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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530904/wiring-variations-that-enable-and-constrain-neural-computation-in-a-sensory-microcircuit
#1
William F Tobin, Rachel I Wilson, Wei-Chung Allen Lee
Neural network function can be shaped by varying the strength of synaptic connections. One way to achieve this is to vary connection structure. To investigate how structural variation among synaptic connections might affect neural computation, we examined primary afferent connections in the Drosophila olfactory system. We used large-scale serial section electron microscopy to reconstruct all the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) axons that target a left-right pair of glomeruli, as well as all the projection neurons (PNs) postsynaptic to these ORNs...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529650/diagnostic-accuracy-of-ga-68-hbed-cc-psma-ligand-pet-ct-before-salvage-lymph-node-dissection-for-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#2
Cordula A Jilg, Vanessa Drendel, H Christian Rischke, Teresa Beck, Werner Vach, Kathrin Schaal, Ulrich Wetterauer, Wolfgang Schultze-Seemann, Philipp T Meyer
Background: By targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) on prostate cancer (PCa) cells PSMA-PET/CT shows great potential in locating the site of biochemical recurrence even at low PSA (Prostate-specific antigen)-levels. Accurate imaging of PCa recurrent lymph node metastases (LNM) is crucial for metastases directed therapies such as salvage-lymph node dissection (salvage-LND). Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PSMA-PET/CT for detection of affected lymph-node regions at salvage-LND for nodal recurrence of PCa...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528215/patients-criteria-determining-difficulty-of-the-laparoscopic-lateral-transperitoneal-adrenalectomy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Michał Natkaniec, Jadwiga Dworak, Michał Pędziwiatr, Magdalena Pisarska, Piotr Major, Marcin Dembiński, Marek Winiarski, Andrzej Budzyński
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients in whom adrenalectomy may be more difficult, can help in decision making in borderline and doubtful cases. The aim of the study was to determine patients criteria influencing difficulty of laparoscopic lateral transperitoneal adrenalectomy (LTA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled 275 patients who underwent LTA. We analyzed the impact of gender, age, history of previous abdominal surgery, body mass index, risk of anesthesia measured as ASA scale, size, localization (left/right), and histological type of the tumor on parameters reflecting the level of difficulty of the procedure: operative time, intraoperative blood loss, conversion rate and intraoperative complications rate...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527749/visual-and-proprioceptive-feedback-differently-modulate-the-spatial-representation-of-number-and-time-in-children
#4
Elena Nava, Luca Rinaldi, Hermann Bulf, Viola Macchi Cassia
There has been compelling evidence favoring the idea that human adults similarly represent number and time along a horizontal mental number line (MNL) and mental time line (MTL), respectively. Yet, analogies drawn between the MNL and MTL have been challenged by recent studies suggesting that adults' representations of number and time arise from different spatial frames of reference; whereas the MNL relies on both hand-centered and object-centered coordinates, the MTL appears to be exclusively anchored on object-centered coordinates...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527714/investigation-of-left-and-right-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-in-c57bl6-j-mice-in-vivo-functional-consequences
#5
Lesley D Schurman, Terry L Smith, Anthony J Morales, Nancy N Lee, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips, Aron H Lichtman
Although rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) reliably produce cognitive and motor disturbances, behavioral characterization resulting from left and right hemisphere injuries remains unexplored. Here we examined the functional consequences of targeting the left versus right parietal cortex in lateral fluid percussion injury, on Morris water maze (MWM) spatial memory tasks (fixed platform and reversal) and neurological motor deficits (neurological severity score and rotarod). In the MWM fixed platform task, right lateral injury produced a small delay in acquisition rate compared to left...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523228/resting-state-and-personality-component-bis-bas-predict-the-brain-activity-eeg-and-fnirs-measure-in-response-to-emotional-cues
#6
Michela Balconi, Maria E Vanutelli, Elisabetta Grippa
INTRODUCTION: The present study explored the role of resting state and personality component (BIS/BAS measure) on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues. Indeed, we supposed that lateralized resting activity (right vs. left) and approach (BAS) versus avoidance (BIS) attitude may explain the successive emotional processing within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) based on the stimulus valence (positive and negative emotional cues). METHODS: Hemodynamic (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, fNIRS) and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures were considered...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515704/two-trackers-are-better-than-one-information-about-the-co-actor-s-actions-and-performance-scores-contribute-to-the-collective-benefit-in-a-joint-visuospatial-task
#7
Basil Wahn, Alan Kingstone, Peter König
When humans collaborate, they often distribute task demands in order to reach a higher performance compared to performing the same task alone (i.e., a collective benefit). Here, we tested to what extent receiving information about the actions of a co-actor, performance scores, or receiving both types of information impacts the collective benefit in a collaborative multiple object tracking task. In a between-subject design, pairs of individuals jointly tracked a subset of target objects among several moving distractor objects on a computer screen for a 100 trials...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514263/ventricular-energetics-in-pediatric-left-ventricular-assist-device-patients-a-retrospective-clinical-study
#8
Arianna Di Molfetta, Gianfranco Ferrari, Roberta Iacobelli, Sergio Filippelli, Luca Di Chiara, Paolo Guccione, Antonio Amodeo
The aim of this study is to estimate the trend of right and left energetic parameters in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pediatric patients. Echocardiographic data were retrospectively collected at the baseline, in the acute phase after and at the monthly follow-ups till the LVAD explantation to estimate left and right ventricular energetic parameters. A significant relationship between the left and right ventricular energetic parameter trends was found along all the study period. Left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship improved till the follow-up of 2 months and then progressively decreases...
May 16, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512057/normative-morphometric-data-for-cerebral-cortical-areas-over-the-lifetime-of-the-adult-human-brain
#9
Olivier Potvin, Louis Dieumegarde, Simon Duchesne
Proper normative data of anatomical measurements of cortical regions, allowing to quantify brain abnormalities, are lacking. We developed norms for regional cortical surface areas, thicknesses, and volumes based on cross-sectional MRI scans from 2713 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94 years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting regional cortical estimates of each hemisphere were produced using age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors...
May 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509584/the-influence-of-the-crutch-setup-on-stability-and-weight-bearing-parameters-in-post-total-hip-replacement-surgery-patients-during-quiet-standing
#10
Francesco Esposito, Marco Freddolini, Leonardo Latella, Palmina Braccio, Massimiliano Marcucci, Andrea Corvi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the crutch setup on standing, in post total hip replacement (THR) surgery patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients after THR were randomly assigned to walking with the elbow flexed (EF) or elbow straight (ES) crutch setup. Subjects were asked to stand on a force platform in a comfortable position with the crutch positioned on the unaffected side, facing forward for 10 seconds. Centre of pressure total path and maximal excursion were evaluated in both medio-lateral and anterior-posterior planes...
May 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506703/abnormal-asymmetry-of-white-matter-tracts-between-ventral-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-middle-temporal-gyrus-in-recent-onset-schizophrenia
#11
Sung Woo Joo, Myong-Wuk Chon, Yogesh Rathi, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki, Jungsun Lee
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported abnormalities in the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in schizophrenia patients. However, it remains unclear whether the white matter tracts connecting these structures are impaired in schizophrenia. Our study investigated the integrity of these white matter tracts (vPCC-MTG tract) and their asymmetry (left versus right side) in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. METHOD: Forty-seven patients and 24 age-and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506615/modelling-asymmetric-somitogenesis-deciphering-the-mechanisms-behind-species-differences
#12
Renske M A Vroomans, Kirsten H W J Ten Tusscher
Somitogenesis is one of the major hallmarks of bilateral symmetry in vertebrates. This symmetry is lost when retinoic acid (RA) signalling is inhibited, allowing the left-right determination pathway to influence somitogenesis. In all three studied vertebrate model species, zebrafish, chicken and mouse, the frequency of somite formation becomes asymmetric, with slower gene expression oscillations driving somitogenesis on the right side. Still, intriguingly, the resulting left-right asymmetric phenotypes differ significantly between these model species...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505813/devil-s-staircase-continuum-in-the-chiral-clock-spin-glass-with-competing-ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic-and-left-right-chiral-interactions
#13
Tolga Çağlar, A Nihat Berker
The chiral clock spin-glass model with q=5 states, with both competing ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic and left-right chiral frustrations, is studied in d=3 spatial dimensions by renormalization-group theory. The global phase diagram is calculated in temperature, antiferromagnetic bond concentration p, random chirality strength, and right-chirality concentration c. The system has a ferromagnetic phase, a multitude of different chiral phases, a chiral spin-glass phase, and a critical (algebraically) ordered phase...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503898/evaluation-of-initial-setup-errors-of-two-immobilization-devices-for-lung-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt
#14
Yoshihiro Ueda, Teruki Teshima, Higinia Cárdenes, Indra J Das
The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and efficacy of two commonly used commercial immobilization systems for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung cancer. This retrospective study assessed the efficacy and setup accuracy of two immobilization systems: the Elekta Body Frame (EBF) and the Civco Body Pro-Lok (CBP) in 80 patients evenly divided for each system. A cone beam CT (CBCT) was used before each treatment fraction for setup correction in both devices. Analyzed shifts were applied for setup correction and CBCT was repeated...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501420/manipulation-of-visual-information-affects-control-strategy-during-a-visuomotor-tracking-task
#15
Paulina J M Bank, Lucas R M Dobbe, Carel G M Meskers, Jurriaan H de Groot, Erwin de Vlugt
Proper understanding of motor control requires insight into the extent and manner in which task performance and control strategy are influenced by various aspects of visual information. We therefore systematically manipulated the visual presentation (i.e., scaling factor and optical flow density) of a visuomotor tracking task without changing the task itself, and investigated the effect on performance, effort, motor control strategy (i.e., anticipatory or corrective steering) and underlying neuromechanical parameters (i...
May 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500790/accuracy-evaluation-of-a-six-degree-of-freedom-couch-using-conebeam-ct-and-isocal-phantom-with-an-in-house-algorithm
#16
Qinghui Zhang, Joseph Driewer, Shuo Wang, Sicong Li, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dandan Zheng, Yijian Cao, Jiaju Zhang, Abolghassem Jamshidi, Brett W Cox, Jonathan P S Knisely, Louis Potters, Eric E Klein
PURPOSE: The accuracy of a Six Degree of Freedom (6DoF) couch was evaluated using a novel method. METHODS: Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of a 3D phantom (IsoCal) were acquired with different, known combinations of couch pitch and roll angles. Pitch and roll angles between the maximum allowable values of 357 and 3 degrees were tested in one degree increments. A total of 49 combinations were tested at zero degrees of yaw (couch rotation angle). The 3D positions of 16 tungsten carbide BBs, each 4 mm in diameter and arranged in a known geometry within the IsoCal phantom, were determined in the 49 image sets with in-house software...
May 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499849/a-geometrically-adjustable-receive-array-for-imaging-marmoset-cohorts
#17
Kyle M Gilbert, Joseph S Gati, L Martyn Klassen, Peter Zeman, David J Schaeffer, Stefan Everling, Ravi S Menon
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is an increasingly popular animal model for translational neuroscience studies, during which anatomical and functional MRI can be useful investigative tools. To attain the requisite SNR for high-resolution acquisitions, the radiofrequency coil must be optimized for the marmoset; however, relatively few custom coils have been developed that maximize SNR and are compatible with accelerated acquisitions. For the study of large populations of animals, the heterogeneity in animal size reduces the effectiveness of a "one size fits all" approach to coil sizing and makes coils tailored to individual animals cost and time prohibitive...
May 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499738/cognitive-effects-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagal-deafferentation-in-rats
#18
Melanie Klarer, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Vagal afferents are a crucial neuronal component of the gut-brain axis and mediate the information flow from the viscera to the central nervous system. Based on the findings provided by experiments involving vagus nerve stimulation, it has been suggested that vagal afferent signaling may influence various cognitive functions such as recognition memory and cognitive flexibility. Here, we examined this hypothesis using a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective abdominal vagal deafferentation method existing to date...
May 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498018/full-robotic-colorectal-resections-for-cancer-combined-with-other-major-surgical-procedures
#19
Luca Morelli, Gregorio Di Franco, Simone Guadagni, Matteo Palmeri, Desirée Gianardi, Matteo Bianchini, Andrea Moglia, Vincenzo Ferrari, Giovanni Caprili, Cristiano D'Isidoro, Franca Melfi, Giulio Di Candio, Franco Mosca
BACKGROUND: The da Vinci Xi has been developed to overcome some of the limitations of the previous platform, thereby increasing the acceptance of its use in robotic multiorgan surgery. METHODS: Between January 2015 and October 2015, 10 patients with synchronous tumors of the colorectum and others abdominal organs underwent robotic combined resections with the da Vinci Xi. Trocar positions respected the Universal Port Placement Guidelines provided by Intuitive Surgical for "left lower quadrant," with trocars centered on the umbilical area, or shifted 2 to 3 cm to the right or to the left, depending on the type of combined surgical procedure...
March 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495871/embryonic-hypoxia-programmes-postprandial-cardiovascular-function-in-adult-common-snapping-turtles-chelydra-serpentina
#20
Oliver H Wearing, Justin Conner, Derek Nelson, Janna Crossley, Dane A Crossley
Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) is a potent stressor during embryonic development, altering the trajectory of trait maturation and organismal phenotype. We previously documented that chronic embryonic hypoxia has a lasting impact on the metabolic response to feeding in juvenile snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Turtles exposed to hypoxia as embryos (10% O2, H10) exhibited an earlier and increased peak postprandial oxygen consumption rate, compared to control turtles (21% O2, N21). In the current study, we measured central blood flow patterns to determine whether the elevated postprandial metabolic response in H10 turtles is linked to lasting impacts on convective transport...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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