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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433482/variations-of-target-volume-definition-and-daily-target-volume-localization-in-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-under-abdominal-compression
#1
Chunhui Han, Sagus Sampath, Timothy E Schultheisss, Jeffrey Y C Wong
We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT...
April 19, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432739/effect-of-a-4-week-elastic-resistance-band-training-regimen-on-back-kinematics-in-horses-trotting-in-hand-and-on-the-lunge
#2
T Pfau, V Simons, N Rombach, N Stubbs, R Weller
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Training and rehabilitation techniques aiming at improving core muscle strength may result in increased dynamic stability of the equine vertebral column. A system of elastic resistance bands is suggested to provide proprioceptive feedback during motion to encourage recruitment of core abdominal and hindquarter musculature for improved dynamic stability. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effects of a specific resistance band system on back kinematics during trot in-hand and during lungeing at beginning and end of a 4-week exercise programme...
April 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426959/ontogenesis-of-lateralization
#3
REVIEW
Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
The brains of humans and other animals are asymmetrically organized, but we still know little about the ontogenetic and neural fundaments of lateralizations. Here, we review the current state of understanding about the role of genetic and non-genetic factors for the development of neural and behavioral asymmetries in vertebrates. At the genetic level, the Nodal signaling cascade is of central importance, but several other genetic pathways have been discovered to also shape the lateralized embryonic brain. Studies in humans identified several relevant genes with mostly small effect sizes but also highlight the extreme importance of non-genetic factors for asymmetry development...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424400/-brodmann-areas-39-and-40-human-parietal-association-area-and-higher-cortical-function
#4
Yasuhisa Sakurai
The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia)...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422571/reliability-of-measuring-lower-limb-muscle-emg-activity-ratio-in-activities-of-daily-living-with-electrodes-embedded-in-the-clothing
#5
Dagny Bengs, Ira Jeglinsky, Jukka Surakka, Thomas Hellsten, Joachim Ring, Jyrki Kettunen
CONTEXT: Using technical clothes with electrodes embedded in the clothing makes it possible to record the electrical activity produced by the activity of the skeletal muscles in activities of daily living. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of measuring lower-limb left-right electromyography (EMG) activity ratio with smart shorts during stair descent, stair ascent, and repeated unloaded squats among healthy working-aged subjects. METHODS: Seventeen females (mean age 25...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420955/hemispheric-differences-in-white-matter-microstructure-between-two-profiles-of-children-with-high-intelligence-quotient-vs-controls-a-tract-based-spatial-statistics-study
#6
Fanny Nusbaum, Salem Hannoun, Gabriel Kocevar, Claudio Stamile, Pierre Fourneret, Olivier Revol, Dominique Sappey-Marinier
Objectives: The main goal of this study was to investigate and compare the neural substrate of two children's profiles of high intelligence quotient (HIQ). Methods: Two groups of HIQ children were included with either a homogeneous (Hom-HIQ: n = 20) or a heterogeneous IQ profile (Het-HIQ: n = 24) as defined by a significant difference between verbal comprehension index and perceptual reasoning index. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess white matter (WM) microstructure while tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis was performed to detect and localize WM regional differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial (AD), and radial diffusivities...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418817/virtual-mapping-of-the-frontal-recess-guiding-safe-and-efficient-frontal-sinus-surgery
#7
Neil S Patel, Amy C Dearking, Erin K O'Brien, John F Pallanch
Objective To define relationships between the frontal sinus opening, ostia of other frontal recess cells, and endoscopic landmarks and to develop a clinically useful framework to guide frontal sinus surgery. Study Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary care academic referral center. Methods Adult patients with computed tomography (CT) without sinonasal pathology were included. Virtual endoscopy (using OsiriX) and corresponding CT reconstructions were used to identify all visible ostia in the frontal recess and characterize their positions in spaces between the uncinate/agger nasi (U), bulla ethmoidalis (EB), and middle turbinate (MT)...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411731/take-over-again-investigating-multimodal-and-directional-tors-to-get-the-driver-back-into-the-loop
#8
Sebastiaan Petermeijer, Pavlo Bazilinskyy, Klaus Bengler, Joost de Winter
When a highly automated car reaches its operational limits, it needs to provide a take-over request (TOR) in order for the driver to resume control. The aim of this simulator-based study was to investigate the effects of TOR modality and left/right directionality on drivers' steering behaviour when facing a head-on collision without having received specific instructions regarding the directional nature of the TORs. Twenty-four participants drove three sessions in a highly automated car, each session with a different TOR modality (auditory, vibrotactile, and auditory-vibrotactile)...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409355/percutaneous-mr-guided-focal-cryoablation-for-recurrent-prostate-cancer-following-radiation-therapy-retrospective-analysis-of-iceball-margins-and-outcomes
#9
Christiaan G Overduin, Sjoerd F M Jenniskens, J P Michiel Sedelaar, Joyce G R Bomers, Jurgen J Fütterer
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate iceball margins after magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focal salvage prostate cryoablation and determine the correlation with local outcome. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 47 patients that underwent percutaneous MR-guided focal cryoablation for biopsy-proven locally recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy. Preprocedural diagnostic and intraprocedural MR images were analysed to derive three-directional iceball margins...
April 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409307/asymmetric-localization-and-distribution-of-factors-determining-cell-fate-during-early-development-of-xenopus-laevis
#10
Radek Sindelka, Monika Sidova, Pavel Abaffy, Mikael Kubista
Asymmetric division is a property of eukaryotic cells that is fundamental to the formation of higher life forms. Despite its importance, the mechanism behind it remains elusive. Asymmetry in the cell is induced by polarization of cell fate determinants that become unevenly distributed among progeny cells. So far dozens of determinants have been identified. Xenopus laevis is an ideal system to study asymmetric cell division during early development, because of the huge size of its oocytes and early-stage blastomeres...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409246/the-impact-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-on-setup-errors-during-external-beam-radiation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#11
Cem Onal, Yemliha Dolek, Yurday Ozdemir
PURPOSE: To determine whether setup errors during external beam radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer are influenced by the combination of androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) and RT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 175 patients treated for prostate cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment was as follows: concurrent ADT plus RT, 33 patients (19%); neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT plus RT, 91 patients (52%); RT only, 51 patients (29%). Required couch shifts without rotations were recorded for each megavoltage (MV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan, and corresponding alignment shifts were recorded as left-right (x), superior-inferior (y), and anterior-posterior (z)...
April 13, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406356/the-association-between-fundamental-athletic-movements-and-physical-fitness-in-elite-junior-australian-footballers
#12
Carl T Woods, Ian McKeown, Justin Keogh, Sam Robertson
This study investigated the associations between fundamental athletic movement and physical fitness in junior Australian football (AF). Forty-four under 18 players performed a fundamental athletic movement assessment consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge, single leg Romanian deadlift and a push up. Movements were scored on three assessment criterions using a three-point scale. Additionally, participants performed five physical fitness tests commonly used for talent identification in AF. A Spearman's nonparametric correlation matrix was built, with correlation coefficients being visualised using a circularly rendered correlogram...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405397/dynamics-of-cilia-length-in-left-right-development
#13
P Pintado, P Sampaio, B Tavares, T D Montenegro-Johnson, D J Smith, S S Lopes
Reduction in the length of motile cilia in the zebrafish left-right organizer (LRO), also known as Kupffer's vesicle, has a large impact on left-right development. Here we demonstrate through genetic overexpression in zebrafish embryos and mathematical modelling that the impact of increased motile cilia length in embryonic LRO fluid flow is milder than that of short cilia. Through Arl13b overexpression, which increases cilia length without impacting cilia beat frequency, we show that the increase in cilium length is associated with a decrease in beat amplitude, resulting in similar flow strengths for Arl13b overexpression and wild-type (WT) embryos, which were not predicted by current theory...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401585/a-proposed-scoring-system-for-assessing-the-severity-of-actinic-keratosis-on-the-head-actinic-keratosis-area-and-severity-index-akasi
#14
T Dirschka, G Pellacani, G Micali, J Malvehy, A J Stratigos, A Casari, L Schmitz, G Gupta
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) severity is currently evaluated by subjective assessment of patients. OBJECTIVE: To develop and perform an initial pilot validation of a new easy-to-use quantitative tool for assessing AK severity on the head. METHODS: The actinic keratosis area and severity index (AKASI) for the head was developed based on a review of other severity scoring systems in dermatology, in particular the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399440/altered-effective-brain-connectivity-at-early-response-of-antipsychotics-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-with-auditory-hallucinations
#15
Leilei Zheng, Weibo Liu, Wei He, Shaohua Yu, Guodong Zhong
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the alterations of cortical connectivity in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) with auditory hallucinations at early response of antipsychotics. METHODS: This was a nonexperimental control of medication study. We measured the cortical activity of 20 medicated patients with FES (medicated group), 19 nonmedicated patients with FES (nonmedicated group), and 22 healthy controls using electroencephalogram during eye-open resting state...
February 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398630/mitigating-differential-baseline-shifts-in-locally-advanced-lung-cancer-patients-using-an-average-anatomy-model
#16
Mehrsima Abdoli, Simon R van Kranen, Uros Stankovic, Maddalena M G Rossi, Jose S A Belderbos, Jan-Jakob Sonke
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differential baseline shifts between primary tumor and involved lymph nodes in locally advanced lung cancer patients compromise the accuracy of radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an average anatomy model (AAM) derived from repeat imaging and deformable registration to reduce these geometrical uncertainties. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An in-house implementation of a B-Spline deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm was first validated using three different validation approaches: 1) a circle method to test the consistency of the DIR, 2) fiducial marker target registration error, and 3) the recovery of a known deformation vector field (DVF)...
April 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398004/lower-face-asymmetry-as-a-marker-for-developmental-instability
#17
Philippe P Hujoel, Erin E Masterson, A-M Bollen
OBJECTIVES: Fluctuating asymmetries in the craniofacial skeleton have been shown to be predictive for mortality from degenerative diseases. We investigate whether lower face asymmetries are a potential marker for the developmental origins of health and disease. METHODS: The lower face of a representative sample of 6654 12- to 17-year old United States (US) adolescents (1966-1970, National Health Examination Survey III) was classified as asymmetric when the mandibular teeth occluded prognathically (forward) or retrognathically (backward) on one side of the face only...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394158/long-term-memory-biases-auditory-spatial-attention
#18
Jacqueline F Zimmermann, Morris Moscovitch, Claude Alain
Long-term memory (LTM) has been shown to bias attention to a previously learned visual target location. Here, we examined whether memory-predicted spatial location can facilitate the detection of a faint pure tone target embedded in real world audio clips (e.g., soundtrack of a restaurant). During an initial familiarization task, participants heard audio clips, some of which included a lateralized target (p = 50%). On each trial participants indicated whether the target was presented from the left, right, or was absent...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387440/mental-rotation-an-examination-of-assumptions
#19
REVIEW
Jordan A Searle, Jeff P Hamm
Since first presented by Shepard and Metzler, Science 1971, 171: 701-703, mental rotation has been described as a rotary transformation of a visual stimulus allowing it to be represented in a new orientation. For a given stimulus, the transformation is thought to occur at a constant speed, though speed may vary between stimuli; three-dimensional abstract shapes made out of blocks tend to be rotated much more slowly than alphanumeric characters or line drawings of common objects. Rotation is also presumed to be performed through the shortest angle...
April 7, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384848/surgical-implications-of-portal-vein-variations-and-liver-segmentations-a-recent-update
#20
REVIEW
Showkathali Iqbal, Raiz Iqbal, Faiz Iqbal
The Couinaud's liver segmentation is based on the identification of portal vein bifurcation and origin of hepatic veins. It is widely used clinically, because it is better suited for surgery and is more accurate in localizing and monitoring various intra parenchymal lesions. According to standard anatomy, the portal vein bifurcates into right and left branches; the left vein drains segment II, III and IV and the right vein divides into two secondary branches - the anterior portal vein drains segments V and VIII, and the posterior drains segments VI and VII...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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