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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634053/using-short-term-bioassays-to-evaluate-the-endocrine-disrupting-capacity-of-the-pesticides-linuron-and-fenoxycarb
#1
Petra Spirhanzlova, Bert De Groef, Freda E Nicholson, Sylvia V H Grommen, Giulia Marras, Anthony Sébillot, Barbara A Demeneix, Sophie Pallud-Mothré, Gregory F Lemkine, Andrew J Tindall, David Du Pasquier
Several short-term whole-organism bioassays based on transgenic aquatic models are now under validation by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) to become standardized test guidelines for the evaluation of the endocrine activity of substances. Evaluation of the endocrine disrupting capacity of pesticides will be a domain of applicability of these future reference tests. The herbicide linuron and the insecticide fenoxycarb are two chemicals commonly used in agricultural practices...
June 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630098/comparative-micrornaome-analysis-of-the-testis-and-ovary-of-the-chinese-giant-salamander
#2
Rui Chen, Jian Du, Lin Ma, Li-Qing Wang, Sheng-Song Xie, Chang-Ming Yang, Xian-Yong Lan, Chuan-Ying Pan, Wu-Zi Dong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-24 nucleotides non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional suppression of mRNA. The Chinese giant salamander (CGS, Andrias davidianus), which is an endangered species, has become one of important models of animal evolution; however, no miRNA studies on this species have been conducted. In this study, two small RNA libraries of CGS ovary and testis were constructed using deep sequencing technology. A bioinformatics pipeline was developed to distinguish miRNA sequences from other classes of small RNAs represented in the sequencing data...
June 19, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627765/measurement-of-surface-topography-and-stiffness-distribution-on-cross-section-of-xenopus-laevis-tailbud-for-estimation-of-mechanical-environment-in-embryo
#3
Fumiaki Murakami, Yoriko Ando, Asuka Miyagi, Shukei Sugita, Naoto Ueno, Takeo Matsumoto
The stress distribution inside a Xenopus laevis tailbud embryo was estimated to examine the cause of the straightening and elongation. The embryos were cut in the middle, yielding a cross-section perpendicular to the body axis. The section was not flat, owing to the residual stress relief. The stress needed to restore the flatness corresponded to the stress inside the embryo and was calculated using the surface topography and Young's-moduli in the section. We found the areas of the notochord (Nc), neural tube (NT), and abdominal tissue (AT) bulged in the cross-section, which revealed that compressive forces acted in these tissues...
June 19, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625407/xenopus-fv3-host-pathogen-interactions-and-immune-evasion
#4
Robert Jacques, Eva-Stina Edholm, Sanchez Jazz, Torres-Luquis Odalys, De Jesús Andino Francisco
We first review fundamental insights into anti-ranavirus immunity learned with the Xenopus laevis/ranavirus FV3 model that are generally applicable to ectothermic vertebrates. We then further investigate FV3 genes involved in immune evasion. Focusing on FV3 knockout (KO) mutants defective for a putative viral caspase activation and recruitment domain-containing (CARD)-like protein (Δ64R-FV3), a β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase homolog (Δ52L-FV3), and an immediate-early18kDa protein (FV3-Δ18K), we assessed the involvement of these viral genes in replication, dissemination and interaction with peritoneal macrophages in tadpole and adult frogs...
June 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623169/mutation-of-the-inhibitory-ethanol-site-in-gabaa-%C3%AF-1-receptors-promotes-tolerance-to-ethanol-induced-motor-incoordination
#5
Yuri A Blednov, Cecilia M Borghese, Carlos I Ruiz, Madeline A Cullins, Adriana Da Costa, Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek, Gregg E Homanics, R Adron Harris
Genes encoding the ρ1/2 subunits of GABAA receptors have been associated with alcohol (ethanol) dependence in humans, and ρ1 was also shown to regulate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol in animal models. Ethanol inhibits GABA-mediated responses in wild-type (WT) ρ1, but not ρ1(T6'Y) mutant receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, indicating the presence of an inhibitory site for ethanol in the second transmembrane helix. In this study, we found that ρ1(T6'Y) receptors expressed in oocytes display overall normal responses to GABA, the endogenous GABA modulator (zinc), and partial agonists (β-alanine and taurine)...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621427/adhfe1-a-novel-enzyme-involved-in-retinoic-acid-dependent-hox-activation
#6
Yehuda Shabtai, Natalie Shukrun, Abraham Fainsod
Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is a central pathway regulating anterior-posterior patterning of the embryo through its targets, the Hox genes. RA is produced by two sequential oxidations from vitamin A (retinol) and this biosynthesis has to be regulated temporally, spatially and quantitatively. Mining Xenopus embryonic expression databases identified a novel component of the RA metabolic network, ADHFe1. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as our experimental system we determined the temporal and spatial pattern of AdhFe1 expression...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621426/foxd1-protein-interacts-with-wnt-and-bmp-signaling-to-differentially-pattern-mesoderm-and-neural-tissue
#7
Hanna Polevoy, Anastasia Malyarova, Yuri Fonar, Sara Elias, Dale Frank
The foxd1 gene (previously known as Brain Factor 2/BF2) is expressed during early Xenopus laevis development. At gastrula stages, foxd1 is expressed in dorsal mesoderm regions fated for muscle and notochord, while at neurula stages, foxd1 is expressed in the forebrain region. Previous studies in the neural plate showed that FoxD1 protein acts as transcriptional repressor downstream of BMP antagonism, neuralizing the embryo to control anterior neural cell fates. FoxD1 mesoderm function was not rigorously analyzed, but ectopic FoxD1 levels increased muscle marker expression in embryos...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621423/roles-of-the-cilium-associated-gene-ccdc11-in-left-right-patterning-and-in-laterality-disorders-in-humans
#8
Michal Gur, Enbal Ben-Tal Cohen, Olga Genin, Abraham Fainsod, Zeev Perles, Yuval Cinnamon
Axial determination occurs during early stages of embryogenesis. Flaws in laterality patterning result in abnormal positioning of visceral organs, as manifested in heterotaxy syndrome, or complete left-right inversion as in situs inversus totalis. These malformations are often associated with ciliopathies, as seen in primary ciliary dyskinesia. We have recently described a novel mutation in the Coiled-Coil Domain-Containing 11 (CCDC11) gene associated with laterality disorders in a consanguineous family of Arab-Muslim origin with two affected siblings presenting with diverse phenotypes, one with heterotaxy syndrome and the other with non-primary ciliary dyskinesia situs inversus totalis...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621408/a-brief-history-of-developmental-biology-in-israel
#9
Dalit Sela-Donenfeld, Dale Frank
While the history of developmental biology in Israel is relatively short, its impact is far-reaching, so we wanted to present a concise perspective on the Israeli developmental biology community, past-present-future. This community has undergone a wonderful, nearly exponential growth over the last three decades. How exactly did this happen? There are approximately fifty research groups that focus on developmental biology questions in Israel today that are members of the Israel Society of Developmental Biology (IsSDB; http://issdb...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618059/cells-from-subcutaneous-tissues-contribute-to-scarless-skin-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis-froglets
#10
Rina Otsuka-Yamaguchi, Aiko Kawasumi-Kita, Nanako Kudo, Yumi Izutsu, Koji Tamura, Hitoshi Yokoyama
BACKGROUND: Mammals cannot regenerate the dermis and other skin structures after an injury and instead form a scar. However, a Xenopus laevis froglet can regenerate scarless skin, including the dermis and secretion glands, on the limbs and trunk after skin excision. Subcutaneous tissues in the limbs and trunk consist mostly of muscles. Although subcutaneous tissues beneath a skin injury appear disorganized, the cellular contribution of these underlying tissues to skin regeneration remains unclear...
June 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616862/loops-d-e-and-g-in-the-drosophila-d%C3%AE-1-subunit-contribute-to-high-neonicotinoid-sensitivity-of-d%C3%AE-1-chicken-%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#11
Makoto Ihara, Mai Hikida, Hiroyuki Matsushita, Kyosuke Yamanaka, Yuya Kishimoto, Kazuki Kubo, Shun Watanabe, Mifumi Sakamoto, Koutaro Matsui, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Daiki Okuhara, Shogo Furutani, David B Sattelle, Kazuhiko Matsuda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neonicotinoid insecticides interact with the orthosteric site formed at subunit interfaces of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (insect nACh receptors). However, their interactions with the orthosteric sites at α-non α and α-α subunit interfaces remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of neonicotinoid actions using the Drosophila Dα1-chicken β2 hybrid nACh receptor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Computer models of the (Dα1)3 (β2)2 nACh receptor in complex with imidacloprid and thiacloprid were generated...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616199/global-realized-niche-divergence-in-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#12
Dennis Rödder, Flora Ihlow, Julien Courant, Jean Secondi, Anthony Herrel, Rui Rebelo, G J Measey, Francesco Lillo, F A De Villiers, Charlotte De Busschere, Thierry Backeljau
Although of crucial importance for invasion biology and impact assessments of climate change, it remains widely unknown how species cope with and adapt to environmental conditions beyond their currently realized climatic niches (i.e., those climatic conditions existing populations are exposed to). The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, native to southern Africa, has established numerous invasive populations on multiple continents making it a pertinent model organism to study environmental niche dynamics. In this study, we assess whether the realized niches of the invasive populations in Europe, South, and North America represent subsets of the species' realized niche in its native distributional range or if niche shifts are traceable...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615646/hydrogen-sulfide-stimulates-cftr-in-xenopus-oocytes-by-activation-of-the-camp-pka-signalling-axis
#13
Alexander Perniss, Kathrin Preiss, Marcel Nier, Mike Althaus
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a signalling molecule which affects the activity of ion channels and transporters in epithelial cells. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an epithelial anion channel and a key regulator of electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the regulation of CFTR by H2S. Human CFTR was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and its activity was electrophysiologically measured by microelectrode recordings. The H2S-forming sulphur salt Na2S as well as the slow-releasing H2S-liberating compound GYY4137 increased transmembrane currents of CFTR-expressing oocytes...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605379/voltage-clamp-fluorometry-in-xenopus-oocytes-using-fluorescent-unnatural-amino-acids
#14
Tanja Kalstrup, Rikard Blunck
Voltage-Clamp Fluorometry (VCF) has been the technique of choice to investigate the structure and function of electrogenic membrane proteins where real-time measurements of fluorescence and currents simultaneously report on local rearrangements and global function, respectively(1). While high-resolution structural techniques such as cryo-electron microscopy or X-ray crystallography provide static images of the proteins of interest, VCF provides dynamic structural data that allows us to link the structural rearrangements (fluorescence) to dynamic functional data (electrophysiology)...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603989/%C3%AE-conotoxin-s9a-txid-potently-discriminates-between-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-and-%C3%AE-6-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#15
Yong Wu, Dongting Zhangsun, Xiaopeng Zhu, Quentin Kaas, Manqi Zhangsun, Peta J Harvey, David J Craik, J Michael McIntosh, Sulan Luo
α3β4 nAChRs have been implicated in various pathophysiological conditions. However, the expression profile of α3β4 nAChRs and α6/α3β4 nAChRs overlap in a variety of tissues. To distinguish between these two subtypes, we redesigned peptide 1 (α-conotoxin TxID), which inhibits α3β4 and α6/α3β4 nAChR subtypes. We systematically mutated 1 to evaluate analogue selectivity for α3β4 vs α6/α3β4 nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. One analogue, peptide 7 ([S9A]TxID), had 46-fold greater potency for α3β4 versus α6/α3β4 nAChRs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603497/sigma-1-receptor-plays-a-negative-modulation-on-n-type-calcium-channel
#16
Kang Zhang, Zhe Zhao, Liting Lan, Xiaoli Wei, Liyun Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Haitao Yan, Jianquan Zheng
The sigma-1 receptor is a 223 amino acids molecular chaperone with a single transmembrane domain. It is resident to eukaryotic mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. By chaperone-mediated interactions with ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and cell-signaling molecules, the sigma-1 receptor performs broad physiological and pharmacological functions. Despite sigma-1 receptors have been confirmed to regulate various types of ion channels, the relationship between the sigma-1 receptor and N-type Ca(2+) channel is still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603004/ion-channel-signaling-influences-cellular-proliferation-and-phagocyte-activity-during-axolotl-tail-regeneration
#17
Brandon M Franklin, S Randal Voss, Jeffrey L Osborn
Little is known about the potential for ion channels to regulate cellular behaviors during tissue regeneration. Here, we utilized an amphibian tail regeneration assay coupled with a chemical genetic screen to identify ion channel antagonists that altered critical cellular processes during regeneration. Inhibition of multiple ion channels either partially (anoctamin1/Tmem16a, anoctamin2/Tmem16b, KV2.1, KV2.2, L-type CaV channels and H/K ATPases) or completely (GlyR, GABAAR, KV1.5 and SERCA pumps) inhibited tail regeneration...
June 7, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600394/tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-in-early-vertebrate-development
#18
Joseph Zinski, Benjamin Tajer, Mary C Mullins
TGF-β family ligands function in inducing and patterning many tissues of the early vertebrate embryonic body plan. Nodal signaling is essential for the specification of mesendodermal tissues and the concurrent cellular movements of gastrulation. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling patterns tissues along the dorsal-ventral axis and simultaneously directs the cell movements of convergence and extension. After gastrulation, a second wave of Nodal signaling breaks the symmetry between the left and right sides of the embryo...
June 9, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598520/xenopus-pitx3-target-genes-lhx1-and-xnr5-are-identified-using-a-novel-three-fluor-flow-cytometry-based-analysis-of-promoter-activation-and-repression
#19
Lara N Hooker, Cristine Smoczer, Samuel Abbott, Mohamad Fakhereddin, John W Hudson, Michael J Crawford
BACKGROUND: Pitx3 plays a well understood role in directing development of lens, muscle fiber, and dopaminergic neurons, however in Xenopus laevis, it may also play a role in early gastrulation and somitogenesis. Potential downstream targets of pitx3 possess multiple binding motifs that would not be readily accessible by conventional promoter analysis. RESULTS: We isolated and characterized pitx3 target genes lhx1 and xnr5 using a novel three-fluor flow cytometry tool that was designed to dissect promoters with multiple binding sites for the same transcription factor...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596334/self-repairing-cells-how-single-cells-heal-membrane-ruptures-and-restore-lost-structures
#20
REVIEW
Sindy K Y Tang, Wallace F Marshall
Many organisms and tissues display the ability to heal and regenerate as needed for normal physiology and as a result of pathogenesis. However, these repair activities can also be observed at the single-cell level. The physical and molecular mechanisms by which a cell can heal membrane ruptures and rebuild damaged or missing cellular structures remain poorly understood. This Review presents current understanding in wound healing and regeneration as two distinct aspects of cellular self-repair by examining a few model organisms that have displayed robust repair capacity, including Xenopus oocytes, Chlamydomonas, and Stentor coeruleus Although many open questions remain, elucidating how cells repair themselves is important for our mechanistic understanding of cell biology...
June 9, 2017: Science
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