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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107717/diclofenac-can-exhibit-estrogenic-modes-of-action-in-male-xenopus-laevis-and-affects-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad-axis-and-mating-vocalizations
#1
Norah Johanna Efosa, Wibke Kleiner, Werner Kloas, Frauke Hoffmann
Diclofenac (DCF) is a non-steroidal analgesic and antiphlogistic. Due to its tremendous use, DCF can be found in the environment, especially in sewage, but also surface waters, ground and drinking water. Previous studies indicated that DCF can modulate the reproductive physiology of fish by altering the expression of important key enzymes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad-axis (HPG-axis) and might act as an estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). Other studies, however, demonstrated that DCF does not exhibit any estrogenicity...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105208/tpx2-promotes-glioma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-via-activation-of-the-akt-signaling-pathway
#2
Jian-Jun Gu, Jian-He Zhang, Hong-Jie Chen, Shou-Sen Wang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most malignant type of primary adult brain cancer. The most common phenotype associated with GBM is cellular invasion; however, the molecular mechanisms governing this process are poorly understood. Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a nuclear protein with roles in cellular proliferation and mitotic spindle assembly. TPX2 is overexpressed in various malignancies, including human malignant astrocytoma. Despite this finding, the exact role of TPX2 in human glioma is not well defined...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104388/the-nedd4-binding-protein-3-is-required-for-anterior-neural-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#3
Lena-Maria Kiem, Petra Dietmann, Alexander Linnemann, Michael J Schmeisser, Susanne J Kühl
The Fezzin family member Nedd4-binding protein 3 (N4BP3) is known to regulate axonal and dendritic branching. Here, we show that n4bp3 is expressed in the neural tissue of the early Xenopus laevis embryo including the eye, the brain and neural crest cells. Knockdown of N4bp3 in the Xenopus anterior neural tissue results in severe developmental impairment of the eye, the brain and neural crest derived cranial cartilage structures. Moreover, we demonstrate that N4bp3 depletion leads to a significant reduction of both eye and brain specific marker genes and reduced neural crest cell migration...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102835/spinal-cord-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis
#4
Gabriela Edwards-Faret, Rosana Muñoz, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Dasfne Lee-Liu, Victor S Tapia, Juan Larraín
Here we present a protocol for the husbandry of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets, and procedures to study spinal cord regeneration. This includes methods to induce spinal cord injury (SCI); DNA and morpholino electroporation for genetic studies; in vivo imaging for cell analysis; a swimming test to measure functional recovery; and a convenient model for screening for new compounds that promote neural regeneration. These protocols establish X. laevis as a unique model organism for understanding spinal cord regeneration by comparing regenerative and nonregenerative stages...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100805/differences-in-mobility-at-the-range-edge-of-an-expanding-invasive-population-of-xenopus-laevis-in-the-west-of-france
#5
Vivien Louppe, Julien Courant, Anthony Herrel
Theoretical models predict that spatial sorting at the range edge of expanding populations should favor individuals with increased mobility relative to individuals at the center of the range. Despite the fact that empirical evidence for the evolution of locomotor performance at the range edge is rare, data on cane toads support this model. However, whether this can be generalized to other species remains largely unknown. Here, we provide data on locomotor stamina and limb morphology in individuals from two sites: one from the center and one from the periphery of an expanding population of the clawed frog Xenopus laevis in France where it was introduced about 30 years ago...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100642/isoform-specific-mechanisms-of-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-modulation-by-the-prototoxin-lynx1
#6
Andrew A George, Abigail Bloy, Julie M Miwa, Jon M Lindstrom, Ronald J Lukas, Paul Whiteaker
This study investigates-for the first time to our knowledge-the existence and mechanisms of functional interactions between the endogenous mammalian prototoxin, lynx1, and α3- and β4-subunit-containing human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α3β4*-nAChRs). Concatenated gene constructs were used to express precisely defined α3β4*-nAChR isoforms (α3β4)2β4-, (α3β4)2α3-, (α3β4)2α5(398D)-, and (α3β4)2α5(398N)-nAChR in Xenopus oocytes. In the presence or absence of lynx1, α3β4*-nAChR agonist responses were recorded by using 2-electrode voltage clamp and single-channel electrophysiology, whereas radioimmunolabeling measured cell-surface expression...
January 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100633/automated-mitotic-spindle-tracking-suggests-a-link-between-spindle-dynamics-spindle-orientation-and-anaphase-onset-in-epithelial-cells
#7
Matthew Larson, William Bement
Proper spindle positioning at anaphase onset is essential for normal tissue organization and function. Here we develop automated spindle tracking software and apply it to characterize mitotic spindle dynamics in the Xenopus laevis embryonic epithelium. We find that metaphase spindles first undergo a sustained rotation that brings them on-axis with their final orientation. This sustained rotation is followed by a set of striking, stereotyped rotational oscillations that bring the spindle into near contact with the cortex and then move it rapidly away from the cortex...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097650/scaling-of-pattern-formations-and-morphogen-gradients
#8
REVIEW
Hidehiko Inomata
The concentration gradient of morphogens provides positional information for an embryo and plays a pivotal role in pattern formation of tissues during the developmental processes. Morphogen-dependent pattern formations show robustness despite various perturbations. Although tissues usually grow and dynamically change their size during histogenesis, proper patterns are formed without the influence of size variations. Furthermore, even when the blastula embryo of Xenopus laevis is bisected into dorsal and ventral halves, the dorsal half of the embryo leads to proportionally patterned half-sized embryos...
January 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096411/hepatitis-e-virus-orf3-is-a-functional-ion-channel-required-for-release-of-infectious-particles
#9
Qiang Ding, Brigitte Heller, Juan M V Capuccino, Bokai Song, Ila Nimgaonkar, Gabriela Hrebikova, Jorge E Contreras, Alexander Ploss
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of enterically transmitted viral hepatitis globally. Of HEV's three ORFs, the function of ORF3 has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that via homophilic interactions ORF3 forms multimeric complexes associated with intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived membranes. HEV ORF3 shares several structural features with class I viroporins, and the function of HEV ORF3 can be maintained by replacing it with the well-characterized viroporin influenza A virus (IAV) matrix-2 protein...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096217/high-throughput-analysis-reveals-novel-maternal-germline-rnas-crucial-for-primordial-germ-cell-preservation-and-proper-migration
#10
Dawn A Owens, Amanda M Butler, Tristan H Aguero, Karen M Newman, Derek Van Booven, Mary Lou King
During oogenesis, hundreds of maternal RNAs are selectively localized to the animal or vegetal pole, including determinants of somatic and germline fates. Although microarray analysis has identified localized determinants, it is not comprehensive and is limited to known transcripts. Here, we utilized high-throughput RNA-sequencing analysis to comprehensively interrogate animal and vegetal pole RNAs in the fully grown Xenopus laevis oocyte. We identified 411 (198 annotated) and 27 (15 annotated) enriched mRNAs at the vegetal and animal pole, respectively...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095652/exosomal-trafficking-in-xenopus-development
#11
REVIEW
Michael Danilchik, Tess Tumarkin
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by many cell types in both normal and pathogenic circumstances. Because EVs, particularly exosomes, are known to transfer biologically active proteins, RNAs and lipids between cells, they have recently become the focus of intense interest as potential mediators of cell-cell communication, particularly in long-range and juxtacrine signaling events associated with adaptive immune function and progression of cancer. Among the EVs, exosomes appear particularly adapted for long-range delivery of cargoes between cells...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095648/amphibase-a-new-genomic-resource-for-non-model-amphibian-species
#12
REVIEW
Taejoon Kwon
More than five thousand genes annotated in the recently published Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis genomes do not have a candidate orthologous counterpart in other vertebrate species. To determine whether these sequences represent genuine amphibian-specific genes or annotation errors, it is necessary to analyze them alongside sequences from other amphibian species. However, due to large genome sizes and an abundance of repeat sequences, there are limited numbers of gene sequences available from amphibian species other than Xenopus...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095647/new-generation-mass-spectrometry-expands-the-toolbox-of-cell-and-developmental-biology
#13
REVIEW
Camille Lombard-Banek, Erika P Portero, Rosemary M Onjiko, Peter Nemes
Systems cell biology understanding of development requires characterization of all the molecules produced in the biological system. Decades of research and new-generation sequencing provided functional information on key genes and transcripts. However, there is less information available on how differential gene expression translates into the domains of functionally important proteins, peptides, and metabolites, and how changes in these molecules impact development. Mass spectrometry (MS) is the current technology of choice for the detection and quantification of large numbers of proteins and metabolites, because it requires no use of antibodies, functional probes, or a priori knowledge of molecules produced in the system...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095646/a-frog-s-view-of-ephrinb-signaling
#14
REVIEW
Yoo-Seok Hwang, Ira O Daar
Cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion are essential to the proper formation and maintenance of tissue patterns during development, and deregulation of these processes can lead to invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Cell surface adhesion and signaling molecules are key players in both normal development and cancer progression. One set of cell surface proteins, the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ligands, ephrins, are significant regulators of these processes. During embryonic development, the Eph/ephrin signaling system is involved in cell-cell contact events that result in cell sorting and boundary formation between receptor and ligand bearing cells...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095645/what-we-can-learn-from-a-tadpole-about-ciliopathies-and-airway-diseases-using-systems-biology-in-xenopus-to-study-cilia-and-mucociliary-epithelia
#15
REVIEW
Peter Walentek, Ian K Quigley
Over the past years, the Xenopus embryo has emerged as an incredibly useful model organism for studying the formation and function of cilia and ciliated epithelia in vivo. This has led to a variety of findings elucidating the molecular mechanisms of ciliated cell specification, basal body biogenesis, cilia assembly and ciliary motility. These findings also revealed the deep functional conservation of signaling, transcriptional, post-transcriptional and protein networks employed in the formation and function of vertebrate ciliated cells...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095644/xenopus-as-a-model-organism-to-study-heterotrimeric-g-protein-pathway-during-collective-cell-migration-of-neural-crest
#16
REVIEW
G Toro-Tapia, S Villaseca, J I Leal, A Beyer, J Fuentealba, M Torrejón
Collective cell migration is essential in many fundamental aspects of normal development, like morphogenesis, organ formation, wound healing and immune responses, as well as in the etiology of severe pathologies, like cancer metastasis. In spite of the huge amount of data accumulated on cell migration, such a complex process involves many molecular actors, some of which still remain to be functionally characterized. One of these signals is the heterotrimeric G-protein pathway that has been studied mainly in gastrulation movements...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095643/seeing-the-future-using-xenopus-to-understand-eye-regeneration
#17
REVIEW
Ai-Sun Tseng
Studies of Xenopus eye development have contributed considerably to the understanding of vertebrate neurogenesis, including eye field specification, cell fate determination and identification of genes critical for eye formation. This knowledge has served as a solid foundation for cellular and molecular examinations of the robust regenerative capacity of the Xenopus eye. The retina, lens, and the optic nerve are capable of regeneration after injury in both larval and adult stages. Here, we discuss the current models for studying eye regeneration in Xenopus and their potential applications for providing insights into human eye diseases...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095642/maternal-messages-to-live-by-a-personal-historical-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Mary Lou King
In the 1980's, the study of localized maternal mRNAs was just emerging as a new research area. Classic embryological studies had linked the inheritance of cytoplasmic domains with specific cell lineages, but the underlying molecular nature of these putative determinants remained a mystery. The model system Xenopus would play a pivotal role in the progress of this new field. In fact, the first localized maternal mRNA to be identified and cloned from any organism was Xenopus vg1, a TGF-beta family member. This seminal finding opened the door to many subsequent studies focused on how RNAs are localized and what functions they had in development...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095623/xenopus-as-a-model-for-studies-in-mechanical-stress-and-cell-division
#19
REVIEW
G A Stooke-Vaughan, L A Davidson, S Woolner
We exist in a physical world, and cells within biological tissues must respond appropriately to both environmental forces and forces generated within the tissue to ensure normal development and homeostasis. Cell division is required for normal tissue growth and maintenance, but both the direction and rate of cell division must be tightly controlled to avoid diseases of over-proliferation such as cancer. Recent studies have shown that mechanical cues can cause mitotic entry and orient the mitotic spindle, suggesting that physical force could play a role in patterning tissue growth...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095622/talens-and-crispr-cas9-fuel-genetically-engineered-clinically-relevant-xenopus-tropicalis-tumor-models
#20
REVIEW
Thomas Naert, Tom van Nieuwenhuysen, Kris Vleminckx
The targeted nuclease revolution (TALENs, CRISPR/Cas9) now allows Xenopus researchers to rapidly generate custom on-demand genetic knockout models. These novel methods to perform reverse genetics are unprecedented and are fueling a wide array of human disease models within the aquatic diploid model organism Xenopus tropicalis (X. tropicalis). This emerging technology review focuses on the tools to rapidly generate genetically engineered X. tropicalis models (GEXM), with a focus on establishment of genuine genetic and clinically relevant cancer models...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
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