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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914912/identification-of-foxj1-effectors-during-ciliogenesis-in-the-foetal-respiratory-epithelium-and-embryonic-left-right-organiser-of-the-mouse
#1
Michael Stauber, Marina Weidemann, Oliver Dittrich-Breiholz, Katharina Lobschat, Leonie Alten, Michaela Mai, Anja Beckers, Michael Kracht, Achim Gossler
Formation of motile cilia in vertebrate embryos is essential for proper development and tissue function. Key regulators of motile ciliogenesis are the transcription factors FOXJ1 and NOTO, which are conserved throughout vertebrates. Downstream target genes of FOXJ1 have been identified in a variety of species, organs and cultured cell lines; in murine embryonic and foetal tissues, however, FOXJ1 and NOTO effectors have not been comprehensively analysed and our knowledge of the downstream genetic programme driving motile ciliogenesis in the mammalian lung and ventral node is fragmentary...
November 30, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910866/biomechanical-analysis-of-normal-brain-development-during-the-first-year-of-life-using-finite-strain-theory
#2
Jeong Chul Kim, Li Wang, Dinggang Shen, Weili Lin
The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910705/left-right-differences-in-ovarian-volume-and-antral-follicle-count-in-1423-women-of-reproductive-age
#3
Anne-Sofie Korsholm, Helene Westring Hvidman, Janne Gasseholm Bentzen, Anders Nyboe Andersen, Kathrine Birch Petersen
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate side differences in antral follicle count (AFC) and ovarian volume in left versus right ovaries in relation to chronological and "biological" age, the latter estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. The cohort comprised 1423 women: 1014 fertile and 409 infertile. All were examined by transvaginal sonography and serum AMH. Overall the right ovary contained 8.1% more antral follicles (p = 0.002) and had 10.7% larger volume compared with the left (p < 0...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909738/prostate-bed-target-interfractional-motion-using-rtog-consensus-definitions-and-daily-ct-on-rails-does-target-motion-differ-between-superior-and-inferior-portions-of-the-clinical-target-volume
#4
Vivek Verma, Shifeng Chen, Sumin Zhou, Charles A Enke, Andrew O Wahl
PURPOSE: Using high-quality CT-on-rails imaging, the daily motion of the prostate bed clinical target volume (PB-CTV) based on consensus Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) definitions (instead of surgical clips/fiducials) was studied. It was assessed whether PB motion in the superior portion of PB-CTV (SUP-CTV) differed from the inferior PB-CTV (INF-CTV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight pT2-3bN0-1M0 patients underwent postprostatectomy intensity-modulated radiotherapy, totaling 300 fractions...
December 1, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908156/development-of-a-four-axis-moving-phantom-for-patient-specific-qa-of-surrogate-signal-based-tracking-imrt
#5
Nobutaka Mukumoto, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Masahiro Yamada, Kunio Takahashi, Mami Akimoto, Yuki Miyabe, Kenji Yokota, Shuji Kaneko, Akira Nakamura, Satoshi Itasaka, Yukinori Matsuo, Takashi Mizowaki, Masaki Kokubo, Masahiro Hiraoka
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were two-fold: first, to develop a four-axis moving phantom for patient-specific quality assurance (QA) in surrogate signal-based dynamic tumor-tracking intensity-modulated radiotherapy (DTT-IMRT), and second, to evaluate the accuracy of the moving phantom and perform patient-specific dosimetric QA of the surrogate signal-based DTT-IMRT. METHODS: The four-axis moving phantom comprised three orthogonal linear actuators for target motion and a fourth one for surrogate motion...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895491/comparison-of-internal-target-volumes-defined-on-3-dimensional-4-dimensonal-and-cone-beam-ct-images-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Fengxiang Li, Jianbin Li, Zhifang Ma, Yingjie Zhang, Jun Xing, Huanpeng Qi, Dongping Shang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the positional and volumetric differences of internal target volumes defined on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), four-dimensional CT (4DCT), and cone-beam CT (CBCT) images of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with NSCLC sequentially underwent 3DCT and 4DCT simulation scans of the thorax during free breathing. The first CBCT was performed and registered to the planning CT using the bony anatomy registration during radiotherapy...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894900/neuroimaging-somatosensory-perception-and-masking
#7
Kimford J Meador, Kathleen Pirog Revill, Charles M Epstein, K Sathian, David W Loring, Chris Rorden
The specific cortical and subcortical regions involved in conscious perception and masking are uncertain. This study sought to identify brain areas involved in conscious perception of somatosensory stimuli during a masking task using functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to contrast perceived vs. non-perceived targets. Electrical trains were delivered to the right index finger for targets and to the left index finger for masks. Target intensities were adjusted to compensate for threshold drift. Sham target trials were given in ~10% of the trials, and target stimuli without masks were delivered in one of the five runs (68 trials/run)...
November 26, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891687/effect-of-preceding-stimulation-on-sound-localization-and-its-representation-in-the-auditory-midbrain
#8
Sandra Tolnai, Rainer Beutelmann, Georg M Klump
Prior stimulation can influence the perception of sound source location. Some psychophysical sound localization procedures differ in the amount of prior stimulation, which may affect measures of localization accuracy. If and how particularly the number of preceding stimuli affects sound localization and the neural representation of sound source position has not been investigated so far and will be the focus of the present report. We trained Mongolian gerbils in a left/right discrimination task where the target stimulus was preceded by silence or followed a number of reference stimuli...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887983/method-of-evaluating-respiratory-induced-organ-motion-by-vector-volume-histogram
#9
Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Hideo Kawabata, Yoshiko Doi, Masahiro Kenjou, Kengo Furukawa, Minoru Nakao, Yasushi Nagata
PURPOSE: Published organ motion data have been collected from measurements of a limited number of points within the organ, the centroid, or the edge of the organ. These are derived from the spatial characteristics of respiratory induced motion; however, this approach does not consider non-rigid organ deformation. We propose a novel quantitative method for evaluating respiratory induced organ motion using Deformable Image Registration (DIR). METHOD: Two phases from a 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) dataset at maximum inspiration and expiration were each taken from five patients...
November 22, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883333/design-of-a-simple-coronary-impedance-simulator-for-the-in-vitro-study-of-the-complex-coronary-hemodynamics
#10
Marco Piola, Riccardo Vismara, Giordano Tasca, Federico Lucherini, Paola Redaelli, Monica Soncini, Claudia Romagnoni, Andrea Mangini, Carlo Antona, Gianfranco Beniamino Fiore
Several novel approaches were recently developed to treat aortic root pathologies. The alteration induced by some of these approaches to the biomechanics of the aortic root could possibly affect the coronary perfusion, compromising the procedural outcome. In this scenario, the need to replicate in vitro the coronary flow pattern in physiological and pathological conditions is becoming crucial for the functional assessment of novel devices and techniques. This article describes the design of an easy-to-use, left-and-right coronary impedance simulator, coupled with native aortic roots for in vitro pulsatile tests...
November 24, 2016: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883058/role-of-ectonucleotide-pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase-2-in-the-midline-axis-formation-of-zebrafish
#11
Frisca Frisca, Daniel Colquhoun, Yona Goldshmit, Minna-Liisa Änkö, Alice Pébay, Jan Kaslin
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a unique bioactive lysophospholipid that induces pleiotropic effects in various cell types and organisms by acting on its specific receptors. LPA is mainly synthetised extracellularly by the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2/autotaxin (enpp2). Altered LPA signalling is associated with embryonic abnormalities, suggesting critical roles for LPA during development. However, the role of LPA signalling during early embryogenesis is not well established. We demonstrate that enpp2/LPA signalling in the early zebrafish embryo results in altered axis and midline formation, defects in left right (L-R) patterning, ciliogenesis of the Kupffer's vesicle (KV), through the modulation of cell migration during gastrulation in a lpar1-3 Rho/ROCK-dependant manner...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865478/the-limits-of-stability-and-muscle-activity-in-middle-aged-adults-during-static-and-dynamic-stance
#12
P X Ku, N A Abu Osman, W A B Wan Abas
Balance control plays an important role in maintaining daily activity. However, studies on postural control among middle-aged adults are scarce. This study aims (i) to examine directional control (DCL) and electromyography activity (EMG) for different stability levels, and (ii) to determine left-right asymmetry for DCL and muscle activity among sedentary middle-aged adults. Twenty healthy, middle-aged adults (10 males, 10 females; age=50.0±7.5yrs; body height: 1.61±0.10m; body mass: 70.0±14.5kg) participated in the study...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864379/foxn4-promotes-gene-expression-required-for-multiple-motile-cilia-formation
#13
Evan P Campell, Ian K Quigley, Chris Kintner
Multiciliated cell (MCC) differentiation involves extensive organelle biogenesis required to extend hundreds of motile cilia. Key transcriptional regulators have been identified that drive gene expression required for organelle biogenesis during MCC differentiation, which are activated by, and act downstream, of two related, small coiled-coil proteins, Multicilin and Gemc1. Here we identify foxn4 as a new downstream target of Multicilin required for MCC differentiation in the Xenopus skin. When Foxn4 activity is inhibited in Xenopus embryos, MCCs show transient ciliogenesis defects similar to those observed in mutants in Foxj1, a known key regulator of genes required for motile ciliation...
November 18, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864066/stimulus-control-in-two-rodent-models-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Adam E Fox, Sierra R Caramia, Molly M Haskell, Aerial L Ramey, Depika Singha
The spontaneously hypertensive (SHR/NCrl) rat from Charles River is one of the most widely used models of the combined subtype of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Although often used as its control strain, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) from Charles River has been proposed as a model of the predominately inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADHD-PI). In Experiment 1 SHR/NCrl, WKY/NCrl, and Wistar (WI; the progenitor strain for the two models) rats were trained on a left→right lever-press sequence in the presence of light discriminative stimuli that signaled the active lever in the sequence...
November 15, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861399/factors-affecting-pelvic-rotation-in-idiopathic-scoliosis-analysis-of-85-cases-in-a-single-center
#15
Yunfei Zhao, Lin Qi, Jun Yang, Xiaodong Zhu, Changwei Yang, Ming Li
Pelvic rotation (PR) is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), but factors contributing to this phenomenon and its relationship with the surgical outcome are not well established.This retrospective study included 85 IS patients in 2 groups: thoracic curve dominance group (group A) and lumbar curve dominance group (group B). Pre- and postoperative PR was measured on standing posteroanterior radiographs by the left/right ratio (L/R ratio) of horizontal distance between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the inferior ilium (SI) at the sacroiliac joint on the same side in both groups...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859508/embodied-simulations-are-modulated-by-sentential-perspective
#16
Wessel O van Dam, Rutvik H Desai
There is considerable evidence that language comprehenders derive lexical-semantic meaning by mentally simulating perceptual and motor attributes of described events. However, the nature of these simulations-including the level of detail that is incorporated and contexts under which simulations occur-is not well understood. Here, we examine the effects of first- versus third-person perspective on mental simulations during sentence comprehension. First-person sentences describing physical transfer towards or away from the body (e...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855987/simulations-of-morphotype-dependent-hemodynamics-in-non-dilated-bicuspid-aortic-valve-aortas
#17
Kai Cao, Samantha K Atkins, Andrew McNally, Janet Liu, Philippe Sucosky
Bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) generate flow abnormalities that may promote aortopathy. While positive helix fraction (PHF) index, flow angle (θ), flow displacement (d) and wall shear stress (WSS) exhibit abnormalities in dilated BAV aortas, it is unclear whether those anomalies stem from the abnormal valve anatomy or the dilated aorta. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the early impact of different BAV morphotypes on aorta hemodynamics prior to dilation. Fluid-structure interaction models were designed to quantify standard peak-systolic flow metrics and temporal WSS characteristics in a realistic non-dilated aorta connected to functional tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and type-I BAVs...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853591/a-newly-identified-left-right-asymmetry-in-larval-sea-urchins
#18
Jason Hodin, Keegan Lutek, Andreas Heyland
Directional asymmetry (DA) in body form is a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants alike, and a functional understanding of such asymmetries can offer insights into the ways in which ecology and development interface to drive evolution. Echinoids (sea urchins, sand dollars and their kin) with planktotrophic development have a bilaterally symmetrical feeding pluteus larva that undergoes a dramatic metamorphosis into a pentameral juvenile that enters the benthos at settlement. The earliest stage of this transformation involves a DA: a left-side invagination in mid-stage larvae leads to the formation of the oral field of the juvenile via a directionally asymmetric structure called the echinus rudiment...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852730/neural-coupling-between-homologous-muscles-during-bimanual-tasks-effects-of-visual-and-somatosensory-feedback
#19
Hoi B Nguyen, Sang Wook Lee, Michelle L Harris-Love, Peter S Lum
While the effects of sensory feedback on bimanual tasks have been extensively studied at two ends of the motor control hierarchy, the cortical and behavioral levels, much less is known about how it affects the intermediate levels, including neural control of homologous muscle groups. We investigated the effects of somatosensory input on the neural coupling between homologous arm muscles during bimanual tasks. Twelve subjects performed symmetric elbow flexion/extension tasks under different types of sensory feedback...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844411/fetal-situs-isomerism-heterotaxy-syndrome-diagnostic-evaluation-and-implication-for-postnatal-management
#20
REVIEW
Karl Degenhardt, Jack Rychik
A hallmark of vertebrate anatomy is asymmetry of structures, especially internal organs, on the left and right side of the body. Heterotaxy syndrome is the combination of correct-sided, and incorrect-sided organs. The establishment of the left-right axis is an early event in vertebrate embryogenesis. Failure to establish this axis has numerous consequences for later development and can result in a wide range of potential defects. Congenital heart disease is among the more frequent and serious problems. Heterotaxy syndrome is diagnosed prenatally with increasing frequency due to improved screening practices...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
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