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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315380/alcohol-and-age
#1
Ilana B Crome, Peter Crome
Alcohol consumption constitutes a substantial burden of disease. Older people are being admitted to hospital for alcohol problems in increasing numbers. A recent systematic review reports cautious supportive evidence for primary prevention interventions in reducing excessive alcohol consumption in older drinkers, but does not focus on treatment of dependent drinkers. The evidence base for treatment interventions for dependent drinkers is comparatively limited, but it is growing. In addition to brief interventions, specialist outpatient treatment and inpatient treatment have been evaluated...
January 5, 2018: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283026/restoring-motor-functions-after-stroke-multiple-approaches-and-opportunities
#2
Estelle Raffin, Friedhelm C Hummel
More than 1.5 million people suffer a stroke in Europe per year and more than 70% of stroke survivors experience limited functional recovery of their upper limb, resulting in diminished quality of life. Therefore, interventions to address upper-limb impairment are a priority for stroke survivors and clinicians. While a significant body of evidence supports the use of conventional treatments, such as intensive motor training or constraint-induced movement therapy, the limited and heterogeneous improvements they allow are, for most patients, usually not sufficient to return to full autonomy...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242000/social-recovery-therapy-in-combination-with-early-intervention-services-for-enhancement-of-social-recovery-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-supereden3-a-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
David Fowler, Jo Hodgekins, Paul French, Max Marshall, Nick Freemantle, Paul McCrone, Linda Everard, Anna Lavis, Peter B Jones, Tim Amos, Swaran Singh, Vimal Sharma, Max Birchwood
BACKGROUND: Provision of early intervention services has increased the rate of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis; however, many individuals have continuing severe and persistent problems with social functioning. We aimed to assess the efficacy of early intervention services augmented with social recovery therapy in patients with first-episode psychosis. The primary hypothesis was that social recovery therapy plus early intervention services would lead to improvements in social recovery...
December 11, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241454/effects-of-sociodemographic-characteristics-and-patients-health-beliefs-on-tuberculosis-treatment-adherence-in-ethiopia-a-structural-equation-modelling-approach
#4
Habteyes Hailu Tola, Mehrdad Karimi, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad
BACKGROUND: Patients' beliefs are a major factor affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. However, there has been little use of Health Belief Model (HBM) in determining the pathway effect of patients' sociodemographic characteristics and beliefs on TB treatment adherence. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and patients' health beliefs on TB treatment adherence based on the HBM concept in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia among TB patients undertaking treatment...
December 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241142/unmet-needs-burden-of-treatment-and-patient-engagement-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-combined-perspective-from-the-ms-in-the-21st-century-steering-group
#5
Peter Rieckmann, Diego Centonze, Irina Elovaara, Gavin Giovannoni, Eva Havrdová, Jurg Kesselring, Gisela Kobelt, Dawn Langdon, Sarah A Morrow, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Sven Schippling, Christoph Thalheim, Heidi Thompson, Patrick Vermersch, Karen Aston, Birgit Bauer, Christy Demory, Maria Paz Giambastiani, Jana Hlavacova, Jocelyne Nouvet-Gire, George Pepper, Maija Pontaga, Emma Rogan, Chrystal Rogalski, Pieter van Galen, Ali-Frédéric Ben-Amor
BACKGROUND: Patient engagement is vital in multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to optimise outcomes for patients, society and healthcare systems. It is essential to involve all stakeholders in potential solutions, working in a multidisciplinary way to ensure that people with MS (PwMS) are included in shared decision-making and disease management. To start this process, a collaborative, open environment between PwMS and healthcare professionals (HCPs) is required so that similarities and disparities in the perception of key areas in patient care and unmet needs can be identified...
November 21, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238196/the-role-of-new-antidepressants-in-clinical-practice-in-canada-a-brief-review-of-vortioxetine-levomilnacipran-er-and-vilazodone
#6
REVIEW
Roger S McIntyre
Although many branded and generic antidepressants are approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Canada, efficacy and tolerability differ among patients, and new treatment options are needed. Symptom types (eg, fatigue, energy/motivation, cognition, and functioning), medication type, treatment duration, and the need for maintenance therapy are factors that may influence treatment effectiveness. Three antidepressants, vortioxetine, levomilnacipran extended-release (ER), and vilazodone have recently become available in Canada...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197412/does-motivation-matter-in-upper-limb-rehabilitation-after-stroke-armeosenso-reward-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Mario Widmer, Jeremia P Held, Frieder Wittmann, Olivier Lambercy, Kai Lutz, Andreas R Luft
BACKGROUND: Fifty percent of all stroke survivors remain with functional impairments of their upper limb. While there is a need to improve the effectiveness of rehabilitative training, so far no new training approach has proven to be clearly superior to conventional therapy. As training with rewarding feedback has been shown to improve motor learning in humans, it is hypothesized that rehabilitative arm training could be enhanced by rewarding feedback. In this paper, we propose a trial protocol investigating rewards in the form of performance feedback and monetary gains as ways to improve effectiveness of rehabilitative training...
December 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183354/motives-for-change-of-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-in-an-unselected-cohort-of-hiv-aids-patients-at-a-major-referral-centre-in-south-west-cameroon
#8
Christian Akem Dimala, Ndemazie Nkafu Bechem, Desmond Aroke, Benjamin Momo Kadia
OBJECTIVE: The rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage in sub-Saharan Africa has encountered the challenge of maintaining international clinical standards of ART utilization and change of ART regimens. In Cameroon, scarce reports have documented the motives for change of ART. This study had as objective to investigate the reasons for switch in ART through a secondary analysis and descriptive synthesis of data from a cross-sectional study at the Limbe Regional Hospital...
November 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154553/a-randomized-trial-of-female-specific-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-alcohol-dependent-women
#9
Elizabeth E Epstein, Barbara S McCrady, Kevin A Hallgren, Sharon Cook, Noelle K Jensen, Thomas Hildebrandt
This study compared Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (FS-CBT) to evidence-based, gender-neutral CBT (GN-CBT; Epstein & McCrady, 2009) for women with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Women (N = 99) with AUD, mean age 48, were randomly assigned to 12 outpatient manual-guided sessions of FS-CBT (n = 44) or GN-CBT (n = 55). Women were assessed at baseline and 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline for drinking and for specific issues common among women with AUD. A FS-CBT protocol was developed that was discriminable on treatment integrity ratings from GN-CBT...
November 20, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149855/increasing-upper-limb-training-intensity-in-chronic-stroke-using-embodied-virtual-reality-a-pilot-study
#10
Daniel Perez-Marcos, Odile Chevalley, Thomas Schmidlin, Gangadhar Garipelli, Andrea Serino, Philippe Vuadens, Tej Tadi, Olaf Blanke, José D R Millán
BACKGROUND: Technology-mediated neurorehabilitation is suggested to enhance training intensity and therefore functional gains. Here, we used a novel virtual reality (VR) system for task-specific upper extremity training after stroke. The system offers interactive exercises integrating motor priming techniques and embodied visuomotor feedback. In this pilot study, we examined (i) rehabilitation dose and training intensity, (ii) functional improvements, and (iii) safety and tolerance when exposed to intensive VR rehabilitation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124557/baseline-predictors-of-dmt-reinitiation-among-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-following-an-mi-cbt-intervention
#11
Joanie Thelen, Amanda Bruce, Delwyn Catley, Sharon Lynch, Kathy Goggin, Andrea Bradley-Ewing, Morgan Glusman, Abigail Norouzinia, Lauren Strober, Jared Bruce
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often nonadherent to their disease modifying therapy (DMT). While recent studies demonstrate enhanced DMT adherence following intervention grounded in motivational interviewing (MI), little is known about how to address DMT reinitiation among MS patients who have prematurely discontinued DMT against medical advice and do not intend to reinitiate. We examined baseline predictors of DMT reinitiation among patients with MS who discontinued medications against medical advice following a telephone-based MI and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MI-CBT) intervention...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024214/regenerative-medicine-stroke-survivor-and-carer-views-and-motivations-towards-a-proposed-stem-cell-clinical-trial-using-placebo-neurosurgery
#12
Nicola A Cunningham, Purva Abhyankar, Julie Cowie, Jayne Galinsky, Karen Methven
BACKGROUND: Few studies explore stroke survivor views and motivations towards stem cell therapy (SCT). This qualitative study explores the views and motivations of both stroke survivors and their partners/carers towards a proposed 2-arm Phase III Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) comparing intracerebral insertion of stem cells with placebo neurosurgery in stroke survivors with disability. OBJECTIVE: To explore views and motivations towards a proposed 2-arm stem cell trial and identify factors that may impede and enhance participation...
October 12, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016980/effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-opportunistic-screening-and-stepped-care-interventions-for-older-alcohol-users-in-primary-care
#13
Simon Coulton, Martin Bland, Helen Crosby, Veronica Dale, Colin Drummond, Christine Godfrey, Eileen Kaner, Jennifer Sweetman, Ruth McGovern, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Steve Parrott, Gillian Tober, Judith Watson, Qi Wu
Aims: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stepped-care intervention versus a minimal intervention for the treatment of older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. Method: Multi-centre, pragmatic RCT, set in Primary Care in UK. Patients aged ≥ 55 years scoring ≥ 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test were allocated either to 5-min of brief advice or to 'Stepped Care': an initial 20-min of behavioural change counselling, with Step 2 being three sessions of Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Step 3 referral to local alcohol services (progression between each Step being determined by outcomes 1 month after each Step)...
September 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993740/pharmacological-augmentation-of-psychosocial-and-remediation-training-efforts-in-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
Philip D Harvey, Michael Sand
Pharmacological approaches to cognitive enhancement have received considerable attention but have not had considerable success in improving their cognitive and functional targets. Other intervention strategies, such as cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), have been shown to enhance cognitive performance but have not been found to improve functional outcomes without additional psychosocial interventions. Recently, several studies have attempted to enhance the effects of CRT by adding pharmacological interventions to the CRT treatments...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990424/an-inducible-promoter-responsive-to-different-porphyrinogenic-stimuli-improves-gene-therapy-vectors-for-acute-intermittent-porphyria
#15
Irantzu Serrano, Ana Sampedro, Manuel Alegre, Rafael Enriquez de Salamanca, Pedro Berraondo, Antonio Fontanellas
Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD)-gene therapy represents a promising therapeutic option for acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) patients suffering recurrent acute attacks. The first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial confirmed the safety and tolerability of AAV-AAT-PBGD gene therapy but higher doses and/or more efficient vectors are needed to achieve therapeutic expression of the transgene. We assayed the insertion into the promoter of a short enhancer element able to induce transgene expression during the exposure to endogenous and exogenous stimuli related to the pathology of the disease...
October 7, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989230/delivering-parent-teen-therapy-for-adhd-through-videoconferencing-a-preliminary-investigation
#16
Margaret H Sibley, Jonathan S Comer, Jaife Gonzalez
Adolescents with ADHD demonstrate notoriously poor treatment utilization. Barriers to access have been partially addressed through tailored therapy content and therapist delivery style; yet, additional challenges to engaging this population remain. To leverage modern technology in support of this aim, the current study investigates parent-teen therapy for ADHD delivered over a videoconferencing format. In this preliminary feasibility study, teens and parents (N=20) received an empirically supported dyadic therapy that incorporates skills-based modules with motivational interviewing...
September 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969624/why-women-choose-compounded-bioidentical-hormone-therapy-lessons-from-a-qualitative-study-of-menopausal-decision-making
#17
Jennifer Jo Thompson, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Mark Nichter
BACKGROUND: In recent years, compounded bioidentical hormone therapy (CBHT) has emerged as a popular alternative to manufactured, FDA approved hormone therapy (HT)-despite concerns within the medical community and the availability of new FDA approved "bioidentical" products. This study aims to characterize the motivations for using CBHT in a U.S. sample of ordinary midlife women. METHODS: We analyze data collected from 21 current and former users of CBHT who participated in a larger qualitative study of menopausal decision-making among U...
October 2, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969619/animal-assisted-therapy-at-a-university-centre-for-palliative-medicine-a-qualitative-content-analysis-of-patient-records
#18
Andrea Schmitz, Melanie Beermann, Colin R MacKenzie, Katharina Fetz, Christian Schulz-Quach
BACKGROUND: Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is a therapeutic concept, which has only recently been explored in more detail within the palliative care setting. A programme of AAT was begun in June 2014 at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Palliative Medicine of the University Hospital Dusseldorf, Germany. The AAT sessions were performed by two trained and certified dog assistant therapy teams (DATT). To date only very limited scientific data are available with regard to feasibility, therapeutic indications and efficacy of AAT in palliative care...
October 2, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913349/brain-computer-interface-for-clinical-purposes-cognitive-assessment-and-rehabilitation
#19
REVIEW
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Paolo Meriggi, Davide Sangalli, Pietro Cipresso, Giuseppe Riva, Nicola Ticozzi, Andrea Ciammola, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Alongside the best-known applications of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for restoring communication abilities and controlling external devices, we present the state of the art of BCI use for cognitive assessment and training purposes. We first describe some preliminary attempts to develop verbal-motor free BCI-based tests for evaluating specific or multiple cognitive domains in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, disorders of consciousness, and other neurological diseases. Then we present the more heterogeneous and advanced field of BCI-based cognitive training, which has its roots in the context of neurofeedback therapy and addresses patients with neurological developmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), stroke patients, and elderly subjects...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894448/sirtuin-2-deficiency-increases-bacterial-phagocytosis-by-macrophages-and-protects-from-chronic-staphylococcal-infection
#20
Eleonora Ciarlo, Tytti Heinonen, Charlotte Théroude, Jacobus Herderschee, Matteo Mombelli, Jérôme Lugrin, Marc Pfefferlé, Beatrice Tyrrell, Sarah Lensch, Hans Acha-Orbea, Didier Le Roy, Johan Auwerx, Thierry Roger
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is one of the seven members of the family of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases. Sirtuins target histones and non-histone proteins according to their subcellular localization, influencing various biological processes. SIRT2 resides mainly in the cytoplasm and regulates cytoskeleton dynamics, cell cycle, and metabolic pathways. As such, SIRT2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative, metabolic, oncologic, and chronic inflammatory disorders. This motivated the development of SIRT2-directed therapies for clinical purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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