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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813574/dynamic-imaging-of-the-eye-optic-nerve-and-extraocular-muscles-with-golden-angle-radial-mri
#1
Saikat Sengupta, David S Smith, Alex K Smith, E Brian Welch, Seth A Smith
Purpose: The eye and its accessory structures, the optic nerve and the extraocular muscles, form a complex dynamic system. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of this system in motion can have substantial benefits in understanding oculomotor functioning in health and disease, but has been restricted to date to imaging of static gazes only. The purpose of this work was to develop a technique to image the eye and its accessory visual structures in motion. Methods: Dynamic imaging of the eye was developed on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner, based on a golden angle radial sequence that allows freely selectable frame-rate and temporal-span image reconstructions from the same acquired data set...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812421/right-hemispatial-ipsilesional-neglect-with-chronic-right-hemisphere-strokes
#2
John B Williamson, Damon G Lamb, D Brandon Burtis, Salsabil Haque, Eduardo M Zilli, Tigran Kesayan, Michal Harciarek, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND: Patients who present with spatial neglect after stroke often perform normally on tests for neglect after a few weeks. Whereas tests for neglect are often performed directly in front of a patient, in their actual environments many important stimuli may be present within their left or right hemispace. The presence and severity of neglect often depends on the hemisphere injured. It is possible, in chronic stroke, for spatial judgments to be influenced by an interaction of stroke laterality and the spatial location of stimuli...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809031/an-early-chick-embryo-culture-device-for-extended-continuous-observation
#3
Hans-Georg Sydow, Tobias Pieper, Christoph Viebahn, Nikoloz Tsikolia
Appropriate mechanical tension of the vitelline membrane as the culture substrate for the early chick embryo is frequently reported to be required for successful in vitro development. Here we describe a modified device, made of anodized aluminum, for in vitro culture which we used for studies of left-right symmetry breaking with emphasis on morphology and gene expression as readouts. The technique allows for easy, high-throughput tissue handling and provides a suitable tension in a stable and easily reproducible manner proven to be suitable for correct molecular left-right patterning and heart looping after long-term culture...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807463/clinical-analysis-of-matrixmandible-preformed-reconstruction-plate-design
#4
Fabian Duttenhoefer, Florian Andreas Probst, Kirstin Vach, Carl-Peter Cornelius, Martin Zens, Rainer Schmelzeisen, Marc Christian Metzger
MatrixMANDIBLE Preformed Reconstruction Plates (MMPRPs) were developed to overcome laborious bending procedures of conventional reconstruction plates. The design comprises three sizes with a nonbendable centerpiece and two bendable sections (proximal and distal). According to the surgical protocol unnecessary parts are trimmed after the last used screw hole. In the present retrospective study postoperative radiographs from 130 patients (average age 63 years) that received treatment with MMPRPs were assessed...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807147/trpp2-ion-channels-critical-regulators-of-organ-morphogenesis-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Tilman Busch, Michael Köttgen, Alexis Hofherr
Ion channels control the membrane potential and mediate transport of ions across membranes. Archetypical physiological functions of ion channels include processes such as regulation of neuronal excitability, muscle contraction, or transepithelial ion transport. In that regard, transient receptor potential ion channel polycystin 2 (TRPP2) is remarkable, because it controls complex morphogenetic processes such as the establishment of properly shaped epithelial tubules and left-right-asymmetry of organs. The fascinating question of how an ion channel regulates morphogenesis has since captivated the attention of scientists in different disciplines...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799042/spatial-numerical-associations-in-first-graders-evidence-from-a-manual-pointing-task
#6
Wenke Möhring, Masami Ishihara, Jacqueline Curiger, Andrea Frick
The current study investigated whether children's mental representations of numbers are organized spatially at the onset of formal schooling using a manual-pointing task. First-graders (N = 77) saw four numbers (1, 3, 7, 9) presented randomly in four spatial positions (extreme left, left, right, extreme right) on a touch screen. In a Go/No-Go task, children were asked to press the appearing numbers as fast and accurately as possible, but only when the numbers were "smaller" (or "larger" in a different block) than 5...
August 10, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795837/spatial-perspective-taking-mediated-by-whole-body-motor-simulation
#7
Hiroyuki Muto, Soyogu Matsushita, Kazunori Morikawa
Humans can envision the world from other people's viewpoints. To explore the embodied process of such spatial perspective taking, we examined whether action related to a whole-body movement modulates performance on spatial perspective-taking tasks. Results showed that when participants responded by putting their left/right foot or left/right hand forward, actions congruent with a movement's direction (clockwise/counterclockwise) reduced RTs relative to incongruent actions. In contrast, actions irrelevant to a movement (a left/right hand index-finger response) did not affect performance...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795482/coronary-dominance-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-chronic-total-occlusion-treated-with-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#8
Cathérine Gebhard, Michael Gick, Miroslaw Ferenc, Barbara E Stähli, Fadil Ademaj, Kambis Mashayekhi, Heinz Joachim Buettner, Franz-Josef Neumann, Aurel Toma
AIM: The prognostic value of coronary artery dominance pattern in patients with chronic total occlusions (CTO) is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of coronary vessel dominance on short and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTO. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our study population consisted of 2002 consecutive patients (17% females, mean age 65.2 ± 10.7 years) who underwent PCI of at least one coronary CTO lesion at our center between 01/2005 and 12/2013...
August 10, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794494/evidence-of-energetic-optimization-during-adaptation-differs-for-metabolic-mechanical-and-perceptual-estimates-of-energetic-cost
#9
Natalia Sánchez, Sungwoo Park, James M Finley
The theory that the sensorimotor system minimizes energetic cost during locomotion has long been supported by both computational models and empirical studies. However, it has yet to be determined if the behavior to which people converge when exposed to a novel perturbation during locomotion is also energetically optimal. We address this issue in the context of adaptation to walking on a split-belt treadmill, which can impose a left-right asymmetry in step lengths. In response to this asymmetry, participants gradually adjust their foot placement to adopt steps of equal length...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793965/clinical-accuracy-of-waferless-maxillary-positioning-using-customized-surgical-guides-and-patient-specific-osteosynthesis-in-bimaxillary-orthognathic-surgery
#10
Marcus Heufelder, Frank Wilde, Sebastian Pietzka, Frank Mascha, Karsten Winter, Alexander Schramm, Majeed Rana
Computer-assisted planning and surgery for the treatment of orthognathic deformities have been extensively documented over the last decade. Computerized and customized wafers have lacked to improve the accuracy of maxillary positioning, resulting in a drawback of computer-assisted orthognathic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a new technique of waferless maxillary positioning using customized surgical guides and patient specific osteosynthesis implants in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791777/mutations-in-the-katnb1-gene-cause-left-right-asymmetry-and-heart-defects
#11
M B Furtado, D J Merriner, S Berger, D Rhodes, D Jamsai, M K O'Bryan
BACKGROUND: The microtubule-severing protein complex katanin is composed two subunits, the ATPase subunit, KATNA1, and the non-catalytic regulatory subunit, KATNB1. Recently, the Katnb1 gene has been linked to infertility, regulation of centriole and cilia formation in fish and mammals, as well as neocortical brain development. KATNB1 protein is expressed in germ cells in humans and mouse, mitotic/meiotic spindles and cilia, although the full expression pattern of the Katnb1 gene has not been described...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791264/prediction-of-pregnancy-complication-occurrence-using-fetal-cardiac-output-assessments-made-by-ultrasonography-at-20-to-24-weeks-of-gestation
#12
Ji Yeon Lee, Young Li Kim, Ji Eun Jeong, Jun Woo Ahn
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of assessment of fetal cardiac output (CO) for the prediction of complications of pregnancy. METHODS: We evaluated 65 fetuses and all of them had a fetal cardiac scan at 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy. To measure CO, diameters (d) of the left right ventricle outflow tract were measured just above the valves. Each left CO (LCO) and right CO (RCO) was derived using the following equation: CO = velocity time integral × π × d(2)/4 × heart rate...
July 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790375/asymmetry-of-eye-color-in-the-common-cuckoo
#13
Ha-Na Yoo, Jin-Won Lee, Jeong-Chil Yoo
Bilateral symmetry is assumed to contribute to the evolution of eye color, with the left and right eye being the same color in most vertebrates; yet, few studies tested this assumption. Here, we compared the amount of iris flecking (black spots presented on the iris) between the left and right eye of 76 adult common cuckoos Cuculus canorus. We found considerable variation in the total amount of iris flecking among individuals, with variation being associated with body size and sex. We also found that the amount of iris flecking differed between the left and right eye and that this left-right asymmetry was not random, with the left eye almost always being darker than the right eye...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783560/a-study-of-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-in-aortic-heart-valves-using-a-novel-biaxial-stretch-bioreactor
#14
Ying Lei, Shirin Masjedi, Zannatul Ferdous
In aortic valves, biaxial cyclic stretch is known to modulate cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and organization. We designed a novel bioreactor that can apply independent and precise stretch along radial and circumferential directions in a tissue culture environment. While this bioreactor can be used for either native or engineered tissues, this study determined matrix remodeling and strain distribution of aortic cusps after culturing under biaxial stretch for 14 days. The contents of collagen and glycosaminoglycans were determined using standard biochemical assays and compared with fresh controls...
July 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771527/claudin5a-is-required-for-proper-inflation-of-kupffer-s-vesicle-lumen-and-organ-laterality
#15
Jeong-Gyun Kim, Sung-Jin Bae, Hye Shin Lee, Ji-Hyeon Park, Kyu-Won Kim
Left-right asymmetric organ development is critical to establish a proper body plan of vertebrates. In zebrafish, the Kupffer's vesicle (KV) is a fluid-filled sac which controls asymmetric organ development, and a properly inflated KV lumen by means of fluid influx is a prerequisite for the asymmetric signal transmission. However, little is known about the components that support the paracellular tightness between the KV luminal epithelial cells to sustain hydrostatic pressure during KV lumen expansion. Here, we identified that the claudin5a (cldn5a) is highly expressed at the apical surface of KV epithelial cells and tightly seals the KV lumen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770040/establishment-of-lateral-organ-asymmetries-in-the-invertebrate-chordate-ciona-intestinalis
#16
Karl Palmquist, Brad Davidson
BACKGROUND: The evolutionary emergence and diversification of the chordates appear to involve dramatic changes in organ morphogenesis along the left/right axis. However, the ancestral chordate mechanism for establishing lateral asymmetry remains ambiguous. Additionally, links between the initial establishment of lateral asymmetry and subsequent asymmetries in organ morphogenesis are poorly characterized. RESULTS: To explore asymmetric organ morphogenesis during chordate evolution, we have begun to characterize left/right patterning of the heart and endodermal organs in an invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769741/detection-and-growth-pattern-of-arcuate-fasciculus-from-newborn-to-adult
#17
Molly Wilkinson, Ashley R Lim, Andrew H Cohen, Albert M Galaburda, Emi Takahashi
Fractional anisotropy (FA) threshold is commonly used to perform diffusion MRI tractography. However, FA threshold may be one aspect of tractography that needs additional scrutiny in accurately assessing pathways in immature, developing brains, as well as in adult brains. Using high-angular resolution diffusion MRI (HARDI) tractography without an FA threshold, we identified the arcuate fasciculus (AF) of 83 healthy subjects ranging in age from 40 gestational weeks (GW) (newborns) to 28-year-old adults. The AF was identified in both hemispheres in all subjects with high inter-rater reliability...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768747/how-innate-is-locomotion-in-precocial-animals-a-study-on-the-early-development-of-spatio-temporal-gait-variables-and-gait-symmetry-in-piglets
#18
Charlotte Vanden Hole, Jana Goyens, Sara Prims, Erik Fransen, Miriam Ayuso Hernando, Steven Van Cruchten, Peter Aerts, Chris Van Ginneken
Locomotion is one of the most important ecological functions in animals. Precocial animals, such as pigs, are capable of independent locomotion shortly after birth. This raises the question whether coordinated movement patterns and the underlying muscular control in these animals is fully innate or whether there still exists a rapid maturation. We addressed this question by studying gait development in neonatal pigs through the analysis of spatio-temporal gait characteristics during locomotion at self-selected speed...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763879/-study-of-fraction-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-on-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-adultperipheral-facial-paralysis
#19
Y J Zhu, G L Ma, T B Song, L Du, R C Guo, S L Sun, H Li, L G Sun
Objective: To analysis the change of brain functional activity in the left and right peripheral facial paralysis by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) of fraction amplitude of low frequency fluctuation(fALFF) measurement technique, and research the abnormal brain region with different side patients whether there are differences. Methods: A total of 43 patients with peripheral facial paralysis patients (patient groups, divided into left / right two subgroups) and 21 healthy volunteers (control group) in this study...
July 18, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761530/contribution-of-the-xenograft-bone-plate-screw-system-in-lumbar-transpedicular-stabilization-an-in-vivo-study-in-dogs
#20
Sani Sarigul, Hakan Salci, Huseyin Lekesiz, Seref Dogan, Resat Ozcan, Osman Sacit Gorgul, Kaya Aksoy
OBJECTIVES: Xenograft bone plate-screws (XBPSs) can be alternative tools in lumbar transpedicular stabilization (TS). The aim of this study was to show biomechanical and histopathological contribution of the XBPSs system in lumbar TS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen (n = 15) hybrid dog and ten (n = 10) L2-4 cadaveric specimens were included in the study. The dogs were separated according to surgical techniques: L3 laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy (LBF) in Group I (experimental group [EG I] (n = 5), L3 LBF plus TS with metal plate-screws (MPSs) in Group II (EG II) (n = 5), and L3 LBF plus TS with XBPSs in Group III (EG III) (n = 5)...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
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