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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058377/genome-wide-association-study-of-alcohol-use-disorder-identification-test-audit-scores-in-20%C3%A2-328-research-participants-of-european-ancestry
#1
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Joshua C Gray, Harriet de Wit, Lea K Davis, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer
Genetic factors contribute to the risk for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). In collaboration with the genetics company 23andMe, Inc., we performed a genome-wide association study of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT), an instrument designed to screen for alcohol misuse over the past year. Our final sample consisted of 20 328 research participants of European ancestry (55.3% females; mean age = 53.8, SD = 16.1) who reported ever using alcohol. Our results showed that the 'chip-heritability' of AUDIT score, when treated as a continuous phenotype, was 12%...
October 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057665/medications-for-substance-use-disorders-sud-emerging-approaches
#2
Eduardo R Butelman, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Substance use disorders are a group of chronic relapsing disorders of the brain, which have massive public health and societal impact. In some disorders (e.g., heroin/prescription opioid addictions) approved medications have a major long-term benefit. For other substances (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis) there are no approved medications, and for alcohol there are approved treatments, which are not in wide usage. Approved treatments for tobacco use disorders are available, and novel medications are also under study...
October 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057605/putative-risk-factors-for-non-suicidal-self-injury-in-eating-disorders
#3
Ana Isabel Vieira, Bárbara C Machado, Paulo P P Machado, Isabel Brandão, António Roma-Torres, Sónia Gonçalves
Evidence suggests a common association between eating disorders (EDs) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The present study aimed to investigate the potential risk factors for NSSI among ED patients. We assessed 245 ED patients with the Oxford Risk Factor Interview for ED. The results showed that 33% of ED patients reported NSSI in their lifetime. NSSI appeared to occur more frequently among binge eating/purging type ED patients than among patients with other ED and to be related to a more severe eating pathology...
November 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057201/-essentially-all-models-are-wrong-but-some-are-useful-a-preliminary-conceptual-model-of-co-occurring-e-cig-and-alcohol-use
#4
Alexandra Hershberger, Melissa A Cyders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As prevalence rates of electronic cigarette (e-cig) use increase, researchers and clinicians should not only be paying careful attention to the direct health effects of e-cigs, but also the potential impact e-cigs may have on alcohol use behaviors. We review the current state of the literature and propose a conceptual model for the relationship between e-cig and alcohol use, including important consequences, mechanisms, and moderators of this relationship. RECENT FINDINGS: The model is based in emerging literature examining the direct relationship between e-cig and alcohol use, as well as indirect evidence concerning potential mechanisms from research on cigarette and alcohol use...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057007/the-architecture-of-recovery-two-kinds-of-housing-assistance-for-chronic-homeless-persons-with-substance-use-disorders
#5
Friedner D Wittman, Douglas L Polcin, Dave Sheridan
PURPOSE: Roughly half a million persons in the United States are homeless on any given night and over a third of those individuals have significant alcohol/other drug (AOD) problems. Many are chronically homeless and in need of assistance for a variety of problems. However, the literature on housing services for this population has paid limited attention to comparative analyses contrasting different approaches. APPROACH: We examined the literature on housing models for homeless persons with AOD problems and critically analyzed how service settings and operations aligned with service goals...
2017: Drugs and Alcohol Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056979/a-critique-of-the-new-canadian-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-guideline
#6
John D McLennan, Peter Braunberger
A new Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) guideline was published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal in 2016. This is relevant to the mental health field as mental health symptoms and psychiatric disorders are often identified as associated with and/or part of FASD presentations. Unfortunately, the new guideline has not advanced understanding of the interface between FASD and mental health problems; rather it may contribute to additional confusion. For example, a new recommendation to include additional mental health symptoms, such as anxiety and affect dysregulation, as manifestations contributing to a diagnosis of FASD is particularly concerning given the paucity of evidence supporting this assertion and the potential to distort delivery of mental health interventions for mental health problems...
2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056767/cross-commodity-delay-discounting-of-alcohol-and-money-in-alcohol-users
#7
Lara N Moody, Allison N Tegge, Warren K Bickel
Despite real-world implications, the pattern of delay discounting in alcohol users when the commodities now and later differ has not been well characterized. In this study, 60 participants on Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess severity of use and completed four delay discounting tasks between hypothetical, equivalent amounts of alcohol and money available at five delays. The tasks included two cross-commodity (alcohol now-money later and money now-alcohol later) and two same-commodity (money now-money later and alcohol now-alcohol later) conditions...
June 2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056532/lamp3-regulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-through-activating-pi3k-akt-pathway
#8
REVIEW
Xiaoyu Liao, Lingyu Song, Linlin Zhang, Hui Wang, Qiang Tong, Jing Xu, Gangyi Yang, Shiming Yang, Hongting Zheng
Lysosome associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3), a highly glycosylated protein, is one member of the LAMPs family. LAMPs family plays a critical role in the autolysosome fusion process. Autophagy was recently confirmed to regulate hepatic lipolysis. However, the physiological function of LAMP3 in lipid metabolism is not clear. In the current study, we discovered that the LAMP3 expression level was higher in the liver tissues of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients and high-fat diet and ob/ob mice than in the matched control groups...
October 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056157/the-role-of-the-ghrelin-system-in-drug-addiction
#9
Lia J Zallar, Mehdi Farokhnia, Brendan J Tunstall, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Lorenzo Leggio
In the past years, a significant volume of research has implicated the appetitive hormone ghrelin in the mechanisms underlying drug use and addiction. From a neuroscientific standpoint, ghrelin modulates both reward and stress pathways, two key drivers of substance use behaviors. Previous investigations support a connection between the ghrelin system and alcohol, stimulants, and tobacco use in both animals and humans, while the research on opioids and cannabis is scarce. In general, upregulation of the ghrelin system seems to enhance craving for drugs as well as substances use...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056154/contribution-of-urocortin-to-the-development-of-excessive-drinking
#10
Andrey E Ryabinin, William J Giardino
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a role in alcohol consumption, and its dysregulation can contribute to alcohol use disorder. This system includes four peptide ligands: CRF, urocortin (Ucn)1, Ucn2, and Ucn3. Historically, attention focused on CRF, however, Ucn1 also plays a critical role in excessive alcohol use. This review covers evidence for this contribution and contrasts the role of Ucn1 with CRF. While CRF can promote binge consumption, this regulation occurs through generalized mechanisms that are not specific for alcohol...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056153/oxytocin-tolerance-and-the-dark-side-of-addiction
#11
Cort A Pedersen
Substance use disorders blight the lives of millions of people and inflict a heavy financial burden on society. There is a compelling need for new pharmacological treatments as current drugs have limited efficacy and other major drawbacks. A substantial number of animal and recent clinical studies indicate that the neuropeptide, oxytocin, is a particularly promising therapeutic agent for human addictions, especially alcohol use disorders. In preliminary trials, we found that oxytocin administered by the intranasal route, which produces some neuropeptide penetration into the CNS, potently blocked withdrawal and reduced alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056151/the-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-alcohol-and-drug-abuse-disorders
#12
Stacey L Robinson, Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and which is cosecreted with classic neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate. There is a long history of research implicating a role for NPY in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol (ethanol) as well as other drugs of abuse. Both ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol have been shown to produce changes in NPY and NPY receptor protein levels and mRNA expression in the CNS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056148/neuropeptides-and-addiction-an-introduction
#13
Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptides are short sequences of amino acids that are coexpressed with neurotransmitters and which are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. There is a large database of data pointing to critical roles for neuropeptides in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol and drugs of abuse. Continued alcohol and drug use promote allostatic alterations in neuropeptide systems, and these changes contribute to excessive and uncontrolled intake that emerges with dependence. The neuropeptides that are reviewed in this chapter represent some of the most well-studied targets in the current drug and alcohol abuse literature...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055269/decision-making-measured-by-the-iowa-gambling-task-in-alcohol-use-disorder-and-gambling-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Ildikó Kovács, Mara J Richman, Zoltán Janka, Aniko Maraz, Bálint Andó
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AD) have similar features, such as elevated impulsivity and decision-making deficits, which are directly linked to relapse and poor therapeutic outcomes. Our aim was to assess decision-making characteristics in GD and AD patients compared to healthy controls (HC) based on one of the most frequently used measures of decision-making: the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). METHODS: In our systematic literature search of three databases, we identified 1198 empirical articles that mentioned decision-making deficits with the use of the IGT in patients diagnosed with either AD or GD...
October 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054575/emergency-department-presentations-by-older-people-for-mental-health-or-drug-and-alcohol-conditions-a-multicentre-retrospective-audit
#15
Margaret Fry, Steve Kay, Rosalind M Elliott
PURPOSE: Emergency department presentations by older people associated with mental health and drug and alcohol related conditions are increasing. However, the characteristics of presentations by older people in Australia are largely unknown. The aim of this research was to explore the characteristics of older people presenting with mental health and drug and alcohol conditions. PROCEDURES: We used a retrospective electronic medical record audit to explore all emergency department presentations by older people 65 years and over for mental health and drug and alcohol related conditions over a 12 month period...
October 17, 2017: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054291/neuroscience-informed-psychoeducation-for-addiction-medicine-a-neurocognitive-perspective
#16
Hamed Ekhtiari, Tara Rezapour, Robin L Aupperle, Martin P Paulus
Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054077/relationship-between-empathic-processing-and-drinking-behavior-in-project-match
#17
Charles S H Robinson, Kathryn Fokas, Katie Witkiewitz
INTRODUCTION: Family relationships, social connectedness and a greater network of supportive others each predict better drinking outcomes among individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The association between social factors and drinking may be related to the ability of individuals to take the perspectives of others' mental and emotional states, defined as empathic processing (EP). As such, it may be the case that EP is associated with social support (SS) and drinking behavior among individuals with AUD, yet few prior studies have attempted to define EP in an AUD sample...
October 3, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053271/discovery-of-7-18-f-fluorotryptophan-as-a-novel-pet-probe-for-the-visualization-of-tryptophan-metabolism-in-vivo
#18
Boris D Zlatopolskiy, Johannes Zischler, Dominique Schäfer, Elizaveta A Urusova, Mehrab Guliyev, Olesia Bannykh, Heike Endepols, Bernd Neumaier
Tryptophan and its metabolites are involved in different physiological and pathophysiological processes. Consequently, PET tracers addressing tryptophan metabolic pathways should allow the detection of different pathologies like neurological disorders and cancer. Herein we report an efficient method for the preparation of fluorotryptophans labeled in different positions with (18)F and their biological evaluation. 4-7-[(18)F]Fluorotryptophans ([(18)F]FTrps) were prepared according to a modified protocol of alcohol-enhanced Cu-mediated radiofluorination in 30-53% radiochemical yields...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052999/impulsivity-and-compulsivity-in-internet-gaming-disorder-a-comparison-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-alcohol-use-disorder
#19
Yeon-Jin Kim, Jae A Lim, Ji Yoon Lee, Sohee Oh, Sung Nyun Kim, Dai Jin Kim, Jong Eun Ha, Jun Soo Kwon, Jung-Seok Choi
Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by a loss of control and a preoccupation with Internet games leading to repetitive behavior. We aimed to compare the baseline neuropsychological profiles in IGD, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the spectrum of impulsivity and compulsivity. Methods A total of 225 subjects (IGD, N = 86; AUD, N = 39; OCD, N = 23; healthy controls, N = 77) were administered traditional neuropsychological tests including Korean version of the Stroop Color-Word test and computerized neuropsychological tests, including the stop signal test (SST) and the intra-extra dimensional set shift test (IED)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051997/effect-of-repeated-abstinence-on-chronic-ethanol-self-administration-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#20
Daicia C Allen, Steven W Gonzales, Kathleen A Grant
RATIONALE: Abstinence-based approaches to treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) are highly prevalent, but abstinence from chronic drinking may exacerbate subsequent levels of alcohol intake in relapse. OBJECTIVE: Use a non-human primate model that encompasses a range of chronic voluntary ethanol drinking to isolate biological responses to repeated cycles of imposed abstinence as a function of baseline voluntary alcohol drinking levels. METHODS: Over a 26-month protocol, young adult male rhesus macaques were first induced to drink alcohol and then given continuous access to 4% (w/v) ethanol (n = 8) or water (n = 4) for approximately 14 months, followed by three 28- to 35-day abstinence phases, with 3 months of ethanol access in between...
October 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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