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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637303/management-of-acute-unilateral-nondisplaced-subaxial-cervical-facet-fractures
#1
Aditya Vedantam, Jared Steven Fridley, Jovany Cruz Navarro, Shankar P Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Few studies have focused on the management of patients with nondisplaced cervical facet fractures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of successful nonoperative management and risk factors for instability in patients with acute traumatic, unilateral, nondisplaced cervical facet fractures. METHODS: We reviewed patients with single or multilevel unilateral nondisplaced or minimally displaced subaxial cervical facet fractures between 2008 and 2014...
June 14, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637293/conserved-non-exonic-elements-a-novel-class-of-marker-for-phylogenomics
#2
Scott V Edwards, Alison Cloutier, Allan J Baker
Noncoding markers have a particular appeal as tools for phylogenomic analysis because, at least in vertebrates, they appear less subject to strong variation in GC content among lineages. Thus far, ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and introns have been the most widely used noncoding markers. Here we analyze and study the evolutionary properties of a new type of noncoding marker, conserved non-exonic elements (CNEEs), which consists of noncoding elements that are estimated to evolve slower than the neutral rate across a set of species...
June 16, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637211/optimization-of-pheromone-traps-for-coryphodema-tristis-lepidoptera-cossidae
#3
Marc Clement Bouwer, Bernard Slippers, Michael John Wingfield, Jeremy Dean Allison, Egmont Richard Rohwer
The Coryphodema tristis (Drury) is an important pest of Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) plantations in South Africa. The gregarious larvae of this pest cause damage by feeding on the tree sapwood, and adults emerge in spring each year. The aim of this study was to optimize pheromone traps for operational use in management programs. This was achieved by investigating different pheromone blend combinations and trap types for efficacy under field conditions. Our results confirm that the cross vane bucket funnel trap baited with a 95:2...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637206/improving-combination-osteoporosis-therapy-in-a-preclinical-model-of-heightened-osteoanabolism
#4
Yu Shao, Selene Hernandez-Buquer, Paul Childress, Keith R Stayrook, Marta B Alvarez, Hannah Davis, Lilian Plotkin, Yongzheng He, Keith W Condon, David B Burr, Stuart J Warden, Alexander G Robling, Feng-Chun Yang, Ronald C Wek, Matthew R Allen, Joseph P Bidwell
Combining anti-catabolic agents with parathyroid hormone (PTH) to enhance bone mass has yielded mixed results in osteoporosis patients. Towards the goal of enhancing the efficacy of these regimens, we tested their utility in combination with loss of the transcription factor Nmp4 since disabling this gene amplifies PTH-induced increases in trabecular bone in mice by boosting osteoblast secretory activity. We addressed whether combining a sustained anabolic response with an anti-catabolic results in superior bone acquisition compared to PTH mono-therapy...
June 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637199/first-ex-vivo-and-preliminary-sheep-model-results-of-the-new-tribio-aortic-valve-bioprosthesis-in-small-aortic-annuli
#5
Sina Stock, Hans-Hinrich Sievers, Doreen Richardt, Michael Scharfschwerdt
OBJECTIVES: : Small aortic annuli are challenging in aortic valve replacement. Prosthesis-patient mismatch, accompanied by high transvalvular gradients and small orifice area, is an often faced problem impairing postoperative outcome. The new TRIBIO bioprosthesis aims to enable enhanced haemodynamics, being increasingly important with decreasing annular size. This study compares ex vivo hydrodynamics of TRIBIO with 2 established bioprostheses in small annuli at different stroke volumes, simulating 'rest' and 'exercise', and evaluates haemodynamics of TRIBIO in a sheep model...
June 20, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637152/how-physical-therapists-instruct-patients-with-stroke-an-observational-study-on-attentional-focus-during-gait-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#6
Elmar Kal, Henrieke van den Brink, Han Houdijk, John van der Kamp, Paulien Helena Goossens, Coen van Bennekom, Erik Scherder
PURPOSE: People without neurological impairments show superior motor learning when they focus on movement effects (external focus) rather than on movement execution itself (internal focus). Despite its potential for neurorehabilitation, it remains unclear to what extent external focus strategies are currently incorporated in rehabilitation post-stroke. Therefore, we observed how physical therapists use attentional focus when treating gait of rehabilitating patients with stroke. METHODS: Twenty physical therapist-patient couples from six rehabilitation centers participated...
February 24, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637095/selective-cd28-blockade-results-in-superior-inhibition-of-donor-specific-t-follicular-helper-cell-and-antibody-responses-relative-to-ctla-4-ig
#7
I R Badell, G M La Muraglia, D Liu, M E Wagener, G Ding, M L Ford
Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) are a barrier to improved long-term outcomes following kidney transplantation. Costimulation blockade with CTLA-4-Ig has shown promise as a potential therapeutic strategy to control DSA. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, a subset of CD4(+) T cells required for optimum antibody production, are reliant on the CD28 costimulatory pathway. We have previously shown that selective CD28 blockade leads to superior allograft survival through improved control of CD8(+) T cells relative to CTLA-4-Ig, but the impact of CD28-specific blockade on CD4(+) Tfh cells is unknown...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636892/topical-bioavailability-of-diclofenac-from-locally-acting-dermatological-formulations
#8
S F Cordery, A Pensado, W S Chiu, M Z Shehab, A L Bunge, M B Delgado-Charro, R H Guy
Assessment of the bioavailability of topically applied drugs designed to act within or beneath the skin is a challenging objective. A number of different, but potentially complementary, techniques are under evaluation. The objective of this work was to evaluate in vitro skin penetration and stratum corneum tape-stripping in vivo as tools with which to measure topical diclofenac bioavailability from three approved and commercialized products (two gels and one solution). Drug uptake into, and its subsequent clearance from, the stratum corneum of human volunteers was used to estimate the input rate of diclofenac into the viable skin layers...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636891/comparison-of-cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone-to-bortezomib-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone-as-induction-therapy-for-multiple-myeloma-patients-in-brazil
#9
Suelen Vigolo, Joice Zuckermann, Rosane Isabel Bittencourt, Lúcia Silla, Diogo André Pilger
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the standard treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Thalidomide or bortezomib may be combined with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone, in what are known as the CTD and VCD protocols, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and response rates obtained with CTD and VCD, observing whether the inclusion of bortezomib to treat MM patients in Brazil increases therapeutic efficiency...
June 15, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636876/tissue-alignment-enhances-remodeling-potential-of-tendon-derived-cells-lessons-from-a-novel-microtissue-model-of-tendon-scarring
#10
Jasper Foolen, Stefania L Wunderli, Sandra Loerakker, Jess G Snedeker
Tendinopathy is a widespread and unresolved clinical challenge, in which associated pain and hampered mobility present a major cause for work-related disability. Tendinopathy associates with a change from a healthy tissue with aligned extracellular matrix (ECM) and highly polarized cells that are connected head-to-tail, towards a diseased tissue with a disorganized ECM and randomly distributed cells, scar-like features that are commonly attributed to poor innate regenerative capacity of the tissue. A fundamental clinical dilemma with this scarring process is whether treatment strategies should focus on healing the affected (disorganized) tissue or strengthen the remaining healthy (anisotropic) tissue...
June 18, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636855/efficacy-of-recombinant-influenza-vaccine-in-adults-50-years-of-age-or-older
#11
Lisa M Dunkle, Ruvim Izikson, Peter Patriarca, Karen L Goldenthal, Derek Muse, Janice Callahan, Manon M J Cox
Background Improved influenza vaccines are needed to control seasonal epidemics. This trial compared the protective efficacy in older adults of a quadrivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) with a standard-dose, egg-grown, quadrivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) during the A/H3N2-predominant 2014-2015 influenza season, when antigenic mismatch between circulating and vaccine influenza strains resulted in the reduced effectiveness of many licensed vaccines. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of RIV4 (45 μg of recombinant hemagglutinin [HA] per strain, 180 μg of protein per dose) versus standard-dose IIV4 (15 μg of HA per strain, 60 μg of protein per dose) to compare the relative vaccine efficacy against reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed, protocol-defined, influenza-like illness caused by any influenza strain starting 14 days or more after vaccination in adults who were 50 years of age or older...
June 22, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636806/ph-dependent-general-base-catalyzed-activation-rather-than-isocyanate-liberation-may-explain-the-superior-anticancer-efficacy-of-laromustine-compared-to-related-1-2-bis-methylsulfonyl-1-2-chloroethyl-hydrazine-prodrugs
#12
P G Penketh, R A Finch, R Sauro, R P Baumann, E S Ratner, K Shyam
Laromustine (also known as cloretazine, onrigin, VNP40101M, 101M) is a prodrug of 90CE, a short-lived chloroethylating agent with anticancer activity. The short half-life of 90CE necessitates the use of latentiated prodrug forms for in vivo treatments. Alkylaminocarbonyl based prodrugs such as laromustine exhibit significantly superior in vivo activity in several murine tumor models compared to analogs utilizing acyl, and alkoxycarbonyl latentiating groups. The alkylaminocarbonyl prodrugs possess two exclusive characteristics: (i) they are primarily unmasked by spontaneous base catalyzed elimination; and (ii) they liberate a reactive carbamoylating species...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636798/a-ccpe-based-xenon-biosensor-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-claudin-expressing-cells
#13
Anna Piontek, Christopher Witte, Honor May Rose, Miriam Eichner, Jonas Protze, Gerd Krause, Jörg Piontek, Leif Schröder
The majority of malignant tumors originate from epithelial cells, and many of them are characterized by an overexpression of claudins (Cldns) and their mislocalization out of tight junctions. We utilized the C-terminal claudin-binding domain of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (cCPE), with its high affinity to specific members of the claudin family, as the targeting unit for a claudin-sensitive cancer biosensor. To overcome the poor sensitivity of conventional relaxivity-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, we utilized the superior sensitivity of xenon Hyper-CEST biosensors...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636739/a-comparison-of-tonsillar-surface-swabbing-fine-needle-aspiration-core-sampling-and-dissected-tonsillar-core-biopsy-culture-in-children-with-recurrent-tonsillitis
#14
Saurav Sarkar, Abheek Sil, Soma Sarkar, Biswajit Sikder
In recurrent tonsillitis, the pathogenic bacteria are harbored in the tonsil core, and therefore cultures of superficial swab samples are not particularly accurate in identifying specific types of core bacteria. On the other hand, the results of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cultures of core samples have been closely correlated with the findings of core cultures in excised tonsils, and both methods are far superior to surface swabbing. We conducted a prospective study to compare the accuracy of culture findings from tonsillar tissue obtained by surface swabbing, FNA sampling of the tonsil core in situ, and core sampling of the excised tonsil in children with recurrent tonsillitis...
June 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636236/assessment-of-silibinin-as-a-potential-antifungal-agent-and-investigation-of-its-mechanism-of-action
#15
Dae Gyu Yun, Dong Gun Lee
Silibinin, which is derived from Silybum marianum (milk thistle), has used as a traditional remedy for liver or biliary disorders and known to have superior antioxidant activity. In addition, silibinin was recently reported to have antifungal effect related to fungal apoptosis against Candida albicans and the interest in the therapeutic effect is increasing. In this study, we found another mode of antifungal action of silibinin and its antibiofilm activity on C. albicans. To investigate influence on fungal plasma membrane, propidium iodide and bis-(1, 3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethineoxonol [DiBAC4 (3)] assay were primarily carried out...
June 21, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636173/patient-reported-outcome-measures-in-amblyopia-and-strabismus-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Sheela E Kumaran, Jyoti Khadka, Rod Baker, Konrad Pesudovs
BACKGROUND: Many patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been developed and/or used to measure the impact of amblyopia and strabismus on quality of life (QoL). Identifying the one with superior quality is important for evaluating the effectiveness of novel therapy for amblyopia and for directing improved clinical decision-making in adults considering strabismic surgery. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify all PROMs previously developed/used to study the impact of amblyopia and/or strabismus on QoL and to appraise the quality and comprehensiveness of content of the disease-specific instruments...
June 21, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635999/carbon-dots-promoted-vanadium-flow-batteries-for-all-climate-energy-storage
#17
Ying Zhou, Le Liu, Yi Shen, Lantao Wu, Lihong Yu, Feng Liang, Jingyu Xi
We report a one-pot solvothermal method to prepare a carbon dots decorated graphite felt (CDs/GF) electrode. The resulting CDs/GF shows excellent wettability and greatly enhanced activity towards vanadium redox couples. VFB with the CDs/GF electrode exhibits outstanding rate performance, superior cycling stability, and broad temperature adaptability from -20 to 60 °C.
June 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635650/the-application-of-heptamethine-cyanine-dye-dz-1-and-indocyanine-green-for-imaging-and-targeting-in-xenograft-models-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Caiqin Zhang, Yong Zhao, He Zhang, Xue Chen, Ningning Zhao, Dengxu Tan, Hai Zhang, Changhong Shi
Near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging has strong potential for widespread use in noninvasive tumor imaging. Indocyanine green (ICG) is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA) -approved NIRF dye for clinical diagnosis; however, it is unstable and poorly targets tumors. DZ-1 is a novel heptamethine cyanine NIRF dye, suitable for imaging and tumor targeting. Here, we compared the fluorescence intensity and metabolism of DZ-1 and ICG. Additionally, we assayed their specificities and abilities to target tumor cells, using cultured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, a nude mouse subcutaneous xenograft model of liver cancer, and a rabbit orthotopic transplantation model...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635359/thoracic-paravertebral-block-versus-intravenous-patient-controlled-analgesia-for-pain-treatment-in-patients-with-multiple-rib-fractures
#19
Ge Yeying, Yuan Liyong, Chen Yuebo, Zhang Yu, Ye Guangao, Ma Weihu, Zhao Liujun
Objectives To assess the effect of thoracic paravertebral block (PVB) on pain management and preservation of pulmonary function compared with intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in patients with multiple rib fractures (MRFs). Methods Ninety patients with unilateral MRFs were included in this prospective study and randomly assigned to the TPVB or IVPCA group. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, blood gas analysis, and bedside spirometry were measured and recorded at different time points after analgesia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635331/network-meta-analysis-of-liraglutide-versus-dpp-4-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-japanese-patients
#20
Dieter Ayers, Steve Kanters, Rachel Goldgrub, Monica Hughes, Ryo Kato, Nana Kragh
AIMS: To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of liraglutide and dipeptidyl peptidiase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors as antidiabetics for Japanese patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We searched for randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating outcomes among Japanese adults with uncontrolled T2DM and including liraglutide or DPP-4 inhibitors up to August 2016. We extracted data on trial and patient characteristics, and the following outcomes: HbA1c, weight, patients meeting HbA1c <7%, patients experiencing hypoglycemic events, microalbuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine...
June 21, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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