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Gun violence

Rajeev Ramchand, Enchanté Franklin, Elizabeth Thornton, Sarah M Deland, Jeffrey C Rouse
Many Americans own guns to protect themselves against other people, but there is evidence that both victimization and gun access increase suicide risk. We conducted qualitative interviews with informants of 17 suicide cases in New Orleans of the 60 who died between January 2015 and April 2016 to understand the relationship between past trauma, gun access and storage, and suicide. Nine cases had experienced a past trauma, including three who had recently had a family member killed by homicide. Eight died via firearm; of those, seven owned the guns they used to take their lives and stored them locked (but loaded) at home or in their cars...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Samara McPhedran
Reducing lethal violence against women requires comprehensive measures addressing individual, social, economic, cultural, and situational factors. Regarding situational factors, access to weapons-and firearm access in particular-has received notable research attention. However, most study comes from the United States of America, and findings may not apply elsewhere. The current study examines whether changing gun laws in Australia affected female firearm homicide victimization. Female firearm homicide victimization may have been affected; however, no significant impacts were found for male firearm homicide victimization...
September 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Wen-Jan Tuan, John J Frey
BACKGROUND: Despite low firearm mortality rates in Wisconsin, overall firearm fatalities continue to rise in recent years. In 2013, the statewide age-adjusted death rate due to firearms was 9.6 per 100,000 persons, the highest mark since the new millennium. This raises not only public safety concerns, but also raises questions regarding ongoing gun violence. OBJECTIVES: To describe the population and geographic characteristics of firearm mortality rates on population and geographic characteristics in Wisconsin...
November 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
Sonali Rajan, Charles C Branas, Stephen Hargarten, John P Allegrante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Rick Dierenfeldt, Shaun A Thomas, Timothy C Brown, Jeffery T Walker
Anderson's thesis of a code of the street has been broadly applied to the study of violence, but race- and gender-specific multilevel analyses of gun violence are scant within the literature. An unresolved debate also surrounds the link between violent victimization and adherence to street culture; underscored by an apparent reputation-victimization paradox among those who engage in street behaviors. The current study contributes to the literature by assessing the direct influence of incident setting and victim-offender familiarity on the likelihood of gun use by Black males in the course of aggravated assaults; and the degree to which the confluence of these factors is conditioned by levels of disadvantage and violence in the community...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kellie R Lynch, T K Logan
The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of why communities differing in culture and resources are willing and able to implement gun confiscation as part of a protective order in the absence of a uniform statewide gun law. Specifically, the perceived risk of intimate partner homicide and gun violence, effectiveness of implementing gun confiscation, and the barriers to implementing gun confiscation were assessed. Interviews were conducted with key community professionals ( N = 133) who worked in victim services and the justice system in one urban community and four rural, under-resourced communities...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Petra Ahnlund, Tommy Andersson, Fredrik Snellman, Madelene Sundström, Gun Heimer
Past-year sexual, physical, and psychological violence against women and men aged 60 to 74 years was studied. The data derived from a nationally representative survey on violence in which approximately 2,800 women and men aged 60 to 74 years in Sweden participated. Women were significantly more likely to have been subjected to at least one form of violence in the past year. The prevalence of sexual violence as well as systematic and repeated psychological violence was found to be significantly higher for women than for men...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Wendy Cukier, Sarah Allen Eagen
Drawing on the World Health Organization's ecological model, this review explores how contextual and institutional factors shape individual choice and behavior with respect to gun violence. Young men are disproportionately represented among both perpetrators and victims of violence. Although specific characteristics and behaviors present risks, these vary with the specific forms of violence. There is ample international research that suggests the availability of guns increases the risk of lethal violence. When guns are present, suicide attempts are more likely to succeed and assaults are more likely to become homicides...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Rodrigo F Alban, Miriam Nuño, Ara Ko, Galinos Barmparas, Azaria V Lewis, Daniel R Margulies
BACKGROUND: Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
James A Shepperd, Gabrielle Pogge, Joy E Losee, Nikolette P Lipsey, Liz Redford
All people share a need for safety. Yet, people's pursuit of safety can conflict when it comes to guns, where some people perceive guns as a means to safety and others perceive guns as a threat to safety. We examined this conflict on a United States college campus that prohibits guns. We distinguished between people (N = 11,390) who (a) own a gun for protection, (b) own a gun exclusively for reasons other than protection (e.g., collecting, sports), and (c) do not own a gun. Protection owners felt less safe on campus, supported allowing guns on campus, and reported that they and others would feel safer and that gun violence would decrease if they carried a gun on campus...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Seth C Taylor, Elena F Kranioti
Gun violence is a global phenomenon with regional variation in frequency and severity. Handguns are often used in violent deaths such as suicides and homicides. Hence, ballistic trauma is a critical subject of forensic investigations. Trauma patterns are fundamental evidence for the reconstruction of the incident and for the determination of the manner of death. This study investigated the differences in trauma patterns with a series of experiments using six different calibers (.22 LR, .38 Special, .380 ACP, 9×19mm, ...
November 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
April M Zeoli, Alexander McCourt, Shani Buggs, Shannon Frattaroli, David Lilley, Daniel W Webster
In this research, we estimate the association of firearm restrictions for domestic violence offenders with intimate partner homicides (IPHs), based on the strength of the policies. We posit that the association of firearm laws with IPHs depends on the laws': 1) breadth of coverage of high-risk individuals and situations restricted; 2) power to compel firearm surrender or removal from prohibited persons; and 3) systems of accountability that prevent prohibited persons from obtaining guns. We conducted a quantitative policy evaluation using annual state-level data from 1980 through 2013 for 45 US states...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Matthew D Laughlin, Philip J Belmont, Paul J Lanier, Julia O Bader, Brian R Waterman, Andrew J Schoenfeld
BACKGROUND: The long-term impact of gun violence on physical function and occupational disability remains poorly explored. We sought to examine the effect of combat-related gunshot injury on work capacity within a cohort of military servicemembers and identify clinical characteristics that influence the capacity to return to work. METHODS: A query was performed to identify all servicemembers injured by gunshot in the years 2005-2009. These soldiers were then followed for a period up to the end of 2014 in order to identify those separated from service due to an inability to perform military duties as a result of their injury...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
Brian B Boutwell, Erik J Nelson, Zhengmin Qian, Michael G Vaughn, John P Wright, Kevin M Beaver, J C Barnes, Melissa Petkovsek, Roger Lewis, Mario Schootman, Richard Rosenfeld
CONTEXT: An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. OBJECTIVE: The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. DESIGN: Ecological study. SETTING: St. Louis, Missouri...
2017: PloS One
Robert S Levine, Jason L Salemi, Maria C Mejia de Grubb, Lisa S Gittner, Michael A Langston, Baqar A Husaini, George Rust, Charles H Hennekens
OBJECTIVE: Describe trends in non-Hispanic black infant mortality (IM) in the New York City (NYC) counties of Bronx, Kings, Queens, and Manhattan and correlations with gun-related assault mortality. METHODS: Linked Birth/Infant Death data (1999-2013) and Compressed Mortality data at ages 1 to ≥85 years (1999-2013). NYC and United States (US) Census data for income inequality and poverty. Pearson coefficients were used to describe correlations of IM with gun-related assault mortality and other causes of death...
January 2017: Journal of the National Medical Association
Sylvia S Szentpetery, Olena Gruzieva, Erick Forno, Yueh-Ying Han, Anna Bergström, Inger Kull, Edna Acosta-Pérez, Angel Colón-Semidey, Maria Alvarez, Glorisa J Canino, Erik Melén, Juan C Celedón
BACKGROUND: Little is known about synergistic effects of several risk factors on asthma. We developed a risk score in Puerto Rican children, and then used this score to estimate the combined effects of multiple risk factors on asthma at school age in Puerto Rican and Swedish children. METHODS: Case-control study in 609 Puerto Rican children (aged 6-14 years) and longitudinal birth cohort study of 2290 Swedish children followed up to age 12 years (The Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiological Survey [BAMSE] Study)...
December 2017: Respiratory Medicine
Jordan Beardslee, Meagan Docherty, Edward Mulvey, Carol Schubert, Dustin Pardini
Adolescent gun violence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects young Black males. Although it has been postulated that differential exposure to childhood risk factors might account for racial differences in adolescent gun carrying, no longitudinal studies have directly examined this issue. We examined whether childhood risk factors indexing neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems predicted the initiation of adolescent gun carrying among a community sample of Black and White boys...
November 27, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Doug Campos-Outcalt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Family Practice
Jens Ludwig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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