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Alcohol disorders

Annie Lévesque, Aimee N C Campbell, Martina Pavlicova, Mei-Chen Hu, Robrina Walker, Erin A McClure, Udi E Ghitza, Genie Bailey, Maxine Stitzer, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: Coping strategies are a predictor of abstinence among patients with substance use disorders. However, little is known regarding the role of coping strategies in the effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Using data from a 12week randomized control trial assessing the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Education System (TES), an internet-delivered version of the CRA combined with contingency management, we tested the role of coping strategies as a mediator of treatment effectiveness...
September 30, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: Given increasing numbers of older-adult marijuana users, this study examined the association of marijuana use and marijuana use disorder with life stressors and perceived social support in the 50+ age group. METHODS: Data came from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=14,715 respondents aged 50+). Life stressors were measured with 12 items related to interpersonal, legal, and financial problems and being a crime victim...
October 18, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Žana Kralj, Milenka Dedić, Anđela Kovačević, Mario Malički, Jelena Dedić, Marina Pelivan, Dubravka Vuković, Carrie Fisher, Rachel L Kember, John Nurnberger, Maja Bućan, Dolores Britvić
OBJECTIVE: To test the validity and reliability of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) in patients with mental illness in Croatia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following translation, back-translation, and pilot testing, the Croatian version of DIGS (CRO-DIGS) was administered to a total of 150 inpatients and outpatients diagnosed at the Clinical Hospital in Split with bipolar and major depressive disorder (n=56), schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (n=62), and alcohol dependence or use disorders (n=32)...
October 21, 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
Verónica Rubio González, Susana Redondo Martín, Gema Ruíz López Del Prado, Mª Fe Muñoz Moreno, Alexander Velázquez Miranda
OBJECTIVE: Household Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs shows the progressive increase in the consumption of hypnotics, alone or in combination with other substances. The aim of the research was to obtain information about the consumption of hypnotics and sedatives in population of Castilla y León treated in emergency medical services of four monitored hospitals between 2009-2013, describing clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the emergencies and what drugs were consumed, to provide information for future interventions...
October 24, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Jamie Kwan, Margaret Jones, Lisa Hull, Simon Wessely, Nicola Fear, Deirdre MacManus
Large numbers of British and American Reservists have been deployed to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Little is known about the impact of deployment and combat exposure on violent behavior in Reservists. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported violent behavior among a representative sample of United Kingdom Reservists, the risk factors associated with violence and the impact of deployment and combat exposure on violence. This study used data from a large cohort study of randomly selected UK military personnel and included Reservists who were in service at the time of sampling (n = 1710)...
October 24, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Sanni Talonen, Juha Väänänen, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino
BACKGROUND: Mental health profiles differ between boys and girls from puberty onwards. It is not known whether differences also extend to symptom presentation in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. It may be that girls and boys are not treated entirely equally by the professionals. AIMS: To study gender differences in symptom profiles, family adversities, pathway to care, and characteristics of inpatient treatment at the first episode of diagnosed schizophrenia spectrum disorder (F20-29) among adolescents aged 13-17...
October 24, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Merav Kovatch, Daniel Feingold, Odelia Elkana, Shaul Lev-Ran
Prescription opioid medications are commonly used for the treatment of chronic pain. Assessments of problematic opioid use among pain patients are inconsistent across studies, partially due to differences between various measures. Therefore, the most appropriate measure to use is often unclear. In this study we assessed problematic opioid use in a sample of 551 individuals receiving treatment for chronic pain, using three questionnaires: the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - Fourth Edition (AUDADIS-IV), the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) questionnaire and Portenoy's criteria (PC)...
October 23, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Tina Lam, Simon Lenton, Rowan Ogeil, Lucinda Burns, Alexandra Aiken, Tanya Chikritzhs, William Gilmore, Belinda Lloyd, James Wilson, Dan Lubman, Richard Mattick, Steve Allsop
OBJECTIVE: Despite declines in Australian alcohol consumption, youth alcohol related harms remain prevalent. These alcohol-related consequences appear to be driven by a subset of risky drinkers who engage in 'high intensity' drinking episodes and are underrepresented in national health surveys. This project aims to investigate high risk drinking practices and alcohol-related harms amongst young people not otherwise recorded in existing data. METHODS: A community sample of the heaviest drinking 20-25% 16-19 year olds were surveyed across three Australian states (n=958; 80% metropolitan)...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Chieh-Hsin Wu, Tai-Hsin Tsai, Yu-Feng Su, Zi-Hao Zhang, Wei Liu, Ming-Kung Wu, Chih-Hui Chang, Keng-Liang Kuo, Ying-Yi Lu, Chih-Lung Lin
Whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) is causally related to substance related disorder (SRD) is still debatable, especially in persons with no history of mental disorders at the time of injury. This study analyzed data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 19,109 patients aged ≥18 years who had been diagnosed with TBI during 2000-2010. An additional 19,109 randomly selected age and gender matched patients without TBI (1 : 1 ratio) were enrolled in the control group. The relationship between TBI and SRD was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models...
2016: Neural Plasticity
K J Coppell, J C Miller, A R Gray, M Schultz, J I Mann, W R Parnell
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as excessive fat accumulation in hepatocytes when no other pathologic causes are present, is an increasingly common obesity-related disorder. We sought to describe the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes, a marker of liver damage, among New Zealand adults, and high-risk subgroups including those with an elevated body mass index and those with pre-diabetes or diabetes, to gain a better understanding of the burden of liver disease...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
Chengfu Cai, Mingzhu Lin, Yanfang Xu, Xuejun Li, Shuyu Yang, Huijie Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) is a secreted adipokine recently identified as playing an important role in modulating systemic energy metabolism and the development of obesity-associated disorders. However, information is not available regarding the association between circulating Nrg4 and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in humans. METHODS: We measured serum Nrg4 in 1212 obese adult subjects (aged 40 years or older), with a waist circumference greater than 90 cm for men or 80 cm for women, recruited from the community...
October 24, 2016: BMC Medicine
Rubin Khoddam, Nicholas J Jackson, Adam M Leventhal
AIM: The complex interplay of externalizing and internalizing problems in substance use risk is not well understood. This study tested whether the relationship of conduct problems and several internalizing disorders with future substance use is redundant, incremental, or interactive in adolescents. METHODS: Two semiannual waves of data from the Happiness and Health Study were used, which included 3383 adolescents (M age=14.1years old; 53% females) in Los Angeles who were beginning high school at baseline...
October 17, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Antti Kujansuu, Simo Rautiainen, Helinä Hakko, Juha Kanamüller, Niina Sihvola, Pirkko Riipinen
Relatively little is known about fatal motor vehicle accidents (FMVA) involving drivers with psychiatric disorders. In this study of all drivers killed in FMVAs in Finland between 1990 and 2011, we aimed to study drivers' death rate trends in FMVAs, with special focus on drivers with a history of psychiatric disorders. Prevalence of drivers' hospital treated psychiatric disorders, and characteristics of drivers with psychiatric disorders were also studied. For the purpose of this study, three national registers were accessed...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
I-Ting Tsai, Chao-Ping Wang, Teng-Hung Yu, Yung-Chuan Lu, Chih-Wen Lin, Li-Fen Lu, Cheng-Ching Wu, Fu-Mei Chung, Yau-Jiunn Lee, Wei-Chin Hung, Chia-Chang Hsu
Adipocytokines play an important role in adipose tissue homeostasis, especially in obesity-associated disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver and their complications including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although visfatin is an adipocytokine highly expressed in visceral fat that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the progression of human malignancies, little is known about the role of visfatin in HCC associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
October 19, 2016: Cytokine
John A Cunningham, Gillian W Shorter, Michelle Murphy, Vladyslav Kushnir, Jürgen Rehm, Christian S Hendershot
PURPOSE: Brief Internet interventions have been shown to reduce alcohol consumption. This trial intended to compare the effects of one such brief intervention to an extended Internet intervention for problem drinkers. METHOD: Using online advertising, 490 participants, 18 years or older, were recruited and randomized to receive a brief ( ) versus an extended ( ) Internet intervention and were followed up at 6, 12, and 24 months...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Erik David Storholm, Michael J Silverberg, Derek D Satre
Access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a critical issue for women with HIV. This study examined differences in SUD diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and predictors of SUD treatment initiation among a diverse sample of HIV-positive women (n = 228) and a demographically similar cohort of HIV-negative women (n = 693). Diagnoses and service utilization data were obtained from electronic health records of members of a large integrated healthcare system in Northern California. HIV-positive women were less likely to initiate SUD treatment...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Severin Haug, Peter Eggli, Michael P Schaub
BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared characteristics of clients entering alcohol treatment who differ in their drinking goal preferences or have investigated the relevance of drinking goals as a predictor of treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between baseline drinking goal preferences and client characteristics as well as treatment retention and outcomes among clients in outpatient alcohol treatment. METHODS: Secondary data analyses on a longitudinal multicenter study investigating the effectiveness of outpatient alcohol treatment in Switzerland among 805 clients...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Abdullah Turhan, Simone Onrust, Peter Ten Klooster, Marcel Pieterse
AIMS: To test effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) program on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends on subtypes of SE-schools and the level of implementation. DESIGN: In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up 35 classes (N = 363) were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (N = 205) or usual curriculum (N = 158)...
October 21, 2016: Addiction
Julia Granerod, Nicholas W S Davies, Parashar P Ramanuj, Ava Easton, David W G Brown, Sara L Thomas
The true extent of sequelae in encephalitis survivors relative to rates within the general population is not known. This study aimed to quantify increased risks of epilepsy, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, cognitive problems, dementia, headache, and alcohol abuse among encephalitis cases. 2460 exposed individuals diagnosed with incident encephalitis in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and 47,914 unexposed individuals without a history of encephalitis were included...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurology
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