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Motivational enhancement therapy

Manoj Kumar Sharma, Thamil Selvan Palanichamy
Increase in the use of technology has led to an increase in various kinds of technological addictions. A range of psychological and behavioural theories has been proposed to explain technology addictions. These include learning theories, reward-deficiency hypothesis, impulsivity, cognitive-behavioural models and social skills deficiency theories. While no particular form of psychological intervention has been suggested as being the golden standard for its treatment, the most frequently investigated approaches have been cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational enhancement therapy...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Ardeshir Rineh, John B Bremner, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony R Ball, George P Tegos, Michael J Kelso
Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a public health concern worldwide due to the increasing failure of standard antibiotic therapies. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) is a promising non-antibiotic alternative for treating localized bacterial infections that uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and kill microbes. Phenothiazinium photosensitizers like methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue O are hydrophobic cations that are naturally expelled from bacterial cells by multidrug efflux pumps, which reduces their effectiveness...
February 24, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jacques Gaume, Nick Heather, Gillian Tober, Jim McCambridge
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment outcomes are mediated by therapist behaviors consistent with the theoretical postulates on which two contrasting treatments are based. METHOD: We used data from the U.K. Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT), a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) and Social Behavior and Network Therapy (SBNT) in the treatment of alcohol problems. N = 376 clients (mean age 42...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Pamela Sabioni, Bernard Le Foll
Cannabis use has been continuously increasing, and cannabis use disorder (CUD) has become a public health issue. Some psychosocial interventions have demonstrated the ability to reduce cannabis use; however, there are no pharmacotherapies approved for the treatment of CUD. Some drugs have shown limited positive effects on use and withdrawal symptoms, but no controlled studies have been able to show strong and persistent effects on clinically meaningful outcomes. The aim of this review is to synthesize the evidence from the available literature regarding the effectiveness of psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for CUD among adults (that is, 18 years old or older)...
2018: F1000Research
Cora L F Visser, Rashmi A Kusurkar, Gerda Croiset, Olle Ten Cate, Hendrika E Westerveld
PURPOSE: Interprofessional Education (IPE) may depend for its success not only on cognitive gains of learners, but also on affective and motivational benefits. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a major motivation theory, autonomy (feeling of choice), competence (feeling of capability), and relatedness (feeling of belonging) drive motivation in a way that can improve performance. We investigated which elements of IPE in a clinical ward potentially influence students' feelings in these three areas...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
Dóra Antal-Uram, László Harsányi, Dóra Perczel-Forintos
Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and colitis ulcerosa) is a chronic, long-term condition that causes chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, and shows an increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Changes in disease activity over time affect psychological distress which increases the risk of exacerbations. Beside somatic symptoms (such as abdominal pain, diarrhoea and weight loss), psychiatric comorbidity (in particular major depression, anxiety, social phobia) is common in patients with Crohn's disease...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Nathan Karin, Hila Razon
Chemokines are mostly known for their chemotactic properties, and less for their ability to direct the biological function of target cells, including T cells. The current review focuses on a key chemokine named CXCL10 and its role in directing the migratory propertied and biological function of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the context of cancer and inflammatory autoimmunity. CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor that is abundant on CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells. It has three known ligands: CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11...
February 12, 2018: Cytokine
Anne-Marie Boström, Disa K Sommerfeld, Annika W Stenhols, Anna Kiessling
Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) is a complex task. This study, conducted in an acute geriatric setting, aims to compare self-reported capability beliefs on EBP between health professionals and students, and to compare the use of EBP between health professional groups. Occupational therapists, physicians, physiotherapists and registered nurses with three or more months' employment, and all students from the occupational therapy, medical, physiotherapy and nursing programs, who had conducted workplace learning at the department, were invited...
2018: PloS One
Angela D Bryan, Renee E Magnan, Arielle S Gillman, Elizabeth A Yeater, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Alberta S Kong, Sarah J Schmiege
Importance: Adolescents in the juvenile justice system are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Concurrent use of alcohol and cannabis increase this risk. Objective: To determine whether a theory-based sexual risk-reduction intervention that included alcohol- and cannabis-focused content resulted in greater reductions in STIs than an intervention that included alcohol-related content only and an intervention that did not include substance use content...
February 12, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Amanda J Saraf, Joelle M Fenger, Ryan D Roberts
Patients who develop osteosarcoma in 2017 receive treatment that remains essentially unchanged since the 1970s. Outcomes likewise remain largely unimproved. Large, collaborative, multinational efforts to improve therapy have evaluated strategies leveraging both cytotoxic intensification and immunomodulatory agents. While these have confirmed our capacity to conduct such trials, results have proved largely disappointing. This has motivated efforts to focus on the basic biology of osteosarcoma, where understanding remains poor but has improved significantly...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Volen Z Ivanov, Jesper Enander, David Mataix-Cols, Eva Serlachius, Kristoffer N T Månsson, Gerhard Andersson, Oskar Flygare, David Tolin, Christian Rück
OBJECTIVE: Hoarding disorder (HD) is difficult to treat. In an effort to increase efficacy and engagement in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), we developed and evaluated a novel intervention comprising group CBT combined with between-session Internet-based clinician support for people with HD. METHOD: Twenty participants with HD received group CBT combined with an Internet-support system enabling therapist-participant communication between group sessions. RESULTS: The treatment was associated with a significant reduction on the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R) and a large effect size (Cohen's d = 1...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Christopher T Petersen, Mojibade Hassan, Anna B Morris, Jasmin Jeffery, Kunhee Lee, Neera Jagirdar, Ashley D Staton, Sunil S Raikar, Harold T Spencer, Todd Sulchek, Christopher R Flowers, Edmund K Waller
Adoptive therapy with ex vivo-expanded genetically modified antigen-specific T cells can induce remissions in patients with relapsed/refractory cancer. The clinical success of this therapy depends upon efficient transduction and expansion of T cells ex vivo and their homing, persistence and cytotoxicity following reinfusion. Lower rates of ex vivo expansion and clinical response using anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have been seen in heavily pretreated lymphoma patients compared with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients and motivate the development of novel strategies to enhance ex vivo T cell expansion and their persistence in vivo...
February 13, 2018: Blood Advances
Manuel Amann, Severin Haug, Andreas Wenger, Christian Baumgartner, David D Ebert, Thomas Berger, Lars Stark, Marc Walter, Michael P Schaub
BACKGROUND: In European countries, including Switzerland, cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug. Offering a Web-based self-help tool could potentially reach users who otherwise would not seek traditional help. However, such Web-based self-help tools often suffer from low adherence. OBJECTIVE: Through adherence-focused guidance enhancements, the aim of this study was to increase adherence in cannabis users entering a Web-based self-help tool to reduce their cannabis use and, in this way, augment its effectiveness...
January 31, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Jose M Trigo, Alexandra Soliman, Lena C Quilty, Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm, Peter Selby, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis, Tony P George, David L Streiner, Gregory Staios, Bernard Le Foll
BACKGROUND: The current lack of pharmacological treatments for cannabis use disorder (CUD) warrants novel approaches and further investigation of promising pharmacotherapy. We previously showed that nabiximols (27 mg/ml Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/ 25 mg/ml cannabidiol (CBD), Sativex®) can decrease cannabis withdrawal symptoms. Here, we assessed in a pilot study the tolerability and safety of self-titrated nabiximols vs. placebo among 40 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent participants...
2018: PloS One
Michelle Lawton, Karen Sage, Gillian Haddock, Paul Conroy, Laura Serrant
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic alliance refers to the interactional and relational processes operating during therapeutic interventions. It has been shown to be a strong determinant of treatment efficacy in psychotherapy, and evidence is emerging from a range of healthcare and medical disciplines to suggest that the construct of therapeutic alliance may in fact be a variable component of treatment outcome, engagement and satisfaction. Although this construct appears to be highly relevant to aphasia rehabilitation, no research to date has attempted to explore this phenomenon and thus consider its potential utility as a mechanism for change...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Georgia J Michlig, Ryan P Westergaard, Yukyan Lam, Azal Ahmadi, Gregory D Kirk, Andrew Genz, Jeanne Keruly, Heidi Hutton, Pamela J Surkan
Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy has rendered HIV a chronic illness, inconsistent engagement in HIV care by key populations limits its public health impact. Poor engagement in care is especially prevalent among vulnerable populations with mental health and substance use disorders. Beyond structural and health system considerations, psychosocial factors may present challenges to sustained engagement. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 31 primarily African American, urban-based individuals, many with past or current drug use and mental disorders, living with HIV...
January 17, 2018: AIDS Care
Ilana B Crome, Peter Crome
Alcohol consumption constitutes a substantial burden of disease. Older people are being admitted to hospital for alcohol problems in increasing numbers. A recent systematic review reports cautious supportive evidence for primary prevention interventions in reducing excessive alcohol consumption in older drinkers, but does not focus on treatment of dependent drinkers. The evidence base for treatment interventions for dependent drinkers is comparatively limited, but it is growing. In addition to brief interventions, specialist outpatient treatment and inpatient treatment have been evaluated...
January 5, 2018: Age and Ageing
Estelle Raffin, Friedhelm C Hummel
More than 1.5 million people suffer a stroke in Europe per year and more than 70% of stroke survivors experience limited functional recovery of their upper limb, resulting in diminished quality of life. Therefore, interventions to address upper-limb impairment are a priority for stroke survivors and clinicians. While a significant body of evidence supports the use of conventional treatments, such as intensive motor training or constraint-induced movement therapy, the limited and heterogeneous improvements they allow are, for most patients, usually not sufficient to return to full autonomy...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
David Fowler, Jo Hodgekins, Paul French, Max Marshall, Nick Freemantle, Paul McCrone, Linda Everard, Anna Lavis, Peter B Jones, Tim Amos, Swaran Singh, Vimal Sharma, Max Birchwood
BACKGROUND: Provision of early intervention services has increased the rate of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis; however, many individuals have continuing severe and persistent problems with social functioning. We aimed to assess the efficacy of early intervention services augmented with social recovery therapy in patients with first-episode psychosis. The primary hypothesis was that social recovery therapy plus early intervention services would lead to improvements in social recovery...
December 11, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
Habteyes Hailu Tola, Mehrdad Karimi, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad
BACKGROUND: Patients' beliefs are a major factor affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. However, there has been little use of Health Belief Model (HBM) in determining the pathway effect of patients' sociodemographic characteristics and beliefs on TB treatment adherence. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and patients' health beliefs on TB treatment adherence based on the HBM concept in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia among TB patients undertaking treatment...
December 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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