384/stress-response-physiology-of-thermophiles
#4
REVIEW
Preeti Ranawat, Seema Rawat
Thermo (or hyperthermo) philic microorganisms are ubiquitous having a wide range of habitats from freshly fallen snow to pasteurized milk to geothermal areas like hot springs. The variations in physicochemical conditions, viz., temperature, pH, nutrient availability and light intensity in the habitats always pose stress conditions for the inhabitants leading to slow growth or cell death. The industrial processes used for harvesting secondary metabolites such as enzymes, toxins and organic acids also create stressed environments for thermophiles...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965695/integration-of-plant-defense-traits-with-biological-control-of-arthropod-pests-challenges-and-opportunities
#5
REVIEW
Julie A Peterson, Paul J Ode, Camila Oliveira-Hofman, James D Harwood
Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. Multi-trophic effects of host plant resistance have the potential to influence, both positively and negatively, biological control...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965362/transport-and-homeostasis-of-potassium-and-phosphate-limiting-factors-for-sustainable-crop-production
#6
REVIEW
Mingda Luan, Ren-Jie Tang, Yumei Tang, Wang Tian, Congong Hou, Fugeng Zhao, Wenzhi Lan, Sheng Luan
Potassium (K) and phosphate (Pi) are both macronutrients essential for plant growth and crop production, but the unrenewable resources of phosphorus rock and potash have become limiting factors for food security. One critical measure to help solve this problem is to improve nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in plants by understanding and engineering genetic networks for ion uptake, translocation, and storage. Plants have evolved multiple systems to adapt to various nutrient conditions for growth and production...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898053/microbial-mutualism-dynamics-governed-by-dose-dependent-toxicity-of-cross-fed-nutrients
#7
Breah LaSarre, Alexandra L McCully, Jay T Lennon, James B McKinlay
Microbial interactions, including mutualistic nutrient exchange (cross-feeding), underpin the flow of energy and materials in all ecosystems. Metabolic exchanges are difficult to assess within natural systems. As such, the impact of exchange levels on ecosystem dynamics and function remains unclear. To assess how cross-feeding levels govern mutualism behavior, we developed a bacterial coculture amenable to both modeling and experimental manipulation. In this coculture, which resembles an anaerobic food web, fermentative Escherichia coli and photoheterotrophic Rhodopseudomonas palustris obligately cross-feed carbon (organic acids) and nitrogen (ammonium)...
February 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822308/advantageous-characteristics-of-the-diatom-chaetoceros-gracilis-as-a-sustainable-biofuel-producer
#8
Hiromi Tokushima, Natsuko Inoue-Kashino, Yukine Nakazato, Atsunori Masuda, Kentaro Ifuku, Yasuhiro Kashino
BACKGROUND: Diatoms have attracted interest as biofuel producers. Here, the contents of lipids and photosynthetic pigments were analyzed in a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis. This diatom can be genetically engineered using our previously reported transformation technique and has a potential to produce valuable materials photosynthetically. Sustainable culture conditions for cost-effective production of biological materials under autotrophic conditions with atmospheric carbon dioxide were investigated in the laboratory...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818663/grafting-a-technique-to-modify-ion-accumulation-in-horticultural-crops
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad A Nawaz, Muhammad Imtiaz, Qiusheng Kong, Fei Cheng, Waqar Ahmed, Yuan Huang, Zhilong Bie
Grafting is a centuries-old technique used in plants to obtain economic benefits. Grafting increases nutrient uptake and utilization efficiency in a number of plant species, including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Selected rootstocks of the same species or close relatives are utilized in grafting. Rootstocks absorb more water and ions than self-rooted plants and transport these water and ions to the aboveground scion. Ion uptake is regulated by a complex communication mechanism between the scion and rootstock...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801985/global-regulatory-framework-for-production-and-marketing-of-crops-biofortified-with-vitamins-and-minerals
#10
Luis A Mejia, Omar Dary, Hala Boukerdenna
Biofortification of crops is being introduced in several countries as a strategy to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortified products, with increased contents of micronutrients, are currently produced by conventional plant breeding, genetic modification, or nutrient-enhanced fertilization. Corn, rice, wheat, beans, pearl millet, sweet potato, and cassava have been biofortified with increased contents of provitamin A carotenoids, iron, or zinc. However, regulatory considerations are rare or nonexistent...
February 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799657/lkb1-loss-links-serine-metabolism-to-dna-methylation-and-tumorigenesis
#11
Filippos Kottakis, Brandon N Nicolay, Ahlima Roumane, Rahul Karnik, Hongcang Gu, Julia M Nagle, Myriam Boukhali, Michele C Hayward, Yvonne Y Li, Ting Chen, Marc Liesa, Peter S Hammerman, Kwok Kin Wong, D Neil Hayes, Orian S Shirihai, Nicholas J Dyson, Wilhelm Haas, Alexander Meissner, Nabeel Bardeesy
Intermediary metabolism generates substrates for chromatin modification, enabling the potential coupling of metabolic and epigenetic states. Here we identify a network linking metabolic and epigenetic alterations that is central to oncogenic transformation downstream of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1, also known as STK11) tumour suppressor, an integrator of nutrient availability, metabolism and growth. By developing genetically engineered mouse models and primary pancreatic epithelial cells, and employing transcriptional, proteomics, and metabolic analyses, we find that oncogenic cooperation between LKB1 loss and KRAS activation is fuelled by pronounced mTOR-dependent induction of the serine-glycine-one-carbon pathway coupled to S-adenosylmethionine generation...
November 17, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630626/current-state-of-knowledge-in-microbial-degradation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Debajyoti Ghosal, Shreya Ghosh, Tapan K Dutta, Youngho Ahn
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604481/molecular-genetic-improvements-of-cyanobacteria-to-enhance-the-industrial-potential-of-the-microbe-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Tylor J Johnson, Jaimie L Gibbons, Liping Gu, Ruanbao Zhou, William R Gibbons
The rapid increase in worldwide population coupled with the increasing demand for fossil fuels has led to an increased urgency to develop sustainable sources of energy and chemicals from renewable resources. Using microorganisms to produce high-value chemicals and next-generation biofuels is one sustainable option and is the focus of much current research. Cyanobacteria are ideal platform organisms for chemical and biofuel production because they can be genetically engineered to produce a broad range of products directly from CO2 , H2 O, and sunlight, and require minimal nutrient inputs...
November 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527405/the-effect-of-supplementation-of-amino-acids-and-taurine-to-modified-ksom-culture-medium-on-rat-embryo-development
#14
Kazuomi Nakamura, Kayoko Morimoto, Kaoru Shima, Yuki Yoshimura, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Osamu Suzuki, Junichiro Matsuda, Tetsuya Ohbayashi
The rat is widely used as a laboratory animal for research. In particular, genetically engineered rats are essential for production of animal models of several diseases. Although embryo manipulation techniques are needed to produce them, such technology for rat preimplantation embryos is not as advanced as it is for mouse embryos. One reason is that in vitro culture systems for preimplantation embryos are limited in rats. Therefore, we intended to develop a new culture system for rat preimplantation embryos focusing on supplementation of amino acids as nutrition to the culture media...
November 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516533/autophagy-provides-metabolic-substrates-to-maintain-energy-charge-and-nucleotide-pools-in-ras-driven-lung-cancer-cells
#15
Jessie Yanxiang Guo, Xin Teng, Saurabh V Laddha, Sirui Ma, Stephen C Van Nostrand, Yang Yang, Sinan Khor, Chang S Chan, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Eileen White
Autophagy degrades and is thought to recycle proteins, other macromolecules, and organelles. In genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) for Kras-driven lung cancer, autophagy prevents the accumulation of defective mitochondria and promotes malignancy. Autophagy-deficient tumor-derived cell lines are respiration-impaired and starvation-sensitive. However, to what extent their sensitivity to starvation arises from defective mitochondria or an impaired supply of metabolic substrates remains unclear. Here, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of wild-type or autophagy-deficient (Atg7(-/-)) Kras-driven lung tumors...
August 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499678/enhancement-of-plant-productivity-in-the-post-genomics-era
#16
Nguyen Phuong Thao, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Obtaining high plant yield is not always achievable in agricultural activity as it is determined by various factors, including cultivar quality, nutrient and water supplies, degree of infection by pathogens, natural calamities and soil conditions, which affect plant growth and development. More noticeably, sustainable plant productivity to provide sufficient food for the increasing human population has become a thorny issue to scientists in the era of unpredictable global climatic changes, appearance of more tremendous or multiple stresses, and land restriction for cultivation...
August 2016: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451446/leveraging-genetic-background-effects-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-improve-lignocellulosic-hydrolysate-tolerance
#17
Maria Sardi, Nikolay Rovinskiy, Yaoping Zhang, Audrey P Gasch
UNLABELLED: A major obstacle to sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel production is microbe inhibition by the combinatorial stresses in pretreated plant hydrolysate. Chemical biomass pretreatment releases a suite of toxins that interact with other stressors, including high osmolarity and temperature, which together can have poorly understood synergistic effects on cells. Improving tolerance in industrial strains has been hindered, in part because the mechanisms of tolerance reported in the literature often fail to recapitulate in other strain backgrounds...
October 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379117/micrornas-as-potential-targets-for-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-plants
#18
REVIEW
Varsha Shriram, Vinay Kumar, Rachayya M Devarumath, Tushar S Khare, Shabir H Wani
The microRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20-24 nt) sized, non-coding, single stranded riboregulator RNAs abundant in higher organisms. Recent findings have established that plants assign miRNAs as critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in sequence-specific manner to respond to numerous abiotic stresses they face during their growth cycle. These small RNAs regulate gene expression via translational inhibition. Usually, stress induced miRNAs downregulate their target mRNAs, whereas, their downregulation leads to accumulation and function of positive regulators...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329217/genome-wide-identification-of-the-expansin-gene-family-in-tobacco-nicotiana-tabacum
#19
Anming Ding, Prince Marowa, Yingzhen Kong
Expansins are pH-dependent cell wall loosening proteins which form a large family in plants. They have been shown to be involved in various developmental processes and been implicated in enabling plants' ability to absorb nutrients from the soil as well as conferring biotic and abiotic stress resistances. It is therefore clear that they can be potential targets in genetic engineering for crop improvement. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a major crop species as well as a model organism. Considering that only a few tobacco expansins have been studied, a genome-wide analysis of the tobacco expansin gene family is necessary...
October 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27200009/astaxanthin-producing-green-microalga-haematococcus-pluvialis-from-single-cell-to-high-value-commercial-products
#20
REVIEW
Md Mahfuzur R Shah, Yuanmei Liang, Jay J Cheng, Maurycy Daroch
Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed, and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as "super anti-oxidant." Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. It is now evident that, astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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