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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933647/identification-of-regions-responsible-for-the-function-of-the-plant-k-channels-kat1-and-akt2-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-xenopus-laevis-oocytes
#1
Shunya Saito, Naomi Hoshi, Lalu Zulkifli, Sri Widyastuti, Shinobu Goshima, Ingo Dreyer, Nobuyuki Uozumi
The Arabidopsis K(+) channel KAT1 complements in K(+)-limited medium the growth of the K(+) uptake defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain CY162, while another K(+) channel, AKT2, does not. To gain insight into the structural basis for this difference, we constructed 12 recombinant chimeric channels from these two genes. When expressed in CY162, only three of these chimeras fully rescued the growth of CY162 under K(+)-limited conditions. We conclude that the transmembrane core region of KAT1 is important for its activity in S...
September 21, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931627/the-nitrate-transporter-family-protein-npf8-6-controls-the-n-fixing-nodule-activity
#2
Vladimir Totev Valkov, Ludovico Martins Alves, Stefano Sol, Mélanie Noguero, Sophie Léran, Benoit Lacombe, Maurizio Chiurazzi
N-fixing nodules are new organs formed on legume roots as result of the beneficial interaction with soil bacteria, rhizobia. The nodule functioning is still a poorly characterized step of the symbiotic interaction as only few of the genes induced in N-fixing nodules have been functionally characterized. We present here the characterization of the member of the Lotus japonicus nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family LjNPF8.6. The phenotypic characterization carried out in independent L. japonicus LORE1 insertion lines indicates a positive role of LjNPF8...
September 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928245/evi-and-mds-evi-are-required-for-adult-intestinal-stem-cell-formation-during-postembryonic-vertebrate-development
#3
Morihiro Okada, Yun-Bo Shi
The gene ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI) and its variant myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS)/EVI encode zinc-finger proteins that have been recognized as important oncogenes in various types of cancer. In contrast to the established role of EVI and MDS/EVI in cancer development, their potential function during vertebrate postembryonic development, especially in organ-specific adult stem cells, is unclear. Amphibian metamorphosis is strikingly similar to postembryonic development around birth in mammals, with both processes taking place when plasma thyroid hormone (T3) levels are high...
September 19, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927532/beyond-mouse-cancer-models-three-dimensional-human-relevant-in-vitro-and-non-mammalian-in-vivo-models-for-photodynamic-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Malgorzata Kucinska, Marek Murias, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska
The proper design of experiments is a critical step for each study in order to obtain reproducible and reliable data. Taking into account constant competitiveness in the quickly developing biomedical sciences and the availability of sophisticated techniques, the choice and establishment of an experimental model system are essential for a successful research project. Currently, various sophisticated in vitro and in vivo models are being designed and developed in order to replace the use of mammalian models to investigate the mechanisms of action, activity and properties of novel compounds or treatment modalities...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925539/expression-and-functional-proteomic-analyses-of-osteocytes-from-xenopus-laevis-tested-under-mechanical-stress-conditions-preliminary-observations-on-an-appropriate-new-animal-model
#5
Jessika Bertacchini, Marta Benincasa, Marta Checchi, Francesco Cavani, Alberto Smargiassi, Marzia Ferretti, Carla Palumbo
Hitherto, the role of the osteocyte as transducer of mechanical stimuli into biological signals is far from settled. In this study, we used an appropriate model represented by the cortex of Xenopus laevis long bone diaphysis lacking (unlike the mammalian one) of vascular structures and containing only osteocytes inside the bone matrix. These structural features allow any change of protein profile that might be observed upon different experimental conditions, such as bone adaptation to stress/mechanical loading, to be ascribed specifically to osteocytes...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922750/identification-of-iridoid-glucoside-transporters-in-catharanthus-roseus
#6
Bo Larsen, Victoria L Fuller, Jacob Pollier, Alex Van Moerkercke, Fabian Schweizer, Richard Payne, Maite Colinas, Sarah E O'Connor, Alain Goossens, Barbara A Halkier
Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) are plant defense compounds and high-value pharmaceuticals. Biosynthesis of the universal MIA precursor, secologanin, is organized between internal phloem-associated parenchyma (IPAP) and epidermis cells. Transporters for intercellular transport of proposed mobile pathway intermediates have remained elusive. Screening of an Arabidopsis thaliana transporter library expressed in Xenopus oocytes identified AtNPF2.9 as a putative iridoid glucoside importer. Eight orthologs were identified in Catharanthus roseus, of which three, CrNPF2...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919864/%C3%AE-subunits-control-the-effects-of-human-kv4-3-potassium-channel-phosphorylation
#7
Geoffrey W Abbott
The transient outward K(+) current, Ito, activates early in the cardiac myocyte action potential, to begin repolarization. Human Ito is generated primarily by two Kv4.3 potassium channel α subunit splice variants (Kv4.3L and Kv4.3S) that diverge only by a C-terminal, membrane-proximal, 19-residue stretch unique to Kv4.3L. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of threonine 504 within the Kv4.3L-specific 19-residues mediates α-adrenergic inhibition of Ito in human heart. Kv4.3 is regulated in human heart by various β subunits, including cytosolic KChIP2b and transmembrane KCNEs, yet their impact on the functional effects of human Kv4...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919310/cadherin-11-promotes-neural-crest-cell-spreading-by-reducing-intracellular-tension-mapping-adhesion-and-mechanics-in-neural-crest-explants-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#8
REVIEW
Carina Blaue, Jubin Kashef, Clemens M Franz
During development cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) display a striking transition from collective to single-cell migration, but the mechanisms enabling individual NCCs to separate from the neural crest tissue are still incompletely understood. In this study we have employed atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate potential adhesive and mechanical changes associated with the dissociation of individual cells from cohesive Xenopus NCC explants at early stages of migration. AFM-based single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) revealed a uniform distribution of cell-cell adhesion forces within NCC explants, including semi-detached leader cells in the process of delaminating from the explant edge...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918251/hmg-box-factor-soxd-sox15-and-homeodomain-containing-factor-xanf1-hesx1-directly-interact-and-regulate-the-expression-of-xanf1-hesx1-during-early-forebrain-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#9
Natalia Y Martynova, Fedor M Eroshkin, Eugeny E Оrlov, Andrey G Zaraisky
The homeodomain-containing transcription factor Anf (also known as Rpx/Hesx1 in mammals) plays an important role during the forebrain development in vertebrates. Here we demonstrate the ability of the Xenopus laevis Anf, Xanf1/Hesx1, to directly bind SRY-related HMG-box-containing transcription factor SoxD/Sox15 and to cooperate with the latter during regulating of the expression of Xanf1/Hesx1 own gene. As we have shown by GST pull-down, EMSA and the luciferase reporter assays, Xanf1/Hesx1 and SoxD/Sox15 bind the Xanf1/Hesx1 promoter region counteracting the inhibitory effect of Xanf1/Hesx1 alone...
September 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917942/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-testing-of-native-%C3%AE-conotoxins-from-the-injected-venom-of-conus-purpurascens
#10
REVIEW
Mickelene F Hoggard, Alena M Rodriguez, Herminsul Cano, Evan Clark, Han-Shen Tae, David J Adams, Tanja A Godenschwege, Frank Marí
α-Conotoxins inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and are used as probes to study cholinergic pathways in vertebrates. Model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster, express nAChRs in their CNS that are suitable to investigate the neuropharmacology of α-conotoxins in vivo. Here we report the paired nanoinjection of native α-conotoxin PIA and two novel α-conotoxins, PIC and PIC[O7], from the injected venom of Conus purpurascens and electrophysiological recordings of their effects on the giant fiber system (GFS) of D...
September 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917093/molecular-cloning-and-functional-expression-of-the-k-channel-kv7-1-and-the-regulatory-subunit-kcne1-from-equine-myocardium
#11
Philip J Pedersen, Kirsten B Thomsen, Jon B Flak, Maria A Tejada, Frank Hauser, Dagmar Trachsel, Rikke Buhl, Theodore Kalbfleisch, Michael Scott DePriest, James N MacLeod, Kirstine Calloe, Dan A Klaerke
BACKGROUND: The voltage-gated K(+)-channel KV7.1 and the subunit KCNE1, encoded by the KCNQ1 and KCNE1 genes, respectively, are responsible for termination of the cardiac action potential. In humans, mutations in these genes can predispose patients to arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). AIM: To characterize equine KV7.1/KCNE1 currents and compare them to human KV7.1/KCNE1 currents to determine whether KV7.1/KCNE1 plays a similar role in equine and human hearts...
September 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912375/organ-culture-of-the-xenopus-tadpole-intestine
#12
Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
During Xenopus metamorphosis, most tadpole organs remodel from the larval to adult form to prepare for adaptation to terrestrial life. Organ culture serves as an important tool for studying larval-to-adult organ remodeling independent of the effects of other parts of the body. Here, I introduce a protocol for organ culture in vitro using the Xenopus laevis tadpole intestine before metamorphic climax. During culture in the absence of exogenous 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the most potent natural thyroid hormone, the intestine remains in its larval state without any metamorphic changes...
September 14, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912374/collagen-embedded-tumor-transplantations-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#13
Maureen Banach, Jacques Robert
The Xenopus laevis tadpole provides a valuable model for studying tumorigenesis and tumor immunity by intravital real-time microscopy. Using well-characterized thymic lymphoid tumor lines (15/0 and ff-2) that are transplantable into their compatible hosts (LG-15 isogenic clones and the F inbred strain, respectively), a system of semisolid tumor engraftment has been designed. Because these lymphoid tumor cell lines are not adherent and grow in suspension, they are first immobilized in a matrix of type I rat tail collagen before transplantation as a semisolid tumor graft under the transparent dorsal skin in the head region of a tadpole...
September 14, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910612/smells-familiar-pheromone-induced-neurotransmitter-switching-mediates-social-discrimination
#14
Michael Gliksberg, Gil Levkowitz
Social discrimination is regulated by a variety of sensory inputs. In this issue of Neuron, Dulcis et al. (2017) show that chemosensory-mediated kin preference in Xenopus is determined by changes in neurotransmitter composition, which are regulated by specific microRNAs.
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906063/models-of-convergent-extension-during-morphogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Asako Shindo
Convergent extension (CE) is a fundamental and conserved collective cell movement that forms elongated tissues during embryonic development. Thus far, studies have demonstrated two different mechanistic models of collective cell movements during CE. The first, termed the crawling mode, was discovered in the process of notochord formation in Xenopus laevis embryos, and has been the established model of CE for decades. The second model, known as the contraction mode, was originally reported in studies of germband extension in Drosophila melanogaster embryos and was recently demonstrated to be a conserved mechanism of CE among tissues and stages of development across species...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905186/antidepressants-inhibit-nav1-3-nav1-7-and-nav1-8-neuronal-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-more-potently-than-nav1-2-and-nav1-6-channels-expressed-in-xenopus-oocytes
#16
Takafumi Horishita, Nobuyuki Yanagihara, Susumu Ueno, Dan Okura, Reiko Horishita, Tomoko Minami, Yuichi Ogata, Yuka Sudo, Yasuhito Uezono, Takeyoshi Sata, Takashi Kawasaki
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and duloxetine are used to treat neuropathic pain. However, the mechanisms underlying their analgesic effects remain unclear. Although many investigators have shown inhibitory effects of antidepressants on voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) as a possible mechanism of analgesia, to our knowledge, no one has compared effects on the diverse variety of sodium channel α subunits. We investigated the effects of antidepressants on sodium currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing Nav1...
September 14, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904296/developmental-changes-in-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-expression-during-metamorphosis-of-xenopus-tropicalis
#17
Junpei Mori, Seigo Sanoh, Keiko Kashiwagi, Hideki Hanada, Mitsuki Shigeta, Ken-Ichi T Suzuki, Takashi Yamamoto, Yaichiro Kotake, Kazumi Sugihara, Shigeyuki Kitamura, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Shigeru Ohta
A large number of chemicals are routinely detected in aquatic environments, and these chemicals may adversely affect aquatic organisms. Accurate risk assessment requires understanding drug-metabolizing systems in aquatic organisms because metabolism of these chemicals is a critical determinant of chemical bioaccumulation and related toxicity. In this study, we evaluated mRNA expression levels of nuclear receptors and drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities in pro-metamorphic tadpoles, froglets, and adult frogs to determine how drug-metabolizing systems are altered at different life stages...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902151/apetx4-a-novel-sea-anemone-toxin-and-a-modulator-of-the-cancer-relevant-potassium-channel-kv10-1
#18
Lien Moreels, Steve Peigneur, Diogo T Galan, Edwin De Pauw, Lászlo Béress, Etienne Waelkens, Luis A Pardo, Loïc Quinton, Jan Tytgat
The human ether-à-go-go channel (hEag1 or KV10.1) is a cancer-relevant voltage-gated potassium channel that is overexpressed in a majority of human tumors. Peptides that are able to selectively inhibit this channel can be lead compounds in the search for new anticancer drugs. Here, we report the activity-guided purification and electrophysiological characterization of a novel KV10.1 inhibitor from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Purified sea anemone fractions were screened for inhibitory activity on KV10...
September 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901828/protein-kinase-c-enhances-plasma-membrane-expression-of-cardiac-l-type-calcium-channel-cav1-2
#19
Tal Keren Raifman, Prabodh Kumar, Hannelore Haase, Enno Klussmann, Nathan Dascal, Sharon Weiss
L-type-voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (L-VDCCs; CaV1.2, α1C), crucial in cardiovascular physiology and pathology, are modulated via activation of G-protein-coupled receptors and subsequently protein kinase C (PKC). Despite extensive study, key aspects of the mechanisms leading to PKC-induced Ca(2+) current increase are unresolved. A notable residue, Ser1928, located in the distal C-terminus (dCT) of α1C was shown to be phosphorylated by PKC. CaV1.2 undergoes posttranslational modifications yielding full-length and proteolytically cleaved CT-truncated forms...
September 13, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900037/znf143-is-an-important-regulator-of-the-myeloid-transcription-factor-c-ebp%C3%AE
#20
David Gonzalez, Annouck Luyten, Boris Bartholdy, Qiling Zhou, Miroslava Kardosova, Alex Ebralidze, Kenneth D Swanson, Hanna Radomska, Pu Zhang, Susumu S Kobayashi, Robert S Welner, Elena Levantini, Ulrich Steidl, Gilbert Chong, Samuel Collombet, Min Hee Choi, Alan D Friedman, Linda M Scott, Meritxell Alberich-Jorda, Daniel G Tenen
The transcription factor (TF) C/EBPα is essential for myeloid differentiation and is frequently dysregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). While studied extensively, the precise regulation of its gene by upstream factors has remained largely elusive. Here, we investigated its transcriptional activation during myeloid differentiation. We identified an evolutionarily conserved octameric sequence, CCCAGCAG, approximately 100 bases upstream of the CEBPA transcription start site (TSS), and demonstrated through mutational analysis that this sequence is crucial for C/EBPα expression...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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