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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352236/control-of-neural-crest-induction-by-marveld3-mediated-attenuation-of-jnk-signalling
#1
Barbara Vacca, Elena Sanchez-Heras, Emily Steed, Sophie L Busson, Maria S Balda, Shin-Ichi Ohnuma, Noriaki Sasai, Roberto Mayor, Karl Matter
Tight junctions are required for the formation of tissue barriers and function as suppressors of signalling mechanisms that control gene expression and cell behaviour; however, little is known about the physiological and developmental importance of such signalling functions. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of MarvelD3, a transmembrane protein of tight junctions, disrupts neural crest formation and, consequently, development of neural crest-derived tissues during Xenopus embryogenesis. Using embryos and explant cultures combined with a small molecule inhibitor or mutant mRNAs, we show that MarvelD3 is required to attenuate JNK signalling during neural crest induction and that inhibition of JNK pathway activation is sufficient to rescue the phenotype induced by MarvelD3 depletion...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350613/fgf-mediated-mapk-and-pi3k-akt-signals-make-distinct-contributions-to-pluripotency-and-the-establishment-of-neural-crest
#2
Lauren Geary, Carole LaBonne
Early vertebrate embryos possess cells with the potential to generate all embryonic cell types. While this pluripotency is progressively lost as cells become lineage restricted, Neural Crest cells retain broad developmental potential. Here, we provide novel insights into signals essential for both pluripotency and neural crest formation in Xenopus. We show that FGF signaling controls a subset of genes expressed by pluripotent blastula cells, and find a striking switch in the signaling cascades activated by FGF signaling as cells lose pluripotency and commence lineage restriction...
January 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347911/micrornas-associated-with-early-neural-crest-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#3
Nicole J Ward, Darrell Green, Janet Higgins, Tamas Dalmay, Andrea Münsterberg, Simon Moxon, Grant N Wheeler
BACKGROUND: The neural crest (NC) is a class of transitory stem cell-like cells unique to vertebrate embryos. NC cells arise within the dorsal neural tube where they undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in order to migrate and differentiate throughout the developing embryo. The derivative cell types give rise to multiple tissues, including the craniofacial skeleton, peripheral nervous system and skin pigment cells. Several well-studied gene regulatory networks underpin NC development, which when disrupted can lead to various neurocristopathies such as craniofrontonasal dysplasia, DiGeorge syndrome and some forms of cancer...
January 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346835/two-citrate-transporters-coordinately-regulate-citrate-secretion-from-rice-bean-root-tip-under-aluminum-stress
#4
Mei Ya Liu, He Qiang Lou, Wei Wei Chen, Miguel A Piñeros, Jia Meng Xu, Wei Fan, Leon V Kochian, Shao Jian Zheng, Jian Li Yang
Al-induced organic acid secretion from the root apex is an important Al resistance mechanism. However, it remains unclear how plants fine-tune root organic acid secretion which can contribute significantly to the loss of fixed carbon from the plant. Here, we demonstrate that Al-induced citrate secretion from the rice bean root apex is biphasic, consisting of an early phase with low secretion and a later phase of large citrate secretion. We isolated and characterized VuMATE2 as a possible second citrate transporter in rice bean functioning in tandem with VuMATE1, which we previously identified...
January 18, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346450/cloning-and-spatiotemporal-expression-of-xenopus-laevis-apolipoprotein-ci
#5
Jyotsna Sridharan, Tomomi Haremaki, Daniel C Weinstein
Apolipoprotein CI (ApoCI) belongs to the Apolipoprotein superfamily, members of which are involved in lipid transport, uptake and homeostasis. Excessive ApoCI has been implicated in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease in humans. In this study we report the isolation of Xenopus laevis apoCI and describe the expression pattern of this gene during early development, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and whole mount in situ hybridization. Xenopus apoCI is enriched in the dorsal ectoderm during gastrulation, and is subsequently expressed in sensory placodes, neural tube and cranial neural crest...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343813/the-drosophila-gr28bd-product-is-a-non-specific-cation-channel-that-can-be-used-as-a-novel-thermogenetic-tool
#6
Aditi Mishra, Autoosa Salari, Benton R Berigan, Kayla C Miguel, Marzie Amirshenava, Abbey Robinson, Benjamin C Zars, Jenna L Lin, Lorin S Milescu, Mirela Milescu, Troy Zars
Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339483/hells-and-cdca7-comprise-a-bipartite-nucleosome-remodeling-complex-defective-in-icf-syndrome
#7
Christopher Jenness, Simona Giunta, Manuel M Müller, Hiroshi Kimura, Tom W Muir, Hironori Funabiki
Mutations in CDCA7, the SNF2 family protein HELLS (LSH), or the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3b cause immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome. While it has been speculated that DNA methylation defects cause this disease, little is known about the molecular function of CDCA7 and its functional relationship to HELLS and DNMT3b. Systematic analysis of how the cell cycle, H3K9 methylation, and the mitotic kinase Aurora B affect proteomic profiles of chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts revealed that HELLS and CDCA7 form a stoichiometric complex on chromatin, in a manner sensitive to Aurora B...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339457/curcumin-acts-as-a-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-reverses-nociception-in-mouse-models-of-inflammatory-pain
#8
Eslam Gaber El Nebrisi, Deniz Bagdas, Wisam Toma, Halima Al Samri, Anna Brodzik, Yasmin Alkhlaif, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank C Howarth, Imad M Damaj, Murat Oz
Effects of curcumin, a major ingredient of turmeric, were tested on the function of α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes and on nociception in mouse models of tonic and visceral pain. Curcumin caused a significant potentiation of ACh (100 μM)-induced currents with an EC50 value of 0.2 µM. The effect of curcumin was not dependent on the activation of G-proteins and protein kinases and did not involve Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels expressed endogenously in oocytes...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339350/correction-the-constant-threat-from-a-non-native-predator-increases-tail-muscle-and-fast-start-swimming-performance-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#9
Tsukasa Mori, Yukio Yanagisawa, Yoichiro Kitani, Goshi Yamamoto, Naoko Goto-Inoue, Tadashi Kimura, Keiko Kashiwagi, Akihiko Kashiwagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339184/a-novel-stress-hormone-response-gene-in-tadpoles-of-xenopus-tropicalis
#10
Katelin A Schneider, Leena H Shewade, Nicolas Buisine, Laurent M Sachs, Daniel R Buchholz
Previous work identified a transcribed locus, Str. 34945, induced by the frog stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in Xenopus tropicalis tails. Because thyroid hormone had no influence on its expression, Str. 34945 was dubbed the first "CORT-only" gene known from tadpoles. Here, we examine the genomic annotation for this transcript, hormone specificity, time course of induction, tissue distribution, and developmental expression profile. The location of Str. 34945 on the X. tropicalis genome lies between the genes ush1g (Usher syndrome 1G) and fads6 (fatty acid desaturase 6)...
January 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336356/tcf7l1-promotes-transcription-of-kruppel-likefactor-4-during-xenopus-embryogenesis
#11
Qing Cao, Yan Shen, Wei Zheng, Hao Liu, Chen Liu
Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a zinc finger transcriptionfactor and plays crucial roles in Xenopus embryogenesis. However, its regulation during embryogenesis is stillunclear. Here, we report that Tcf7l1, a key downstream transducerof the Wnt signaling pathway, could promote Klf4 transcription and stimulate Klf4 promoter activity in early Xenopus embryos. Furthermore, cycloheximide treatmentshowed a direct effect on Klf4 transcriptionfacilitated by Tcf7l1. Moreover, the dominant negative form of Tcf7l1(dnTcf7l1), which lacks N-terminusof the β-catenin binding motif, could still activate Klf4 transcription, suggesting that thisregulation is Wnt/β-catenin independent...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335788/over-expression-of-a-grafting-responsive-gene-from-hickory-increases-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#12
R M Saravana Kumar, Guocun Ji, Haipeng Guo, Liang Zhao, Bingsong Zheng
A grafting response gene CcPIP1;2 was cloned from hickory plant, further functional characterization of the gene for water transport activity and abiotic stress tolerances were carried out through heterologous expression in Xenopus and Arabidopsis. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are multifunctional channel proteins belonging to the membrane intrinsic protein (MIP) family. In this study, a grafting-responsive gene from hickory (CcPIP1;2) was cloned and functionally characterized. Application of non-selective water inhibitors (HgCl2 and phloretin) led to the death of grafted hickory plants at 30 days after grafting (DAG)...
January 15, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331521/increased-transcript-levels-and-kinetic-function-of-pyruvate-kinase-during-severe-dehydration-in-aestivating-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis
#13
Neal J Dawson, Yulia Biggar, Amal I Malik, Kenneth B Storey
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, can withstand extremely arid conditions through aestivation, resulting in dehydration and urea accumulation. Aestivating X. laevis reduce their metabolic rate, and rely on anaerobic glycolysis to meet reduced ATP demands. The present study investigated how severe dehydration affected the transcript levels, kinetic profile, and phosphorylation state of the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver and skeletal muscle of X. laevis. Compared to control frogs, severely dehydrated frogs showed an increase in the transcript abundance of both liver and muscle isoforms of PK...
January 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326073/retinoic-acid-promotes-stem-cell-differentiation-and-embryonic-development-by-transcriptionally-activating-cftr
#14
Xiaofeng Li, Kin Lam Fok, Jinghui Guo, Yan Wang, Zhenqing Liu, Ziyi Chen, Chengdong Wang, Ye Chun Ruan, Sidney Siubun Yu, Hui Zhao, Ji Wu, Xiaohua Jiang, Hsiao Chang Chan
Retinoic acid (RA) plays a pivotal role in many cellular processes; however, the signaling mechanisms mediating the effect of RA are not fully understood. Here, we show that RA transcriptionally upregulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) by promoting the direct binding of its receptor RARα to Cftr promoter in mouse spermatogonia and embryonic stem (ES) cells. The RA/CFTR pathway is involved in the differentiation of spermatogonia and organogenesis during the embryo development of Xenopus laevis...
January 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323886/bisphenol-f-disrupts-thyroid-hormone-signaling-and-postembryonic-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#15
Min Zhu, Xiaoying Chen, Yuanyuan Li, Nuoya Yin, Francesco Faiola, Zhanfen Qin, Wuji Wei
The safety of bisphenol A (BPA) alternatives has attracted much attention due to their wide use. In this study, we investigated the effects of bisphenol F (BPF), an alternative to BPA, on thyroid hormone (TH) signaling and postembryonic development in vertebrates using T3-induced and spontaneous Xenopus metamorphosis as models. We found that in the T3-induced metamorphosis assay, higher concentrations of BPF (100-10000 nM) antagonized T3-induced TH-response gene transcription and morphological changes including intestinal remodeling in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas 10 nM BPF exerted stimulatory effects on T3-induced integral metamorphosis when inhibited T3-induced TH-response gene transcription, demonstrating TH signaling disrupting effects of BPF...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323637/autocatalytic-microtubule-nucleation-determines-the-size-and-mass-of-xenopus-laevis-egg-extract-spindles
#16
Franziska Decker, David Oriola, Benjamin Dalton, Jan Brugues
Regulation of size and growth is a fundamental problem in biology. A prominent example is the formation of the mitotic spindle, where protein concentration gradients around chromosomes are thought to regulate spindle growth by controlling microtubule nucleation. Previous evidence suggests that microtubules nucleate throughout the spindle structure. However, the mechanisms underlying microtubule nucleation and its spatial regulation are still unclear. Here, we developed an assay based on laser ablation to directly probe microtubule nucleation events in Xenopuslaevis egg extracts...
January 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323148/reference-gene-identification-and-validation-for-quantitative-real-time-pcr-studies-in-developing-xenopus-laevis
#17
Bilal B Mughal, Michelle Leemans, Petra Spirhanzlova, Barbara Demeneix, Jean-Baptiste Fini
Reference genes are essential for gene expression analysis when using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Xenopus laevis is a popular amphibian model for studying vertebrate embryogenesis and development. Further, X. laevis is ideal for studying thyroid signaling due to its thyroid dependent metamorphosis, a stage comparable to birth in humans. When using PCR based studies, a primary concern is the choice of reference genes. Commonly used references are eef1a1, odc1, rpl8, and actnB, although there is a lack of ad hoc reference genes for X...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321288/einsteck-transplants
#18
Hélène Cousin
Einsteck procedure refers to a method whereby the experimenter inserts material into the blastocoel cavity of an early amphibian embryo. This procedure is simpler to perform than other types of grafts, such as Spemann-Mangold, and with practice yields a sizable amount of data suitable for statistical analysis. This protocol for Einsteck transplantation in Xenopus describes the insertion of the gastrula-stage blastopore lip into the blastocoel cavity of a host embryo.
January 10, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321287/isolation-of-xenopus-oocytes
#19
Karen Newman, Tristan Aguero, Mary Lou King
Xenopus oocytes and oocyte extracts are the starting material for a variety of experimental approaches. Oocytes are obtained by surgical removal of the ovary from anesthetized females. Although oocytes may be used while they remain within their ovarian follicle, it is more practical to work with defolliculated oocytes. Defolliculation can be performed either manually or enzymatically. Here we present a protocol for the isolation and separation of Xenopus oocytes at various developmental stages, and guidelines for maintaining oocytes in culture...
January 10, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321286/oocyte-host-transfer-and-maternal-mrna-depletion-experiments-in-xenopus
#20
Douglas W Houston
This protocol details the oocyte host-transfer method in Xenopus, using transplantation by intraperitoneal injection. This approach is suitable for the overexpression of mRNAs and for the use of antisense oligonucleotides to deplete maternal mRNAs, which are not replaced until zygotic genome activation in the mid-blastula transition. Xenopus oocyte host-transfer can also be used for highly efficient mutagenesis in the F0 generation by prefertilization injection of genome editing reagents.
January 10, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
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