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Oxytocine attachement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179456/kinetics-of-milk-lipid-droplet-ld-transport-growth-and-secretion-revealed-by-intravital-imaging-ld-release-is-intermittently-stimulated-by-oxytocin
#1
Andrius Masedunskas, Yun Chen, Rebecca Stussman, Roberto Weigert, Ian H Mather
The lipid droplet (LD) fraction of milk has attracted special attention because it supplies preformed lipids for neonatal development and the assembled LDs are secreted by a unique apocrine mechanism. Because many aspects of this key process remain uncharacterized we developed a facile method for the intravital imaging of mammary cells in transgenic mice, which express fluorescently-tagged marker proteins. Using these techniques, we describe the first kinetic analysis of LD growth and secretion at peak lactation in real time...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135000/neuropeptide-regulation-of-social-attachment-the-prairie-vole-model
#2
Manal Tabbaa, Brennan Paedae, Yan Liu, Zuoxin Wang
Social attachments are ubiquitous among humans and integral to human health. Although great efforts have been made to elucidate the neural underpinnings regulating social attachments, we still know relatively little about the neuronal and neurochemical regulation of social attachments. As a laboratory animal research model, the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) displays behaviors paralleling human social attachments and thus has provided unique insights into the neural regulation of social behaviors...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131072/long-term-oxytocin-administration-enhances-the-experience-of-attachment
#3
Sylvie Bernaerts, Jellina Prinsen, Emmely Berra, Guy Bosmans, Jean Steyaert, Kaat Alaerts
The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. Previous studies showed that a single-dose of exogenously administered OT can affect trust and feelings of attachment insecurity. With the present study, we explored the effects of two weeks of daily OT administration on measures of state and trait attachment using a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled design. In 40 healthy young adult men state and trait attachment were assessed before and after two weeks of daily intranasal OT (24 IU) or placebo using the State Adult Attachment Scale and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment...
January 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#4
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
January 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052452/oxytocin-response-to-youth-mother-interactions-in-clinically-anxious-youth-is-associated-with-separation-anxiety-and-dyadic-behavior
#5
Eli R Lebowitz, Wendy K Silverman, Alyssa M Martino, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common in youth and cause significant distress and impairment to the individual and family. Oxytocin (OT), a nine amino acid peptide, is implicated in anxiety regulation and modulation of close interpersonal and attachment behavior. Anxiety disorders have been linked to low levels of salivary OT in youth. Research has also linked oxytocinergic functioning to social support, warm contact, and bonding, and indicated that contact with attachment figures stimulates OT response...
January 3, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041836/the-neurobiology-of-human-attachments
#6
REVIEW
Ruth Feldman
Attachment bonds are a defining feature of mammals. A conceptual framework on human attachments is presented, integrating insights from animal research with neuroimaging studies. Four mammalian bonds are described, including parent-infant, pair-bonds, peers, and conspecifics, all built upon systems shaped by maternal provisions during sensitive periods, and evolution from rodents to humans is detailed. Bonding is underpinned by crosstalk of oxytocin and dopamine in striatum, combining motivation and vigor with social focus, and their time sensitivity/pulsatility enables reorganization of neural networks...
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008313/effects-of-the-adult-attachment-projective-picture-system-on-oxytocin-and-cortisol-blood-levels-in-mothers
#7
Sabrina Krause, Dan Pokorny, Katharina Schury, Cornelia Doyen-Waldecker, Anna-Lena Hulbert, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Harald Gündel, Christiane Waller, Anna Buchheim
Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the "hormone of affiliation" and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990106/localization-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression-in-larvae-of-an-echinoderm-the-starfish-asterias-rubens
#8
Tatiana D Mayorova, Shi Tian, Weigang Cai, Dean C Semmens, Esther A Odekunle, Meet Zandawala, Yusef Badi, Matthew L Rowe, Michaela Egertová, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s) that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903255/epigenetic-evidence-for-involvement-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Carolina Cappi, Juliana Belo Diniz, Guaraci L Requena, Tiaya Lourenço, Bianca Cristina Garcia Lisboa, Marcelo Camargo Batistuzzo, Andrea H Marques, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Carlos A Pereira, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Helena Brentani
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder that affects up to 3% of the general population. Although epigenetic mechanisms play a role in neurodevelopment disorders, epigenetic pathways associated with OCD have rarely been investigated. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in neurobehavioral functions. Oxytocin has been shown to be associated with the regulation of complex socio-cognitive processes such as attachment, social exploration, and social recognition, as well as anxiety and other stress-related behaviors...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895565/challenges-to-the-pair-bond-neural-and-hormonal-effects-of-separation-and-reunion-in-a-monogamous-primate
#10
Katie Hinde, Chelsea Muth, Nicole Maninger, Benjamin J Ragen, Rebecca H Larke, Michael R Jarcho, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Emilio Ferrer, Simon R Cherry, Marina L Fisher-Phelps, Karen L Bales
Social monogamy at its most basic is a group structure in which two adults form a unit and share a territory. However, many socially monogamous pairs display attachment relationships known as pair bonds, in which there is a mutual preference for the partner and distress upon separation. The neural and hormonal basis of this response to separation from the adult pair mate is under-studied. In this project, we examined this response in male titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), a socially monogamous New World primate...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870403/sex-differences-in-social-cognition-the-case-of-face-processing
#11
Alice Mado Proverbio
Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806925/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-emotion-regulation-in-insecure-adolescents-study-protocol-for-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Monika Szymanska, Carmela Chateau Smith, Julie Monnin, Patrice Andrieu, Frédérique Girard, Lucie Galdon, Marie Schneider, Lionel Pazart, Sylvie Nezelof, Lauriane Vulliez-Coady
BACKGROUND: Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are potential contributors to the development of psychopathology in adolescence. This raises the question of whether oxytocin (OT), the paradigmatic "attachment hormone," may be beneficial in such contexts. Recent evidence suggests that intranasal administration of OT increases affiliative behavior, including trust and empathy. OT may also facilitate social reciprocity by attenuating the stress response to interpersonal conflict...
November 2, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793769/oxytocin-receptors-modulate-a-social-salience-neural-network-in-male-prairie-voles
#13
Zachary V Johnson, Hasse Walum, Yao Xiao, Paula C Riefkohl, Larry J Young
Social behavior is regulated by conserved neural networks across vertebrates. Variation in the organization of neuropeptide systems across these networks is thought to contribute to individual and species diversity in network function during social contexts. For example, oxytocin (OT) is an ancient neuropeptide that binds to OT receptors (OTRs) in the brain and modulates social and reproductive behavior across vertebrate species, including humans. Central OTRs exhibit extraordinarily diverse expression patterns that are associated with individual and species differences in social behavior...
January 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743766/genetic-variants-in-oxytocin-receptor-and-arginine-vasopressin-receptor-1a-are-associated-with-the-neural-correlates-of-maternal-and-paternal-affection-towards-their-child
#14
Shota Nishitani, Kazuya Ikematsu, Tsunehiko Takamura, Sumihisa Honda, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Kazuyuki Shinohara
There is extensive evidence in animal studies, particularly in vole species (Microtus), that oxytocin (OT) receptor and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) receptor 1a is critical for the regulation of maternal and paternal behavior, respectively. Human studies have gained insight into the relationship between both hormone receptor gene variants and behavior, but not between the variants and the underlying brain activity. To study this, we investigated the association between neural activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex (APFC) in mothers and fathers in response to their child smiling video stimuli to induce the positive affect related to attachment with their child, and genetic variants of OT receptor (OXTR) and AVP receptor 1A (AVPR1A)...
January 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681779/-effect-of-oxytocin-on-human-pain-perception
#15
A-C Pfeifer, B Ditzen, E Neubauer, M Schiltenwolf
BACKGROUND: Over the years the effect of the neuropeptide oxytocin and its possible utilization for pain management has been increasingly more investigated and discussed. Initial results emphasized the effects of oxytocin with respect to labor and breastfeeding. Diverse animals studies were also able to demonstrate the effectiveness of the peptide in attachment behavior and pain perception; however, it is still unclear how oxytocin affects pain perception in humans. The potential therapeutic effectiveness of oxytocin could be particularly important for primary and secondary treatment of pain patients because chronification of pain can occur more frequently in this area...
October 2016: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538784/positive-social-interactions-in-a-lifespan-perspective-with-a-focus-on-opioidergic-and-oxytocinergic-systems-implications-for-neuroprotection
#16
Valentina Colonnello, Nicola Petrocchi, Marina Farinelli, Cristina Ottaviani
In recent years, a growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of positive social interactions on health. The present work aims to review animal and human studies linking social interactions and health throughout the lifespan, with a focus on current knowledge of the possible mediating role of opioids and oxytocin. During the prenatal period, a positive social environment contributes to regulating maternal stress response and protecting the fetus from exposure to maternal active glucocorticoids. Throughout development, positive social contact with the caregiver acts as a "hidden regulator" and promotes infant neuro affective development...
August 16, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380172/methamphetamine-consumption-inhibits-pair-bonding-and-hypothalamic-oxytocin-in-prairie-voles
#17
Caroline M Hostetler, Tamara J Phillips, Andrey E Ryabinin
Methamphetamine (MA) abuse has been linked to violence, risk-taking behaviors, decreased sexual inhibition, and criminal activity. It is important to understand mechanisms underlying these drug effects for prevention and treatment of MA-associated social problems. Previous studies have demonstrated that experimenter-administered amphetamine inhibits pair bonding and increases aggression in monogamous prairie voles. It is not currently known whether similar effects on social behaviors would be obtained under conditions during which the drug is voluntarily (actively) administered...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366554/management-of-neuraxial-anaesthesia-for-emergent-caesarean-section-for-placenta-previa
#18
Berrin Günaydın, Mertihan Kurdoğlu, İsmail Güler, Mehrnoosh Bashiri, Fırat Büyüktaşkın, Mine Dağgez Keleşoğlu, Gözde İnan
Abnormal placental attachments, such as placenta accreta, increta or percrata, can result in increased morbidity and mortality because of the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage. We aimed to present the management of spinal anaesthesia and surgical approach for emergent caesarean section because of vaginal bleeding in a multiparous pregnant woman with placenta previa at 36 weeks' gestation. Hyperbaric bupivacaine 12 mg, fentanyl 10 μg and morphine 150 μg were intrathecally administered for spinal anaesthesia...
February 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325757/epigenetic-modification-of-oxt-and-human-sociability
#19
Brian W Haas, Megan M Filkowski, R Nick Cochran, Lydia Denison, Alexandra Ishak, Shota Nishitani, Alicia K Smith
Across many mammalian species there exist genetic and biological systems that facilitate the tendency to be social. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in social-approach behaviors in humans and others mammals. Although there exists a large, mounting body of evidence showing that oxytocin signaling genes are associated with human sociability, very little is currently known regarding the way the structural gene for oxytocin (OXT) confers individual differences in human sociability. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive approach to investigate the association between epigenetic modification of OXT via DNA methylation, and overt measures of social processing, including self-report, behavior, and brain function and structure...
July 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159342/intranasal-oxytocin-selectively-modulates-social-perception-craving-and-approach-behavior-in-subjects-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jennifer M Mitchell, Peter A Arcuni, Dawn Weinstein, Josh D Woolley
OBJECTIVES: A pharmacotherapy that both improves social abilities and promotes abstinence may be particularly helpful for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Recent clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that oxytocin has prosocial and antiaddiction effects. We performed a pilot, laboratory-based, preclinical trial of oxytocin in subjects with alcohol abuse (as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 Edition criteria) to evaluate therapeutic potential and assess tolerability...
May 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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