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Nutrient genetic engineer

María Huete-Ortega, Katarzyna Okurowska, Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Matthew P Johnson, D James Gilmour, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
Background: Microalgae accumulate lipids when exposed to stressful conditions such as nutrient limitation that can be used to generate biofuels. Nitrogen limitation or deprivation is a strategy widely employed to elicit this response. However, this strategy is associated with a reduction in the microalgal growth, leading to overall poor lipid productivities. Here, we investigated the combined effect of a reduced source of nitrogen (ammonium) and super-saturating light intensities on the growth and induction of lipid accumulation in two model but diverse microalgal species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis oceanica ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Tomas Strucko, Katharina Zirngibl, Filipa Pereira, Eleni Kafkia, Elsayed T Mohamed, Mandy Rettel, Frank Stein, Adam M Feist, Paula Jouhten, Kiran Raosaheb Patil, Jochen Forster
Most microbial species, including model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, possess genetic capability to utilize many alternative nutrient sources. Yet, it remains an open question whether these manifest into assimilatory phenotypes. Despite possessing all necessary pathways, S. cerevisiae grows poorly or not at all when glycerol is the sole carbon source. Here we discover, through multiple evolved lineages, genetic determinants underlying glycerol catabolism and the associated fitness trade-offs. Most evolved lineages adapted through mutations in the HOG pathway, but showed hampered osmotolerance...
March 10, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Aleksandra Małachowska, Paweł Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Transcriptional control of gene expression is a widely utilized regulatory mechanism in synthetic biology, biotechnology and recombinant protein production. It is achieved by utilization of naturally occurring promoters responding to nutrients or chemicals. Despite their regulatory properties, these promoters often possess features which diminish their utility for biotechnology. High basal expression level and low induction ratio can be removed using genetic engineering techniques, although this process is often laborious and time-consuming...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Marianne Smith Edge, Mary Elizabeth Kunkel, Jennifer Schmidt, Constantina Papoutsakis
In the late 20th century, plant breeders began using molecular biology techniques such as recombinant DNA, also known as genetic engineering, along with traditional cross-breeding. Ten plant and one animal food have been approved for commercialization in the United States. Today, foods and ingredients from genetically engineered (GE) crops are present throughout the food supply, which has led to varying levels of acceptance. Much discussion exists among consumers and health professionals about the believability of statements made regarding benefits or risks of GE foods...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Benjamin G Kremkow, Kelvin H Lee
Glyco-Mapper is a novel systems biology product quality prediction tool created using a new framework termed: Discretized Reaction Network Modeling using Fuzzy Parameters (DReaM-zyP). Within Glyco-Mapper, users fix the nutrient feed composition and the glycosylation reaction fluxes to fit the model glycoform to the reference experimental glycoform, enabling cell-line specific glycoform predictions as a result of cell engineering strategies. Glyco-Mapper accurately predicts published genetically altered glycoforms resulting in the appearance or disappearance of one or more glycans between 1999 and 2014 with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 96%, 85%, and 97%, respectively...
March 6, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Jonathan R Brody, Dan A Dixon
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with dismal patient outcomes. The underlying core genetic drivers of disease have been identified in human tumor specimens and described in genetically engineered mouse models. These genetic drivers of PDAC include KRAS signaling, TP53 mutations, and genetic loss of the SMAD4 tumor suppressor protein. Beyond the known mutational landscape of PDAC genomes, alternative disrupted targets that extend beyond conventional genetic mutations have been elusive and understudied in the context of PDAC cell therapeutic resistance and survival...
February 16, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Jiangyu Zhu, Minato Wakisaka
A significant growth promotion of Euglena gracilis was achieved by simply adding ferulic acid from rice bran without diminishing the accumulation of valuable products like paramylon. E. gracilis is a freshwater microalga that is widely applied in cosmetics, food, medicine, and supplements, and it is considered a potential source of biofuel. It is therefore important to enhance its yield at a lower cost for its commercial viability. Introducing a growth regulator derived from agro waste is considered a cheaper and safer strategy to improve biomass productivity compared with other alternatives such as implementing genetic engineering or adding nutrients and plant hormones as growth stimulator...
February 8, 2018: AMB Express
Xiaotong Guo, Xiaoguang Duan, Yongzhen Wu, Jieshan Cheng, Juan Zhang, Hongxia Zhang, Bei Li
Cell wall invertase plays important roles in the grain filling of crop plants. However, its functions in the improvement of grain nutrients are not investigated. In this work, the stable expression of cell wall invertase encoding genes from different plant species, and the contents of total starch, protein, amino acid, nitrogen, lipid and phosphorus were examined in transgenic maize plants. High expression of cell wall invertase gene conferred enhanced invertase activity and sugar content on transgenic plants, leading to increased grain yield and improved grain nutrients...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sana Malik, Ifrah Afzal, Muhammad Aamer Mehmood, Sawsan Abdulaziz Rahimuddin, Munazza Gull, Nazia Nahid
Increasing global demands for drop-in biofuels along with raising environmental concerns have led us to develop sustainable, renewable and cost-effective liquid fuels for transport and industrial sector. Production of a fuel that is economical and compatible with existing infrastructure is crucial. While the lower titer and difficult recovery of the advanced biofuels are the key challenges in this context. By employing metabolic engineering techniques and synthetic biology tools, scientists have developed a variety of potential microbial strains with improved yield of biofuels...
January 22, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Rebecca L Kitchener, Amy M Grunden
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that can fix atmospheric CO2 and can be engineered to produce industrially important compounds such as alcohols, free fatty acids, alkanes used in next-generation biofuels, and commodity chemicals such as ethylene or farnesene. They can be easily genetically manipulated, have minimal nutrient requirements, and are quite tolerant to abiotic stress making them an appealing alternative to other biofuel-producing microbes which require additional carbon sources and plants which compete with food crops for arable land...
January 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Cayla A Thompson, Ann DeLaForest, Michele A Battle
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in simplest terms, can be described as an epithelial-lined muscular tube extending along the cephalocaudal axis from the oral cavity to the anus. Although the general architecture of the GI tract organs is conserved from end to end, the presence of different epithelial tissue structures and unique epithelial cell types within each organ enables each to perform the distinct digestive functions required for efficient nutrient assimilation. Spatiotemporal regulation of signaling pathways and downstream transcription factors controls GI epithelial morphogenesis during development to confer essential regional-specific epithelial structures and functions...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
Brittany D Bennett, Kaitlyn E Redford, Jeffrey A Gralnick
The transport of metals into and out of cells is necessary for the maintenance of appropriate intracellular concentrations. Metals are needed for incorporation into metalloproteins but become toxic at higher concentrations. Many metal transport proteins have been discovered in bacteria, including the Mg2+ transporter-E (MgtE) family of passive Mg2+/Co2+ cation-selective channels. Low sequence identity exists between members of the MgtE family, indicating that substrate specificity may differ among MgtE transporters...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Marcus D Goncalves, Seo-Kyoung Hwang, Chantal Pauli, Charles J Murphy, Zhe Cheng, Benjamin D Hopkins, David Wu, Ryan M Loughran, Brooke M Emerling, Guoan Zhang, Douglas T Fearon, Lewis C Cantley
The cancer anorexia cachexia syndrome is a systemic metabolic disorder characterized by the catabolism of stored nutrients in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that is particularly prevalent in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of skeletal muscle results in functional impairments and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to characterize the changes in systemic metabolism in a genetically engineered mouse model of NSCLC. We show that a portion of these animals develop loss of skeletal muscle, loss of adipose tissue, and increased inflammatory markers mirroring the human cachexia syndrome...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Martin Schwarzer, Maura Strigini, François Leulier
Good genes, good food, good friends. That is what parents hope will sustain and nurture the harmonious growth of their children. The impact of the genetic background and nutrition on postnatal growth has been in the spot light for long, but the good friends have come to the scene only recently. Among the good friends perhaps the most crucial ones are those that we are carrying within ourselves. They comprise the trillions of microbes that collectively constitute each individual's intestinal microbiota. Indeed, recent epidemiological and field studies in humans, supported by extensive experimental data on animal models, demonstrate a clear role of the intestinal microbiota on their host's juvenile growth, especially under suboptimal nutrient conditions...
December 6, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Nina V Evseeva, Oksana V Tkachenko, Gennady L Burygin, Larisa Yu Matora, Yuriy V Lobachev, Sergei Yu Shchyogolev
We evaluated the effect of lipopolysaccharides from the plant-growth-promoting associative bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and from the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli K12 on the morphogenic potential of in vitro-growing somatic calluses of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29). A genetic model was used that included two near-isogenic lines of T. aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29 with different embryogenic capacities; one of these lines carries the Rht-B1 dwarfing gene, whereas the other lacks it...
December 4, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Peng Xu
Engineered microbial cell factories are constantly experiencing metabolic imbalance due to nutrients depletion, metabolites buildup, evolutionary pressure or genetic instability. It is important to equip the engineered cell factory with sensor-regulator system to enable cell adjust metabolism and respond to the changing environment. Dynamically allocating cellular resources and optimally controlling pathway expression have proved as promising strategies to manage the tradeoff between cell growth and product formation as well as improve the cost-competitiveness of industrial fermentation...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Sheng Hui, Jonathan M Ghergurovich, Raphael J Morscher, Cholsoon Jang, Xin Teng, Wenyun Lu, Lourdes A Esparza, Tannishtha Reya, Le Zhan, Jessie Yanxiang Guo, Eileen White, Joshua D Rabinowitz
Mammalian tissues are fuelled by circulating nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and various intermediary metabolites. Under aerobic conditions, glucose is generally assumed to be burned fully by tissues via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) to carbon dioxide. Alternatively, glucose can be catabolized anaerobically via glycolysis to lactate, which is itself also a potential nutrient for tissues and tumours. The quantitative relevance of circulating lactate or other metabolic intermediates as fuels remains unclear...
November 2, 2017: Nature
Zia-Ul Islam, Mathias Klein, Maximilian R Aßkamp, Anders S R Ødum, Elke Nevoigt
Compared to sugars, a major advantage of using glycerol as a feedstock for industrial bioprocesses is the fact that this molecule is more reduced than sugars. A compound whose biotechnological production might greatly profit from the substrate's higher reducing power is 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO). Here we present a novel metabolic engineering approach to produce 1,2-PDO from glycerol in S. cerevisiae. Apart from implementing the heterologous methylglyoxal (MG) pathway for 1,2-PDO formation from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and expressing a heterologous glycerol facilitator, the employed genetic modifications included the replacement of the native FAD-dependent glycerol catabolic pathway by the 'DHA pathway' for delivery of cytosolic NADH and the reduction of triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity for increased precursor (DHAP) supply...
November 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Martina D'Este, Merlin Alvarado-Morales, Irini Angelidaki
Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids...
September 6, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
Praveen Guleria, Vineet Kumar, Shiwani Guleria
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has adversely affected the generations of developing countries. It is a syndrome that in severity causes death. PEM generally affects infants of 1-5 age group. This manifestation is maintained till adulthood in the form of poor brain and body development. The developing nations are continuously making an effort to curb PEM. However, it is still a prime concern as it was in its early years of occurrence. Transgenic crops with high protein and enhanced nutrient content have been successfully developed...
December 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
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