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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436775/the-effects-of-rodent-abundance-and-richness-on-cache-pilfering
#1
Jacob W Dittel, Stephen B Vander Wall
Scatter hoarding is a common behavioral strategy to conserve food during periods of scarcity, but this type of food storage is vulnerable to theft or pilferage. A variety of environmental factors and cache characteristics influence the rate of pilferage. Here we investigate two environmental factors, which heretofore have not received much attention: the abundance and species richness of scatter-hoarding animals in the vicinity of scatter-hoarded seeds. We measured the rate of cache pilferage at seven sites that differed in the number and species composition of granivorous rodents in western Nevada using local native seeds and sunflower seeds...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419922/transcriptome-profiles-of-sunflower-reveal-the-potential-role-of-microsatellites-in-gene-expression-divergence
#2
Chathurani Ranathunge, Gregory L Wheeler, Melody E Chimahusky, Meaghan M Kennedy, Jesse I Morrison, Brian S Baldwin, Andy D Perkins, Mark E Welch
The mechanisms by which natural populations generate adaptive genetic variation are not well understood. Some studies propose that microsatellites can function as drivers of adaptive variation. Here we tested a potentially adaptive role for transcribed microsatellites with natural populations of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by assessing the enrichment of microsatellites in genes that show expression divergence across latitudes. Seeds collected from six populations at two distinct latitudes in Kansas and Oklahoma were planted and grown in a common garden...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391433/comparison-of-plants-with-c3-and-c4-carbon-fixation-pathways-for-remediation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-contaminated-soils
#3
Anithadevi Kenday Sivaram, Panneerselvan Logeshwaran, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Robin Lockington, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
The phytoremediation technique has been demonstrated to be a viable option for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated sites. This study evaluated the potential applicability of plants with C3 and C4 carbon fixation pathways for the phytoremediation of recalcitrant high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs contaminated soil. A 60 and 120-day greenhouse study was conducted which showed higher degradation of HMW PAHs in soil grown with C4 plants when compared to C3 plants. Also, no PAHs were detected in the maize cobs, sunflower, wallaby, and Sudan grass seeds at the end of the experiment...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379937/buried-treasure-biosynthesis-structures-and-applications-of-cyclic-peptides-hidden-in-seed-storage-albumins
#4
B Franke, J S Mylne, K J Rosengren
Covering: 1999 up to the end of 2017The small cyclic peptide SunFlower Trypsin Inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1) from sunflower seeds is the prototypic member of a novel family of natural products. The biosynthesis of these peptides is intriguing as their gene-encoded peptide backbone emerges from a precursor protein that also contains a seed storage albumin. The peptide sequence is cleaved out from the precursor and cyclised by the albumin-maturing enzymatic machinery. Three-dimensional solution NMR structures of a number of these peptides, and of the intact precursor protein preproalbumin with SFTI-1, have now been elucidated...
January 30, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373559/data-analyses-and-modelling-for-risk-based-monitoring-of-mycotoxins-in-animal-feed
#5
H J Ine van der Fels-Klerx, Paulien Adamse, Ans Punt, Esther D van Asselt
Following legislation, European Member States should have multi-annual control programs for contaminants, such as for mycotoxins, in feed and food. These programs need to be risk based implying the checks are regular and proportional to the estimated risk for animal and human health. This study aimed to prioritize feed products in the Netherlands for deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B₁ monitoring. Historical mycotoxin monitoring results from the period 2007-2016 were combined with data from other sources. Based on occurrence, groundnuts had high priority for aflatoxin B₁ monitoring; some feed materials (maize and maize products and several oil seed products) and complete/complementary feed excluding dairy cattle and young animals had medium priority; and all other animal feeds and feed materials had low priority...
January 26, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327928/one-step-bioconversion-of-fatty-acids-into-c8-c9-volatile-aroma-compounds-by-a-multifunctional-lipoxygenase-cloned-from-pyropia-haitanensis
#6
Zhu-Jun Zhu, Hai-Min Chen, Juanjuan Chen, Rui Yang, Xiao-Jun Yan
The multifunctional lipoxygenase PhLOX cloned from Pyropia haitanensis was expressed in E. coli with 24.4 mg•L-1 yield. PhLOX could catalyze the one-step bioconversion of C18-C22 fatty acids into C8-C9 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), displaying higher catalytic efficiency for eicosenoic and docosenoic acids than for octadecenoic acids. C20:5 was the most suitable substrate among the tested fatty acids. The C8-C9 VOCs were generated in good yields from fatty acids, e.g., 2E-nonenal from C20:4, and 2E,6Z-nonadienal from C20:5...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314466/covalent-bonding-of-chlorogenic-acid-induces-structural-modifications-on-sunflower-proteins
#7
Costas Nikiforidis, Dimitris Karefyllakis, Stavroula Salakou, J Harry Bitter, Atze Jan Van der Goot
Proteins and phenols coexist in the confined space of plant cells leading to reactions between them which result in new covalently bonded complex molecules. This kind of reactions has been widely observed during storage and processing of plant materials. However, the nature of the new complex molecules and their physico-chemical properties are largely unknown. Therefore we investigated the structural characteristics of covalent bonded complexes between highly pure sunflower protein isolate (SFPI, 94 wt%) and the dominant phenol in the confined space of a sunflower seed cell (chlorogenic acid, CGA)...
January 4, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287390/determination-of-free-steroidal-compounds-in-vegetable-oils-by-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-coupled-to-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#8
Baocheng Xu, Liangxiao Zhang, Fei Ma, Wen Zhang, Xiupin Wang, Qi Zhang, Denglin Luo, Hongyan Ma, Peiwu Li
A method based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) was developed to analyze steroidal compounds in vegetable oils, which could provide better separation and higher sensitivity than conventional one dimensional gas chromatography, and allowed determination of 31 sterols and triterpene alcohols in one injection. Furthermore, the approach also permitted separation and detection of small amounts of other compounds (may be steroidal compounds whose molecular structures have not been confirmed), which were obscured in the lower-resolution single-column technique...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280987/anti-inflammatory-and-skin-barrier-repair-effects-of-topical-application-of-some-plant-oils
#9
REVIEW
Tzu-Kai Lin, Lily Zhong, Juan Luis Santiago
Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter)...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229363/comparison-of-the-effects-of-flaxseed-oil-and-sunflower-seed-oil-consumption-on-serum-glucose-lipid-profile-blood-pressure-and-lipid-peroxidation-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Atefeh Akrami, Farzad Nikaein, Siavash Babajafari, Shiva Faghih, Hassan Yarmohammadi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. METHODS: This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226187/tracheobronchial-foreign-bodies-in-children-the-role-of-emergency-rigid-bronchoscopy
#11
Aram Baram, Hewa Sherzad, Sara Saeed, Fahmi H Kakamad, Adnan M H Hamawandi
Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common and lethal accident in the pediatric age group. It requires early recognition and treatment by rigid bronchoscopy to avoid fatal outcomes. Objective. The aim of this study was to study the pattern of FBA in the tracheobronchial tree as well as the success rate of rigid bronchoscopy in children admitted to a single center and to analyze the relationship of the type of foreign body (FB) with patients' age, presentation, and complications. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study of FBA was conducted in children in the Sulaimani/Kurdistan region, Iraq, admitted to the emergency teaching hospital of the University of Sulaimani from January 2014 to March 2016...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209843/monocultural-sowing-in-mesocosms-decreases-the-species-richness-of-weeds-and-invertebrates-and-critically-reduces-the-fitness-of-the-endangered-european-hamster
#12
Mathilde L Tissier, Florian Kletty, Yves Handrich, Caroline Habold
Intensive cereal monoculture is currently the main cause of biodiversity decline in Europe. However, it is difficult to disentangle the effects of intensive monoculture (e.g. pesticide use, mechanical ploughing and reduced protective cover), let alone evaluate how far the reduction of crop diversity affects biodiversity. It remains unclear to which extent the consequent decrease in food resources affects farmland biodiversity, and particularly vertebrate species. We therefore designed this study in mesocosms to investigate the effects of monoculture crops (organic wheat or corn seeds) and mixed crops (a combination of organic wheat, corn, sunflower and alfalfa seeds) on (1) the species richness of weeds and invertebrates and (2) the reproductive success of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus), a critically endangered umbrella species of European farmlands...
December 5, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174030/position-paper-on-vegetarian-diets-from-the-working-group-of-the-italian-society-of-human-nutrition
#13
C Agnoli, L Baroni, I Bertini, S Ciappellano, A Fabbri, M Papa, N Pellegrini, R Sbarbati, M L Scarino, V Siani, S Sieri
BACKGROUND: Interest in vegetarian diets is growing in Italy and elsewhere, as government agencies and health/nutrition organizations are emphasizing that regular consumption of plant foods may provide health benefits and help prevent certain diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a Pubmed search, up to September, 2015, for studies on key nutrients (proteins, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids) in vegetarian diets. From 295 eligible publications the following emerged: Vegetarians should be encouraged to supplement their diets with a reliable source of vitamin B12 (vitamin-fortified foods or supplements)...
October 31, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172966/antiquorum-sensing-activity-of-seed-oils-from-oleaginous-plants-and-protective-effect-during-challenge-with-chromobacterium-violaceum
#14
Macrina Pérez-López, Rodolfo García-Contreras, Marcos Soto-Hernández, José Salud Rodríguez-Zavala, Mariano Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier Prado-Galbarro, Israel Castillo-Juárez
Seed oils from oleaginous plants are rich in fatty acids (FAs) that play important roles in the health of the consumers. Recent studies indicate that FA also can play an important role in communication and regulation of virulence in bacteria. Nevertheless, evidence demonstrating protection against bacterial infections mediated by their quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) activity is scarce. In this study, sunflower, chia, and amaranth oils, were assayed for their QSI capacity by inhibiting violacein production and alkaline exoprotease activity of Chromobacterium violaceum...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134748/novel-topical-agent-containing-superoxide-dismutase-100%C3%A2-000%C3%A2-iu-and-4-of-plant-extracts-as-a-mono-therapy-for-atopic-dermatitis
#15
Dimitrios Sgouros, Alexander Katoulis, Dimitrios Rigopoulos
INTRODUCTION: Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for the acute phase of atopic dermatitis (AD), whereas topical emollients are mainly used for maintenance of remission. A topical agent that combines emollient and anti-inflammatory properties would achieve control of all phases of AD, without the need for chronic corticosteroid use. AIM: To assess the efficacy of a novel topical agent containing superoxide dismutase (SOD) 100 000 IU and 4% of a combination of plant extracts (blackcurrant seed oil, sunflower oil concentrate, balloon vine extract)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107879/comparative-values-of-various-wastewater-streams-as-a-soil-nutrient-source
#16
Sonia Shilpi, Balaji Seshadri, Binoy Sarkar, Nanthi Bolan, Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu
In order to assess whether wastewaters from different industries (winery, abattoir, dairy and municipal) could be used safely to irrigate agricultural crops, a pot experiment in glass house was conducted in a sandy clay loam soil (pH = 6.12) from South Australia. Different concentrations (0, 0.05, 5, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of the wastewaters diluted in an ordinary tap water were applied to soils sown with sunflower and maize seeds, and the effect of these irrigation treatments were evaluated at the early crop growth stages by recording the biomass yields, plant mineral nutrient contents, and also the soil chemical properties...
October 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093378/influence-of-high-temperature-and-duration-of-heating-on-the-sunflower-seed-oil-properties-for-food-use-and-bio-diesel-production
#17
Angelo Maria Giuffrè, Marco Capocasale, Clotilde Zappia, Marco Poiana
Two important problems for the food industry are oil oxidation and oil waste after frying. Sunflower seed oil is one of the vegetable oils most commonly used in the food industry. Two variables were applied to the low oleic sunflower seed oil in this work i.e. heating temperature (180-210-240°C) and time of heating (15-30-60-120 minutes), to study from the edible point of view the variations of its physico-chemical properties. After 120 minutes heating at 240°C the following was found: refractive index (1...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091398/size-sorting-and-pattern-formation-of-nanoparticle-loaded-micellar-superstructures-in-biconcave-thin-films
#18
Jan Bart Ten Hove, Junyou Wang, Matthias N van Oosterom, Fijs W B van Leeuwen, Aldrik H Velders
Biconcave thin water layers represent a template to induce organization of supramolecular structures into ordered monolayers. Here we show how micelles form extensive micrometer-sized pseudo-2D superstructures that reveal size-sorting and geometric pattern formation, as shown by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM). Electron-rich gold particles inside the micelles facilitate direct visualization and determination of size, composition and ordering of the micellar assemblies over multiple length scales...
November 1, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045417/effects-of-food-store-quality-on-hibernation-performance-in-common-hamsters
#19
Carina Siutz, Matthias Nemeth, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint, Thomas Ruf, Eva Millesi
Hibernating animals can adjust torpor expression according to available energy reserves. Besides the quantity, the quality of energy reserves could play an important role for overwintering strategies. Common hamsters are food-storing hibernators and show high individual variation in hibernation performance, which might be related to the quality of food hoards in the hibernacula. In this study, we tested the effects of food stores high in fat content, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on hibernation patterns under laboratory conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029088/plant-herbivore-and-plant-pollinator-interactions-of-the-developing-perennial-oilseed-crop-silphium-integrifolium
#20
J R Prasifka, R E Mallinger, B S Hulke, S R Larson, D Van Tassel
Sampling in Kansas and North Dakota documented the plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator interactions of the developing perennial oilseed crop, Silphium integrifolium Michx. The larva of the tortricid moth, Eucosma giganteana (Riley), was the most damaging floret- and seed-feeding pest in Kansas, with infested heads producing ≈85% (2015) or ≈45% (2016) fewer seeds than apparently undamaged heads. Necrosis of apical meristems caused stunting and delayed bloom in Kansas; though the source of the necrosis is not known, observations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois; Hemiptera: Miridae), in S...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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