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Gun violence

Victor J Dzau, Alan I Leshner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Howard Bauchner, Frederick P Rivara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Alan S Boyd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Desmond Upton Patton, Kyle McGregor, Gary Slutkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Pediatrics
Charles C Branas, Eugenia South, Michelle C Kondo, Bernadette C Hohl, Philippe Bourgois, Douglas J Wiebe, John M MacDonald
Vacant and blighted urban land is a widespread and potentially risky environmental condition encountered by millions of people on a daily basis. About 15% of the land in US cities is deemed vacant or abandoned, an area roughly the size of Switzerland. In a citywide cluster randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effects of standardized, reproducible interventions that restore vacant land on the commission of violence, crime, and the perceptions of fear and safety. Quantitative and ethnographic analyses were included in a mixed-methods approach to more fully test and explicate our findings...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Eduardo Smith-Singares
The rise in gun violence and other penetrating trauma constitutes one of the main challenges in the modern practice of Acute Care Surgery. Expertise in the emergency management of this type of injuries is needed if one is to avoid preventable complications, such as short bowel syndrome. Revisiting and sometimes repurposing old surgical techniques may facilitate this task. The use of a modified Finney enteroplasty as a bowel sparing damage control technique for penetrating jejunal and ileal injuries was studied on 87 gunshot wound victims...
February 24, 2018: Updates in Surgery
Pamela Behrman, Colleen A Redding, Sheela Raja, Tamara Newton, Nisha Beharie, Destiny Printz
The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership...
February 21, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Ann Gallagher, David Augustin Hodge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Nursing Ethics
Susan B Sorenson, Devan Spear
Age at first marriage has risen substantially and birth rates are at a record low; people are spending more time in relationships that, by comparison, have fewer emotional, financial, and legal commitments. Little research has examined intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence in current and former adult (vs. adolescent) dating relationships. Such information is relevant to federal firearms policies that are based on the nature of an intimate relationship. We examined assaultive behaviors by the type and status of the relationship - current spouse, former spouse, current boyfriend or girlfriend, and former boyfriend or girlfriend - in 31,206 IPV incidents responded to by Philadelphia police in 2013...
February 2018: Preventive Medicine
Nora Jones, Jenny Nguyen, Nicolle K Strand, Kathleen Reeves
What role, if any, physicians should have in the response to gun violence is a question not only of professionalism but also of law, culture, and ethics. We argue that physicians do have important roles to play in the larger landscape of advocacy, public opinion, and reduction of gun violence, but that it is not ethically or legally appropriate for them to serve as gatekeepers of gun privileges by assessing competency.
January 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Kelsey Hills-Evans, Julian Mitton, Chana A Sacks
Gun violence is a major cause of preventable injury and death in the United States, leading to more than 33,000 deaths each year. However, gun violence prevention is an understudied and underfunded area of research. We review the barriers to research in the field, including restrictions on federal funding. We then outline potential areas in which further research could inform clinical practice, public health efforts, and public policy. We also review examples of innovative collaborations among interdisciplinary teams working to develop strategies to integrate gun violence prevention into patient-doctor interactions in order to interrupt the cycle of gun violence...
January 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Nicole D Damari, Karan S Ahluwalia, Anthony J Viera, Adam O Goldstein
Firearm violence is a significant and increasing cause of mortality. Although physicians view firearm counseling as their professional obligation, few engage in the practice. This study examines medical education and firearm counseling among physicians in North Carolina. While 65 percent of physicians reported knowing how to counsel patients about gun safety, only 25 percent reported having conversations with patients about firearms or firearm safety often or very often. Physicians reporting continuing medical education (CME) attendance on gun safety, however, were more likely to report providing patients with firearm safety counseling and asking patients with depression about firearms...
January 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Rajeev Ramchand, Enchanté Franklin, Elizabeth Thornton, Sarah M Deland, Jeffrey C Rouse
Many Americans own guns to protect themselves against other people, but there is evidence that both victimization and gun access increase suicide risk. We conducted qualitative interviews with informants of 17 suicide cases in New Orleans of the 60 who died between January 2015 and April 2016 to understand the relationship between past trauma, gun access and storage, and suicide. Nine cases had experienced a past trauma, including three who had recently had a family member killed by homicide. Eight died via firearm; of those, seven owned the guns they used to take their lives and stored them locked (but loaded) at home or in their cars...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Samara McPhedran
Reducing lethal violence against women requires comprehensive measures addressing individual, social, economic, cultural, and situational factors. Regarding situational factors, access to weapons-and firearm access in particular-has received notable research attention. However, most study comes from the United States of America, and findings may not apply elsewhere. The current study examines whether changing gun laws in Australia affected female firearm homicide victimization. Female firearm homicide victimization may have been affected; however, no significant impacts were found for male firearm homicide victimization...
September 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Wen-Jan Tuan, John J Frey
BACKGROUND: Despite low firearm mortality rates in Wisconsin, overall firearm fatalities continue to rise in recent years. In 2013, the statewide age-adjusted death rate due to firearms was 9.6 per 100,000 persons, the highest mark since the new millennium. This raises not only public safety concerns, but also raises questions regarding ongoing gun violence. OBJECTIVES: To describe the population and geographic characteristics of firearm mortality rates on population and geographic characteristics in Wisconsin...
November 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
Sonali Rajan, Charles C Branas, Stephen Hargarten, John P Allegrante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Rick Dierenfeldt, Shaun A Thomas, Timothy C Brown, Jeffery T Walker
Anderson's thesis of a code of the street has been broadly applied to the study of violence, but race- and gender-specific multilevel analyses of gun violence are scant within the literature. An unresolved debate also surrounds the link between violent victimization and adherence to street culture; underscored by an apparent reputation-victimization paradox among those who engage in street behaviors. The current study contributes to the literature by assessing the direct influence of incident setting and victim-offender familiarity on the likelihood of gun use by Black males in the course of aggravated assaults; and the degree to which the confluence of these factors is conditioned by levels of disadvantage and violence in the community...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kellie R Lynch, T K Logan
The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of why communities differing in culture and resources are willing and able to implement gun confiscation as part of a protective order in the absence of a uniform statewide gun law. Specifically, the perceived risk of intimate partner homicide and gun violence, effectiveness of implementing gun confiscation, and the barriers to implementing gun confiscation were assessed. Interviews were conducted with key community professionals ( N = 133) who worked in victim services and the justice system in one urban community and four rural, under-resourced communities...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Petra Ahnlund, Tommy Andersson, Fredrik Snellman, Madelene Sundström, Gun Heimer
Past-year sexual, physical, and psychological violence against women and men aged 60 to 74 years was studied. The data derived from a nationally representative survey on violence in which approximately 2,800 women and men aged 60 to 74 years in Sweden participated. Women were significantly more likely to have been subjected to at least one form of violence in the past year. The prevalence of sexual violence as well as systematic and repeated psychological violence was found to be significantly higher for women than for men...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Wendy Cukier, Sarah Allen Eagen
Drawing on the World Health Organization's ecological model, this review explores how contextual and institutional factors shape individual choice and behavior with respect to gun violence. Young men are disproportionately represented among both perpetrators and victims of violence. Although specific characteristics and behaviors present risks, these vary with the specific forms of violence. There is ample international research that suggests the availability of guns increases the risk of lethal violence. When guns are present, suicide attempts are more likely to succeed and assaults are more likely to become homicides...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
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