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Alcohol disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677572/temperament-and-character-profiles-are-associated-with-depression-outcome-in-psychiatric-secondary-care-patients-with-harmful-drinking
#1
Vesa Paavonen, Kaisa Luoto, Antero Lassila, Esa Leinonen, Olli Kampman
BACKGROUND: Temperament and character profiles have been associated with depression outcome and alcohol abuse comorbidity in depressed patients. How harmful alcohol use modifies the effects of temperament and character on depression outcome is not well known. Knowledge of these associations could provide a method for enhancing more individualized treatment strategies for these patients. METHODS: We screened 242 depressed patients with at least moderate level of depressive symptoms...
April 7, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676901/polar-imperfections-in-amino-acid-crystals-design-structure-and-emerging-functionalities
#2
Elena Meirzadeh, Isabelle Weissbuch, David Ehre, Meir Lahav, Igor Lubomirsky
Crystals are physical arrays delineated by polar surfaces and often contain imperfections of a polar nature. Understanding the structure of such defects on the molecular level is of topical importance since they strongly affect the macroscopic properties of materials. Moreover, polar imperfections in crystals can be created intentionally and specifically designed by doping nonpolar crystals with "tailor-made" additives as dopants, since their incorporation generally takes place in a polar mode. Insertion of dopants also induces a polar deformation of neighboring host molecules, resulting in the creation of polar domains within the crystals...
April 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675863/effectiveness-of-lockouts-in-reducing-alcohol-related-harm-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Smriti Nepal, Kypros Kypri, Kirrilly Pursey, John Attia, Tanya Chikritzhs, Peter Miller
ISSUES: Australian jurisdictions have introduced lockouts to prevent alcohol-related violence. Lockouts prohibit patrons from entering licensed premises after a designated time while allowing sale and consumption of alcohol to continue. Their purposes include managing the movement of intoxicated patrons, and preventing violence and disorder by dispersing times that patrons leave premises. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of lockouts in preventing alcohol-related harm. APPROACH: We systematically searched electronic databases and reference lists and asked authors to identify relevant studies published to 1 June 2017...
April 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675657/-impact-of-psychoeducation-on-the-disease-concept-in-bipolar-patients
#4
Christian Simhandl, Barbara König
Aim of the investigation was the proof of influence of specific psychoeducation for bipolar disorder patients and their concept of illness. Additionally we looked in a subsample at the in literature described equal efficacy of peer to peer councelling and councelling by bipolar specialists in psychoeducationIn our investigation on 176 bipolar patients we could show in group psychoeducation that specific group psychoeducation by trained personal and by experts leads to a changed perception of the disorder concept...
April 19, 2018: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675581/cross-species-alterations-in-synaptic-dopamine-regulation-after-chronic-alcohol-exposure
#5
Cody A Siciliano, Anushree N Karkhanis, Katherine M Holleran, James R Melchior, Sara R Jones
Alcohol use disorders are a leading public health concern, engendering enormous costs in terms of both economic loss and human suffering. These disorders are characterized by compulsive and excessive alcohol use, as well as negative affect and alcohol craving during abstinence. Extensive research has implicated the dopamine system in both the acute pharmacological effects of alcohol and the symptomology of alcohol use disorders that develop after extended alcohol use. Preclinical research has shed light on many mechanisms by which chronic alcohol exposure dysregulates the dopamine system...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674776/-anxiety-depression-and-risk-consumption-of-alcohol-in-a-sample-of-university-students
#6
Omar Enzo Santangelo, Sandro Provenzano, Alberto Firenze
AIM: The university student is vulnerable to the adverse effects of many stress factors that can lead to depressive symptoms, anxiety and alcohol abuse, causing an increase in the burden of illness in young people. The aim of the study was to measure depressive symptoms, anxiety levels, and harmful alcohol consumption within the student population of the University of Palermo. METHODS: An online questionnaire was sent by e-mail to the 8500 students enrolled in the (ERSU) Regional Office for the Right to University Study's mailing list in Palermo...
March 2018: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674250/aspects-of-alcohol-use-disorder-affecting-social-cognition-as-assessed-using-the-mini-social-and-emotional-assessment-mini-sea
#7
Sharon Cox, Maxime Bertoux, John J D Turner, Antony Moss, Kirsty Locker, Kevin Riggs
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is associated with problems with processing complex social scenarios. Little is known about the relationship between distinct AUD-related factors (e.g., years of problematic drinking), aspects of cognitive function and dysfunction in individuals diagnosed with AUD, and the relative impact these may have on social cognition. AIMS: To explore differences in social cognition between a group of participants diagnosed with AUD and controls, using a clinical measure, the Mini Social and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA)...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673827/menopause-ageing-and-alcohol-use-disorders-in-women
#8
REVIEW
Jelena Milic, Marija Glisic, Trudy Voortman, Laura Pletsch Borba, Eralda Asllanaj, Lyda Z Rojas, Jenna Troup, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Ed van Beeck, Taulant Muka, Oscar H Franco
Alcohol intake affects the female body differently than it affects the male body. This is caused by females' lower levels of dehydrogenase enzymes, the enzyme that breaks down alcohol, coupled with the higher fat/water ratio of the female body. Both these factors cause alcohol levels to rise more quickly after ingestion in women than in men. This makes females more vulnerable to alcohol's harmful effects, and consequently women tend to develop alcohol-related diseases earlier in life than do men. As women age and go through menopause, they experience changes in body composition and life changes like retirement or loss of a loved one...
May 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673146/predictors-of-response-to-ketamine-in-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder
#9
Carola Rong, Caroline Park, Joshua D Rosenblat, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Hannah Zuckerman, Dominika Fus, Yena L Lee, Zihang Pan, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo B Mansur, Danielle S Cha, Leanna M W Lui, Roger S McIntyre
OBJECTIVES: Extant evidence indicates that ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressive (TRD) symptoms as a part of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The identification of depressed sub-populations that are more likely to benefit from ketamine treatment remains a priority. In keeping with this view, the present narrative review aims to identify the pretreatment predictors of response to ketamine in TRD as part of MDD and BD. METHOD: Electronic search engines PubMed/MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673059/the-tlr4-ire1%C3%AE-pathway-activation-contributes-to-palmitate-elicited-lipotoxicity-in-hepatocytes
#10
Chen Shen, Wang Ma, Lei Ding, Songtao Li, Xiaobing Dou, Zhenyuan Song
Lipotoxicity induced by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) plays a pathological role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the exact mechanism(s) remain to be clearly elucidated. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 plays a fundamental role in activating the innate immune system. Intriguingly, hepatocytes express TLR4 and machinery for TLR4 signalling pathway. That liver-specific TLR4 knockout mice are protective against diet-induced NAFLD suggests that hepatocyte TLR4 signalling pathway plays an important role in NAFLD pathogenesis...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672868/fetal-cerebral-circulation-as-target-of-maternal-alcohol-consumption
#11
Anna N Bukiya, Alex M Dopico
Alcohol (ethanol) is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances worldwide. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy may result in a wide range of morphological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), with the most severe cases diagnosed as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS and FASD are not readily curable and currently represent the leading preventable causes of birth defect and neurodevelopmental delay in the US. The etiology of FAS/FASD remains poorly understood...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672143/adolescent-age-of-sexual-initiation-and-subsequent-adult-health-outcomes
#12
Marina Epstein, Madeline Furlong, Rick Kosterman, Jennifer A Bailey, Kevin M King, Sara A Vasilenko, Christine M Steeger, Karl G Hill
OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanisms of the association between age of sexual initiation and adult health. METHODS: Data from the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808), in Seattle, Washington, included outcomes when participants were in their 30s (2005-2014): substance use disorders, depression, poor health, and obesity. Sexual consequence mediators included sexually transmitted infection, adolescent pregnancy, and a high number of sexual partners. We used linear logistic regression to model main effect and mediated associations...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671814/sex-specific-alterations-in-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-receptor-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#13
Joan Y Holgate, Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
Background : The mechanisms leading from traumatic stress to social, emotional and cognitive impairment and the development of mental illnesses are still undetermined and consequently there remains a critical need to develop therapies for preventing the adverse consequences of traumatic stress. Research indicates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4*nAChRs) are both impacted by stress and capable of modulating the stress response. In this study, we investigated whether varenicline, a partial α4β2*nAChR agonist which reduces nicotine, alcohol and sucrose consumption, can reduce stress, a driving factor in substance use disorders...
April 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671683/drinking-patterns-of-college-and-non-college-attending-young-adults-is-high-intensity-drinking-only-a-college-phenomenon
#14
Ashley N Linden-Carmichael, Stephanie T Lanza
BACKGROUND: Young adults report the heaviest drinking of any age group, and many are at risk for experiencing an alcohol use disorder. Most research investigating young adult drinking has focused on single indicators of use. Using multiple dimensions of consumption, such as federal guidelines for daily/weekly drinking and engagement in drinking at twice the binge threshold ("high-intensity drinking") to characterize drinking behavior could illuminate drinking patterns linked with harms...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671537/chronic-pancreatitis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
Kathleen Barry
Chronic pancreatitis is an irreversible and progressive disorder of the pancreas characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring. Exocrine and endocrine functions are lost, often leading to chronic pain. The etiology is multifactorial, although alcoholism is the most significant risk factor in adults. The average age at diagnosis is 35 to 55 years. If chronic pancreatitis is suspected, contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the best imaging modality for diagnosis. Computed tomography may be inconclusive in early stages of the disease, so other modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, or endoscopic ultrasonography with or without biopsy may be used...
March 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669407/psychiatric-sequelae-of-former-comfort-women-survivors-of-the-japanese-military-sexual-slavery-during-world-war-ii
#16
REVIEW
Jeewon Lee, Young-Sook Kwak, Yoon-Jung Kim, Eun-Ji Kim, E Jin Park, Yunmi Shin, Bun-Hee Lee, So Hee Lee, Hee Yeon Jung, Inseon Lee, Jung Im Hwang, Dongsik Kim, Soyoung Irene Lee
"Comfort women" refers to young women and girls who were forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese military during World War II. They were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, mostly from Korea, and the rest from China, Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Netherlands, etc. "Comfort women" endured extreme trauma involving rape, sexual torture, physical abuse, starvation, threats of death, and witnessed many others being tortured and killed...
April 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669183/the-influence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-on-health-functioning-in-active-duty-military-service-members
#17
Anu Asnaani, Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Kathy Benhamou, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Alan L Peterson, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Elisa V Borah, Katherine A Dondanville, Elizabeth A Hembree, Brett T Litz, Jim Mintz, Edna B Foa
Researchers have suggested that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant healthcare burden and utilization of medical services. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of PTSD symptoms on health functioning among active-duty military personnel. Participants in the study were 366 treatment-seeking service members who had returned from deployment and were participating in a larger PTSD treatment study. Assessments included measures of PTSD symptom severity, combat experiences, life stress, health functioning, alcohol use, and depression...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669170/risk-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-age-sex-and-liver-disorder-status-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-korea
#18
Sang-Wook Yi, Ja-Sung Choi, Jee-Jeon Yi, Yong-Ho Lee, Ki Jun Han
BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, relatively little is known regarding the interaction of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with age, sex, and liver disorder status. METHODS: The authors followed 504,646 Korean patients aged 40 to 80 years who underwent routine health checkups between 2002 and 2003 until 2013 via linkage to national hospital discharge records. RESULTS: HCC occurred in 2744 individuals. In the sex-adjusted and age-adjusted analysis, cirrhosis increased the incidence of HCC by 42-fold, followed by hepatitis B virus (21-fold), hepatitis C virus (HCV; 19-fold), male sex (4...
April 18, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668891/maternal-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-and-early-offspring-development
#19
Griffith A Bell, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Sunni L Mumford, Hyojun Park, James Mills, Erin M Bell, Miranda Broadney, Edwina H Yeung
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with developmental delays in offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Offspring of mothers with PCOS were at higher risk of failure on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is growing evidence that offspring of mothers with PCOS may be at higher risk for developmental disorders due to potential exposure to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Few studies exist regarding maternal PCOS and early childhood development in the USA...
April 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668736/differing-patterns-of-stress-and-craving-across-the-day-in-moderate-heavy-alcohol-consumers-during-their-typical-drinking-routine-and-an-imposed-period-of-alcohol-abstinence
#20
Rhiannon E Mayhugh, W Jack Rejeski, Meredith R Petrie, Paul J Laurienti, Lise Gauvin
BACKGROUND: Stress is a known factor related to alcohol use. However, how the relationship between alcohol craving and stress varies across the day is not fully understood. As craving is a consistent predictor of alcohol use disorder (AUD), understanding stress and craving patterns across the day in routine, non-dependent, moderate-heavy alcohol consumers may help in understanding those who may be vulnerable to transitioning into AUD. METHOD: Moderate-heavy drinkers were recruited from the local community (n = 32) and assessed for fluctuations in craving and stress intensity across the day via Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) during 3 consecutive days of imposed alcohol abstinence (abstained trial) and their normal drinking routine (normal trial)...
2018: PloS One
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