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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721167/glycine-a-non-invasive-imaging-biomarker-to-aid-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-the-prediction-of-survival-in-paediatric-brain-tumours
#1
Ben Babourina-Brooks, Sarah Kohe, Simrandip K Gill, Lesley MacPherson, Martin Wilson, Nigel P Davies, Andrew C Peet
Paediatric brain tumours have a high mortality rate and are the most common solid tumour of childhood. Identification of high risk patients may allow for better treatment stratification. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) provides a non-invasive measure of brain tumour metabolism and quantifies metabolite survival markers to aid in the clinical management of patients. Glycine can be identified using MRS and has been recently found to be important for cancer cell proliferation in tumours making it a valuable prognostic marker...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696947/the-role-of-amino-acid-pet-in-the-light-of-the-new-who-classification-2016-for-brain-tumors
#2
Bogdana Suchorska, Nathalie L Albert, Elena K Bauer, Jörg-Christian Tonn, Norbert Galldiks
INTRODUCTION: Since its introduction in 2016, the revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumours has already changed the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in glial tumors. Blurring the lines between entities formerly labelled as "high-grade" or "low-grade", molecular markers define distinct biological subtypes with different clinical course. This new classification raises the demand for non-invasive imaging methods focussing on depicting metabolic processes...
April 26, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601482/oxamate-but-not-selective-targeting-of-ldh-a-inhibits-medulloblastoma-cell-glycolysis-growth-and-motility
#3
Cara J Valvona, Helen L Fillmore
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour and current therapies often leave patients with severe neurological disabilities. Four major molecular groups of medulloblastoma have been identified (Wnt, Shh, Group 3 and Group 4), which include additional, recently defined subgroups with different prognosis and genetic characteristics. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is a key enzyme in the aerobic glycolysis pathway, an abnormal metabolic pathway commonly observed in cancers, associated with tumour progression and metastasis...
March 30, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575677/vitamin-d-analogues-tacalcitol-and-calcipotriol-inhibit-proliferation-and-migration-of-t98g-human-glioblastoma-cells
#4
Ida Emanuelsson, Kjell Wikvall, Tomas Friman, Maria Norlin
The active form of vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) acts as a steroid hormone and binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). This receptor is expressed in most cell types including cells in the CNS. Vitamin D has several functions in the body including effects on brain development, neuroprotection and immunological regulation. It has been shown that vitamin D has anti-proliferative activities in different cancer cell lines. Tacalcitol and calcipotriol are synthetic analogues of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with reduced effect on calcium metabolism...
March 25, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564490/use-of-fet-pet-in-glioblastoma-patients-undergoing-neurooncological-treatment-including-tumour-treating-fields-initial-experience
#5
Garry Ceccon, Lazaros Lazaridis, Gabriele Stoffels, Marion Rapp, Manuel Weber, Tobias Blau, Phillip Lohmann, Sied Kebir, Ken Herrmann, Gereon R Fink, Karl-Josef Langen, Martin Glas, Norbert Galldiks
PURPOSE: We present our first clinical experience with O-(2-18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) PET in patients with high-grade glioma treated with various neurooncological therapies including tumour-treating fields (TTFields) for the differentiation of tumour progression from treatment-related changes. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 12 patients (mean age 51 ± 12 years, range 33-72 years) with high-grade glioma (11 glioblastomas, 1 gliosarcoma) in whom the treatment regimen included TTFields and who had undergone FET PET scans for differentiation of tumour progression from treatment-related changes...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526577/obesity-and-cancer-existing-and-new-hypotheses-for-a-causal-connection
#6
REVIEW
Trevor W Stone, Megan McPherson, L Gail Darlington
Existing explanations of obesity-associated cancer emphasise direct mutagenic effects of dietary components or hormonal imbalance. Some of these hypotheses are reviewed briefly, but recent evidence suggests a major role for chronic inflammation in cancer risk, possibly involving dietary content. These ideas include the inflammation-induced activation of the kynurenine pathway and its role in feeding and metabolism by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and by modulating synaptic transmission in the brain...
April 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484131/dual-targeting-of-mitochondrial-function-and-mtor-pathway-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#7
Maria Tsoli, Jie Liu, Laura Franshaw, Han Shen, Cecilia Cheng, MoonSun Jung, Swapna Joshi, Anahid Ehteda, Aaminah Khan, Angel Montero-Carcabosso, Pierre J Dilda, Philip Hogg, David S Ziegler
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG) are the most devastating of all pediatric brain tumors. They mostly affect young children and, as there are no effective treatments, almost all patients with DIPG will die of their tumor within 12 months of diagnosis. A key feature of this devastating tumor is its intrinsic resistance to all clinically available therapies. It has been shown that glioma development is associated with metabolic reprogramming, redox state disruption and resistance to apoptotic pathways...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471389/the-effect-of-paternal-factors-on-perinatal-and-paediatric-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Nan B Oldereid, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Anja Pinborg, Anne Loft, Hannele Laivuori, Max Petzold, Liv Bente Romundstad, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Christina Bergh
BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307027/does-restricted-diffusion-in-the-splenium-indicate-an-acute-infarct
#9
Zeynep Ezgi Balcik, Songül Senadim, Aslı Keskek, Ayşe Ozudogru, Ayhan Koksal, Aysun Soysal, Dilek Atakli
OBJECTIVE: Although splenial lesions are rare, they are frequently associated with ischemic infarcts, antiepileptic drug toxicity or abrupt discontinuation, viral encephalitis, and metabolic disturbances. In this study, we evaluated clinical and imaging findings and aetiology in 16 patients with splenium lesions. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2017, patients with splenium lesions were examined. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 1.5-T unit with fluid attenuation inversion recovery sequences...
January 6, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209515/ketogenic-diets-as-an-adjuvant-therapy-in-glioblastoma-the-keating-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-pilot-study
#10
Kirsty J Martin-McGill, Anthony G Marson, Catrin Tudur Smith, Michael D Jenkinson
Background: Glioblastoma is the commonest form of malignant brain tumour in adults, affecting 2-3 people per 100,000 per year. Despite current treatment options including surgical resection, radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy, overall survival at 2 years is approximately 27%, with a median survival of 12-14 months. The ketogenic diet (KD) is postulated to work by simulating the metabolic response to fasting by promoting the utilisation of ketones as a primary energy source, and depriving the glycolytic pathways utilised by malignant glioma cells for growth...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173147/recent-developments-of-18f-fet-pet-in-neuro-oncology
#11
Barbara Muoio, Luca Giovanella, Giorgio Treglia
From the past decade to date several studies about O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET) in brain tumours have been published in the literature. Objective The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the recent developments and the current role of 18F-FET PET in brain tumours according to recent literature data. Methods Main findings from selected recently published and relevant articles on the role of 18F-FET PET in neuro-oncology were described. Results 18F-FET PET may be useful in the differential diagnosis between brain tumours and non-neoplastic lesions and between low-grade and high-grade gliomas...
November 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152836/modulation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-immune-suppression-are-features-of-in-vitro-tumour-sphere-formation-in-ontogenetically-distinct-dog-cancers
#12
J-H Kim, A M Frantz, A L Sarver, B H Gorden Klukas, M Lewellen, T D O'Brien, E B Dickerson, J F Modiano
Non-adherent, 3-dimensional sphere formation is used as an in vitro surrogate to evaluate cellular potential for tumour initiation and self-renewal. To determine if a shared molecular program underlies the capacity for sphere formation by cells originating from diverse tumour types, we characterized molecular and functional properties of 10 independent cell lines derived from 3 ontogenetically distinct dog cancers: hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma and glial brain tumours. Genome-wide gene expression profiling identified tumour-of-origin-dependent patterns of adjustment to sphere formation in a uniform culture condition...
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151054/effect-of-ephedrine-and-phenylephrine-on-brain-oxygenation-and-microcirculation-in-anaesthetised-patients-with-cerebral-tumours-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Klaus Ulrik Koch, Anna Tietze, Joel Aanerud, Gorm von Öettingen, Niels Juul, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Lone Nikolajsen, Leif Østergaard, Mads Rasmussen
INTRODUCTION: During brain tumour surgery, vasopressor drugs are commonly administered to increase mean arterial blood pressure with the aim of maintaining sufficient cerebral perfusion pressure. Studies of the commonly used vasopressors show that brain oxygen saturation is reduced after phenylephrine administration, but unaltered by ephedrine administration. These findings may be explained by different effects of phenylephrine and ephedrine on the cerebral microcirculation, in particular the capillary transit-time heterogeneity, which determines oxygen extraction efficacy...
November 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069098/exploration-of-human-brain-tumour-metabolism-using-pairwise-metabolite-metabolite-correlation-analysis-mmca-of-hr-mas-1h-nmr-spectra
#14
Basetti Madhu, Alexandra Jauhiainen, Sean McGuire, John R Griffiths
METHODS: We quantified 378 HRMAS 1H NMR spectra of human brain tumours (132 glioblastomas, 101 astrocytomas, 75 meningiomas, 37 oligodendrogliomas and 33 metastases) from the eTumour database and looked for metabolic interactions by metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis (MMCA). RESULTS: All tumour types showed remarkably similar metabolic correlations. Lactate correlated positively with alanine, glutamate with glutamine; creatine + phosphocreatine (tCr) correlated positively with lactate, alanine and choline + phosphocholine + glycerophosphocholine (tCho), and tCho correlated positively with lactate; fatty acids correlated negatively with lactate, glutamate + glutamine (tGlut), tCr and tCho...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045397/glucose-feeds-the-tca-cycle-via-circulating-lactate
#15
Sheng Hui, Jonathan M Ghergurovich, Raphael J Morscher, Cholsoon Jang, Xin Teng, Wenyun Lu, Lourdes A Esparza, Tannishtha Reya, Le Zhan, Jessie Yanxiang Guo, Eileen White, Joshua D Rabinowitz
Mammalian tissues are fuelled by circulating nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and various intermediary metabolites. Under aerobic conditions, glucose is generally assumed to be burned fully by tissues via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) to carbon dioxide. Alternatively, glucose can be catabolized anaerobically via glycolysis to lactate, which is itself also a potential nutrient for tissues and tumours. The quantitative relevance of circulating lactate or other metabolic intermediates as fuels remains unclear...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969007/arginine-auxotrophic-gene-signature-in-paediatric-sarcomas-and-brain-tumours-provides-a-viable-target-for-arginine-depletion-therapies
#16
Ashley Vardon, Madhumita Dandapani, Daryl Cheng, Paul Cheng, Carmela De Santo, Francis Mussai
Paediatric sarcomas and brain tumours, remain cancers of significant unmet need, with a poor prognosis for patients with high risk disease or those who relapse, and significant morbidities from treatment for those that survive using standard treatment approaches. Novel treatment strategies, based on the underlying tumour biology, are needed to improve outcomes. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that is imported from the extracellular microenvironment or recycled from intracellular precursors through the combined expression of the enzymes ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) enzymes...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886331/towards-carborane-functionalised-structures-for-the-treatment-of-brain-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Gianpiero Calabrese, Anis Daou, Eugen Barbu, John Tsibouklis
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a promising targeted chemoradiotherapeutic technique for the management of invasive brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A prerequisite for effective BNCT is the selective targeting of tumour cells with 10 B-rich therapeutic moieties. To this end, polyhedral boranes, especially carboranes, have received considerable attention because they combine a high boron content with relative low toxicity and metabolic inertness. Here, we review progress in the molecular design of recently investigated carborane derivatives in light of the widely accepted performance requirements for effective BNCT...
January 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882061/feasibility-of-a-home-based-exercise-intervention-with-remote-guidance-for-patients-with-stable-grade-ii-and-iii-gliomas-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Karin Gehring, Corelien Jj Kloek, Neil K Aaronson, Kasper W Janssen, Lee W Jones, Margriet M Sitskoorn, Martijn M Stuiver
OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study, we investigated the feasibility of a home-based, remotely guided exercise intervention for patients with gliomas. DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with randomization (2:1) to exercise or control group. SUBJECTS: Patients with stable grade II and III gliomas. INTERVENTION: The six-month intervention included three home-based exercise sessions per week at 60%-85% of maximum heart rate...
March 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844055/what-is-mr-spectroscopy
#19
Karen Angela Manias, Andrew Peet
1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a novel advanced imaging technique used as an adjunct to MRI to reveal complementary non-invasive information about the biochemical composition of imaged tissue. Clinical uses in paediatrics include aiding diagnosis of brain tumours, neonatal disorders such as hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, inherited metabolic diseases, traumatic brain injury, demyelinating conditions and infectious brain lesions. MRS has potential to improve diagnosis and treatment monitoring of childhood brain tumours and other CNS diseases, facilitate biopsy and surgical planning, and provide prognostic biomarkers...
August 26, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820142/nanomelatonin-triggers-superior-anticancer-functionality-in-a-human-malignant-glioblastoma-cell-line
#20
Sanjeev Kumar Yadav, Anup Kumar Srivastava, Atul Dev, Babita Kaundal, Subhasree Roy Choudhury, Surajit Karmakar
Melatonin (MEL) has promising medicinal value as an anticancer agent in a variety of malignancies, but there are difficulties in achieving a therapeutic dose due to its short half-life, low bioavailability, poor solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism. In this study chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles were prepared by an ionic gelation method to overcome the therapeutic challenges of melatonin and to improve its anticancer efficacy. Characterization of the melatonin-loaded chitosan (MEL-CS) nanoformulation was performed using transmission and scanning electron microscopies, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction...
August 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
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