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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431277/endocrine-disruption-by-environmental-gestagens-in-amphibians-a-short-review-supported-by-new-in%C3%A2-vitro-data-using-gonads-of-xenopus-laevis
#1
REVIEW
Andrea Ziková, Claudia Lorenz, Frauke Hoffmann, Wibke Kleiner, Ilka Lutz, Matthias Stöck, Werner Kloas
Endocrine disruption caused by various anthropogenic compounds is of persisting concern, especially for aquatic wildlife, because surface waters are the main sink of these so-called endocrine disruptors (ED). In the past, research focused on (anti)estrogenic, (anti)androgenic, and (anti)thyroidal substances, affecting primarily reproduction and development in vertebrates; however, other endocrine systems might be also targeted by ED. Environmental gestagens, including natural progestogens (e.g. progesterone (P4)) and synthetic progestins used for contraception, are supposed to affect vertebrate reproduction via progesterone receptors...
April 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427939/nrage-induces-%C3%AE-catenin-arm-o-glcnacylation-and-negatively-regulates-wnt-signaling
#2
Yuxin Chen, Lei Jin, Bin Xue, Dong Jin, Fenyong Sun, Chuanjun Wen
The Wnt pathway is crucial for animal development, as well as tumor formation. Understanding the regulation of Wnt signaling will help to elucidate the mechanism of the cell cycle, cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. It is generally accepted that in response to Wnt signals, β-catenin accumulates in the cytoplasm and is imported into the nucleus where it recruits LEF/TCF transcription factors to activate the expression of target genes. In this study, we report that human NRAGE, a neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR) binding protein, markedly suppresses the expression of genes activated by the Wnt pathway...
April 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427856/frizzled-3-acts-upstream-of-alcam-during-embryonic-eye-development
#3
Franziska A Seigfried, Wiebke Cizelsky, Astrid S Pfister, Petra Dietmann, Paul Walther, Michael Kühl, Susanne J Kühl
Formation of a functional eye during vertebrate embryogenesis requires different processes such as cell migration, cell-cell interactions as well as intracellular signalling processes. It was previously shown that the non-canonical Wnt receptor Frizzled 3 (Fzd3) is required for proper eye formation, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that loss of Fzd3 induces severe malformations of the developing eye and that this defect is phenocopied by loss of the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam)...
April 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427716/xenopus-egg-extract-a-powerful-tool-to-study-genome-maintenance-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Wouter S Hoogenboom, Daisy Klein Douwel, Puck Knipscheer
DNA repair pathways are crucial to maintain the integrity of our genome and prevent genetic diseases such as cancer. There are many different types of DNA damage and specific DNA repair mechanisms have evolved to deal with these lesions. In addition to these repair pathways there is an extensive signaling network that regulates processes important for repair, such as cell cycle control and transcription. Despite extensive research, DNA damage repair and signaling are not fully understood. In vitro systems such as the Xenopus egg extract system, have played, and still play, an important role in deciphering the molecular details of these processes...
April 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424847/characterization-of-microtubule-buckling-in-living-cells
#5
Carla Pallavicini, Alejandro Monastra, Nicolás González Bardeci, Diana Wetzler, Valeria Levi, Luciana Bruno
Microtubules are filamentous biopolymers involved in essential biological processes. They form key structures in eukaryotic cells, and thus it is very important to determine the mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of the microtubule network. Microtubule bucklings are transient and localized events commonly observed in living cells and characterized by a fast bending and its posterior relaxation. Active forces provided by molecular motors have been indicated as responsible for most of these rapid deformations...
April 19, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423577/the-cyclin-like-protein-spy1-regulates-the-er%C3%AE-and-erk1-2-pathways-promoting-tamoxifen-resistance
#6
Rosa-Maria Ferraiuolo, Janice Tubman, Indrajit Sinha, Caroline Hamm, Lisa Ann Porter
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway conveys growth factor and mitogen signalling to control the phosphorylation of a plethora of substrates regulating proliferation, survival, and migration. The Ras signalling pathway is frequently associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance in various cancers including those of the blood, breast and prostate. Activation of the downstream effector ERK does not always occur via a linear cascade of events; complicating the targeting of this pathway therapeutically. This work describes a novel positive feedback loop where the cell cycle regulatory factor Spy1 (RINGO; gene SPDYA) activates ERK1/2 in a MEK-independent fashion...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422157/detection-of-a-new-pyrethroid-resistance-mutation-v410l-in-the-sodium-channel-of-aedes-aegypti-a-potential-challenge-for-mosquito-control
#7
Khalid Haddi, Hudson V V Tomé, Yuzhe Du, Wilson R Valbon, Yoshiko Nomura, Gustavo F Martins, Ke Dong, Eugênio E Oliveira
The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, particularly in Neotropical regions, is the principal vector of dengue, yellow fever, Zika and Chikungunya viruses. Pyrethroids remain one of the most used insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes, despite the development of pyrethroid resistance in many mosquito populations worldwide. Here, we report a Brazilian strain of A. aegypti with high levels (approximately 100-60,000 fold) of resistance to both type I and type II pyrethroids. We detected two mutations (V410L and F1534C) in the sodium channel from this resistant strain...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419410/selective-and-state-dependent-activation-of-tresk-background-potassium-channel-by-cloxyquin
#8
Miklós Lengyel, Alice Dobolyi, Gábor Czirják, Péter Enyedi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cloxyquin (5-cloroquinolin-8-ol) has been previously described as an activator of TRESK (K2P 18.1, TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) channel) background potassium channel. We have examined the specificity of the drug by testing several K2P channels. We have investigated the mechanism of cloxyquin-mediated TRESK activation, focusing on the differences between the physiologically relevant regulatory states of the channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Potassium currents were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes and by whole-cell patch clamp in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
April 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418760/aromatic-dipeptide-trp-ala-can-be-transported-by-arabidopsis-peptide-transporters-atptr1-and-atptr5
#9
Diyang Qiu, Rui Hu, Ying Li, Mingyong Zhang
Dipeptides with an aromatic residue at the N-terminal position induced lower inward currents or blocked leak currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing the proton-coupled peptide transporter AtPTR1 or AtPTR5 of Arabidopsis thaliana compared with dipeptides with an aromatic residue at the C-terminal position. Here, AtPTR1 and AtPTR5 were expressed in a yeast mutant of peptide transporter (ptr2) with tryptophan auxotrophy. Growth assays showed that Trp-Ala could be transported by both AtPTR1 and AtPTR5 as efficiently as Ala-Trp...
April 18, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416372/effects-of-bilobalide-ginkgolide-b-and-picrotoxinin-on-gabaa-receptor-modulation-by-structurally-diverse-positive-modulators
#10
Chiu Chin Ng, Rujee K Duke, Tina Hinton, Graham A R Johnston
Anxiolytics and anticonvulsants generally positively modulate the action of GABA, whereas many convulsants (including the chloride channel blocker picrotoxinin) negatively modulate the action of GABA on GABAA receptors. Like picrotoxinin, bilobalide and ginkgolide B, active constituents of Ginkgo biloba, have been shown to negatively modulate the action of GABA at α1β2γ2L GABAA receptors. However, unlike picrotoxinin, bilobalide and ginkgolide B are not known to cause convulsions. We have assessed the action of bilobalide, ginkgolide B and picrotoxinin on a range of GABAA modulators (etomidate, loreclezole, propofol, thiopentone sodium, diazepam, and allopregnanolone), using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology at recombinant α1β2γ2L GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409343/use-of-xenopus-frogs-to-study-renal-development-repair
#11
Shoshoni T Droz, Kelly A McLaughlin
The Xenopus genus includes several members of aquatic frogs native to Africa but is perhaps best known for the species Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. These species were popularized as model organisms from as early as the 1800s and have been instrumental in expanding several biological fields including cell biology, environmental toxicology, regenerative biology, and developmental biology. In fact, much of what we know about the formation and maturation of the vertebrate renal system has been acquired by examining the intricate genetic and morphological patterns that epitomize nephrogenesis in Xenopus...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409308/asymmetries-in-cell-division-cell-size-and-furrowing-in-the-xenopus-laevis-embryo
#12
Jean-Pierre Tassan, Martin Wühr, Guillaume Hatte, Jacek Kubiak
Asymmetric cell divisions produce two daughter cells with distinct fate. During embryogenesis, this mechanism is fundamental to build tissues and organs because it generates cell diversity. In adults, it remains crucial to maintain stem cells. The enthusiasm for asymmetric cell division is not only motivated by the beauty of the mechanism and the fundamental questions it raises, but has also very pragmatic reasons. Indeed, misregulation of asymmetric cell divisions is believed to have dramatic consequences potentially leading to pathogenesis such as cancers...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409307/asymmetric-localization-and-distribution-of-factors-determining-cell-fate-during-early-development-of-xenopus-laevis
#13
Radek Sindelka, Monika Sidova, Pavel Abaffy, Mikael Kubista
Asymmetric division is a property of eukaryotic cells that is fundamental to the formation of higher life forms. Despite its importance, the mechanism behind it remains elusive. Asymmetry in the cell is induced by polarization of cell fate determinants that become unevenly distributed among progeny cells. So far dozens of determinants have been identified. Xenopus laevis is an ideal system to study asymmetric cell division during early development, because of the huge size of its oocytes and early-stage blastomeres...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409306/asymmetric-divisions-in-oogenesis
#14
Szczepan M Bilinski, Jacek Z Kubiak, Malgorzata Kloc
In the majority of animals, the oocyte/egg is structurally, molecularly, and functionally asymmetric. Such asymmetry is a prerequisite for a flawless fertilization and faithful segregation of maternal determinants during subsequent embryonic development. The oocyte asymmetry develops during oogenesis and must be maintained during consecutive and obligatorily asymmetric oogonial divisions, which depending on the species lead to the formation of either oocyte alone or oocyte and nurse cell complex. In the following chapter, we summarize current knowledge on the asymmetric oogonial divisions in invertebrate (insects) and vertebrate (Xenopus) species...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409085/mechanical-properties-of-spindle-poles-are-symmetrically-balanced
#15
Kazuya Suzuki, Takeshi Itabashi, Shin'ichi Ishiwata
The metaphase spindle is organized for accurate chromosome segregation. One of the fundamental features of the spindle across the species is its symmetrical shape; the spindle consists of two polar arrays of microtubules at both ends. Although it has been suggested that the formation of the bipolar shape requires force balance coordination by molecular motors, i.e., kinesins and dyneins, quantitative analysis for the pole mechanics has not been conducted. Here, we demonstrate that it is not only the shape but also the stiffness and microtubule density of the pairs of pole regions are symmetrically balanced in single spindles self-assembled in Xenopus egg extracts...
2017: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407416/tau-based-fluorescent-protein-fusions-to-visualize-microtubules
#16
Paul Mooney, Taylor Sulerud, James Pelletier, Matthew Dilsaver, Miroslav Tomschik, Christoph Geisler, Jesse C Gatlin
The ability to visualize cytoskeletal proteins and their dynamics in living cells has been critically important in advancing our understanding of numerous cellular processes, including actin- and microtubule-dependent phenomena such as cell motility, cell division, and mitosis. Here we describe a novel set of fluorescent protein fusions designed specifically to visualize microtubules in living systems using fluorescence microscopy. Each fusion contains a fluorescent protein module linked in frame to a modified phospho-deficient version of the microtubule-binding domain of Tau (mTMBD)...
April 13, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406522/inhibition-of-polyglutamine-aggregation-by-similar-huntingtin-n-terminal-sequences-prospective-molecules-for-preclinical-evaluation-in-huntington-s-disease
#17
Gunasekhar Burra, Ashwani Kumar Thakur
The mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt) fragments with expanded polyglutamine sequence forms microscopically visible aggregates in neurons, a hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD). The aggregation process and aggregates are possible targets of therapeutic intervention in HD. Due to lack of treatment and cure, the patients die within 15-20 years after the disease onset. Therefore, discovering therapeutic molecules that may either inhibit the aggregation mechanism or downregulate the toxic effects of mhtt are highly needed...
April 12, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406094/the-role-of-cell-body-density-in-ruminant-retina-mechanics-assessed-by-atomic-force-and-brillouin-microscopy
#18
Isabell Weber, Seok-Hyun Yun, Guillano Scarcelli, Kristian Franze
Cells in the central nervous system (CNS) respond to the stiffness of their environment. CNS tissue is mechanically highly heterogeneous, thus providing motile cells with region-specific mechanical signals. While CNS mechanics has been measured with a variety of techniques, reported values of tissue stiffness vary greatly, and the morphological structures underlying spatial changes in tissue stiffness remain poorly understood. We here exploited two complementary techniques, contact-based atomic force microscopy and contact-free Brillouin microscopy, to determine the mechanical properties of ruminant retinae, which are built up by different tissue layers...
April 13, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406021/nup62-coiled-coil-motif-provides-plasticity-for-triple-helix-bundle-formation
#19
Pravin S Dewangan, Parshuram J Sonawane, Ankita Rai Chouksey, Radha Chauhan
The central transport channel of vertebrate nuclear pore complex (NPCs) is made up of nucleoporins: Nup62, Nup54 and Nup58. The coiled-coil domains in α-helical regions of these nucleoporins are thought to be crucial for several protein-protein interactions in the NPC sub-complexes. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the coiled-coil domain of rat Nup62 fragment (362-425) to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal structure shows conserved coiled-coil domain as a parallel three helix bundle for the Nup62(362-425) fragment...
April 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404751/chromosomal-passenger-complex-hydrodynamics-suggests-chaperoning-of-the-inactive-state-by-nucleoplasmin-nucleophosmin
#20
Mariah L Hanley, Tae Yeon Yoo, Matthew Sonnett, Daniel J Needleman, Timothy J Mitchison
The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is a conserved, essential regulator of cell division. As such, significant anti-cancer drug development efforts have been focused on targeting it, most notably by inhibiting its AURKB kinase subunit. The CPC is activated by AURKB-catalyzed autophosphorylation on multiple subunits, but how this regulates CPC interactions with other mitotic proteins remains unclear. We investigated the hydrodynamic behavior of the CPC in Xenopus laevis egg cytosol using sucrose gradient sedimentation and in HeLa cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS)...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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