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Oxytocine attachement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434591/oxytocin-and-vasopressin-neural-networks-implications-for-social-behavioral-diversity-and-translational-neuroscience
#1
REVIEW
Zachary V Johnson, Larry J Young
Oxytocin- and vasopressin-related systems are present in invertebrate and vertebrate bilaterian animals, including humans, and exhibit conserved neuroanatomical and functional properties. In vertebrates, these systems innervate conserved neural networks that regulate social learning and behavior, including conspecific recognition, social attachment, and parental behavior. Individual and species-level variation in central organization of oxytocin and vasopressin systems has been linked to individual and species variation in social learning and behavior...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431269/oxytocin-in-the-postnatal-period-associations-with-attachment-and-maternal-caregiving
#2
Jane Kohlhoff, Valsamma Eapen, Mark Dadds, Feroza Khan, Derrick Silove, Bryanne Barnett
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the associations of maternal oxytocin, self-reported attachment insecurity and depressive symptoms with maternal caregiving sensitivity at 3-4months postpartum, observed during the 'free play' and 'reunion' episodes of the Still Face Procedure. METHODS: 112 mothers completed questionnaires and gave blood samples to determine oxytocin plasma levels before (time 1) and after participating in the Still Face Procedure with their infant (time 2)...
March 27, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397403/the-neurobiology-of-social-deficits-in-female-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder-the-importance-of-oxytocin
#3
Anne Cathrine Bomann, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Sune Bo, Marianne Nielsen, Lene Bjerring Gede, Betina Elfving, Erik Simonsen
BACKGROUND: Social deficits and emotional dysregulation have been suggested as explanations for the relational difficulties experienced by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a possible neurobiological underpinning of these adversities, and this study examines possible correlations between BPD symptomatology and serum OXT. METHODS: Thirty-eight female participants (BPD group n = 18, matched control group n = 20) with a mean age of 29...
April 11, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388867/are-friends-really-the-family-we-choose-local-variations-of-hypothalamus-activity-when-viewing-personally-known-faces
#4
Farah H Wolfe, Christine Deruelle, Thierry Chaminade
Sibling and friend relationships have significant impact on individuals' socio-emotional development. Hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) synthesize and secrete neuropeptides, including oxytocin, associated with attachment behaviors. Here, using fMRI, we investigate the implication of these two hypothalamic nuclei in the visual processing of personally known faces.  Faces of same-sex sibling, best friend, celebrity, and unknown person appear in the middle of the screen while participants perform a task requiring a button click each time a central white dot turns red...
April 23, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337432/the-current-and-future-role-of-heart-rate-variability-for-assessing-and-training-compassion
#5
James N Kirby, James R Doty, Nicola Petrocchi, Paul Gilbert
The evolution of mammalian caregiving involving hormones, such as oxytocin, vasopressin, and the myelinated vagal nerve as part of the ventral parasympathetic system, enables humans to connect, co-regulate each other's emotions and create prosociality. Compassion-based interventions draw upon a number of specific exercises and strategies to stimulate these physiological processes and create conditions of "interpersonal safeness," thereby helping people engage with, alleviate, and prevent suffering. Hence, compassion-based approaches are connected with our evolved caring motivation and attachment and our general affiliative systems that help regulate distress...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179456/kinetics-of-milk-lipid-droplet-transport-growth-and-secretion-revealed-by-intravital-imaging-lipid-droplet-release-is-intermittently-stimulated-by-oxytocin
#6
Andrius Masedunskas, Yun Chen, Rebecca Stussman, Roberto Weigert, Ian H Mather
The lipid droplet (LD) fraction of milk has attracted special attention because it supplies preformed lipids for neonatal development, and the assembled LDs are secreted by a unique apocrine mechanism. Because many aspects of this key process remain uncharacterized, we developed a facile method for the intravital imaging of mammary cells in transgenic mice that express fluorescently tagged marker proteins. Using these techniques, we describe the first kinetic analysis of LD growth and secretion at peak lactation in real time...
April 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135000/neuropeptide-regulation-of-social-attachment-the-prairie-vole-model
#7
Manal Tabbaa, Brennan Paedae, Yan Liu, Zuoxin Wang
Social attachments are ubiquitous among humans and integral to human health. Although great efforts have been made to elucidate the neural underpinnings regulating social attachments, we still know relatively little about the neuronal and neurochemical regulation of social attachments. As a laboratory animal research model, the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) displays behaviors paralleling human social attachments and thus has provided unique insights into the neural regulation of social behaviors...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131072/long-term-oxytocin-administration-enhances-the-experience-of-attachment
#8
Sylvie Bernaerts, Jellina Prinsen, Emmely Berra, Guy Bosmans, Jean Steyaert, Kaat Alaerts
The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. Previous studies showed that a single-dose of exogenously administered OT can affect trust and feelings of attachment insecurity. With the present study, we explored the effects of two weeks of daily OT administration on measures of state and trait attachment using a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled design. In 40 healthy young adult men state and trait attachment were assessed before and after two weeks of daily intranasal OT (24 IU) or placebo using the State Adult Attachment Scale and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment...
January 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#9
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052452/oxytocin-response-to-youth-mother-interactions-in-clinically-anxious-youth-is-associated-with-separation-anxiety-and-dyadic-behavior
#10
Eli R Lebowitz, Wendy K Silverman, Alyssa M Martino, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common in youth and cause significant distress and impairment to the individual and family. Oxytocin (OT), a nine amino acid peptide, is implicated in anxiety regulation and modulation of close interpersonal and attachment behavior. Anxiety disorders have been linked to low levels of salivary OT in youth. Research has also linked oxytocinergic functioning to social support, warm contact, and bonding, and indicated that contact with attachment figures stimulates OT response...
January 3, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041836/the-neurobiology-of-human-attachments
#11
REVIEW
Ruth Feldman
Attachment bonds are a defining feature of mammals. A conceptual framework on human attachments is presented, integrating insights from animal research with neuroimaging studies. Four mammalian bonds are described, including parent-infant, pair-bonds, peers, and conspecifics, all built upon systems shaped by maternal provisions during sensitive periods, and evolution from rodents to humans is detailed. Bonding is underpinned by crosstalk of oxytocin and dopamine in striatum, combining motivation and vigor with social focus, and their time sensitivity/pulsatility enables reorganization of neural networks...
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008313/effects-of-the-adult-attachment-projective-picture-system-on-oxytocin-and-cortisol-blood-levels-in-mothers
#12
Sabrina Krause, Dan Pokorny, Katharina Schury, Cornelia Doyen-Waldecker, Anna-Lena Hulbert, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Harald Gündel, Christiane Waller, Anna Buchheim
Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the "hormone of affiliation" and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990106/localization-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression-in-larvae-of-an-echinoderm-the-starfish-asterias-rubens
#13
Tatiana D Mayorova, Shi Tian, Weigang Cai, Dean C Semmens, Esther A Odekunle, Meet Zandawala, Yusef Badi, Matthew L Rowe, Michaela Egertová, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s) that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903255/epigenetic-evidence-for-involvement-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
Carolina Cappi, Juliana Belo Diniz, Guaraci L Requena, Tiaya Lourenço, Bianca Cristina Garcia Lisboa, Marcelo Camargo Batistuzzo, Andrea H Marques, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Carlos A Pereira, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Helena Brentani
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder that affects up to 3% of the general population. Although epigenetic mechanisms play a role in neurodevelopment disorders, epigenetic pathways associated with OCD have rarely been investigated. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in neurobehavioral functions. Oxytocin has been shown to be associated with the regulation of complex socio-cognitive processes such as attachment, social exploration, and social recognition, as well as anxiety and other stress-related behaviors...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895565/challenges-to-the-pair-bond-neural-and-hormonal-effects-of-separation-and-reunion-in-a-monogamous-primate
#15
Katie Hinde, Chelsea Muth, Nicole Maninger, Benjamin J Ragen, Rebecca H Larke, Michael R Jarcho, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Emilio Ferrer, Simon R Cherry, Marina L Fisher-Phelps, Karen L Bales
Social monogamy at its most basic is a group structure in which two adults form a unit and share a territory. However, many socially monogamous pairs display attachment relationships known as pair bonds, in which there is a mutual preference for the partner and distress upon separation. The neural and hormonal basis of this response to separation from the adult pair mate is under-studied. In this project, we examined this response in male titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), a socially monogamous New World primate...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870403/sex-differences-in-social-cognition-the-case-of-face-processing
#16
Alice Mado Proverbio
Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806925/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-emotion-regulation-in-insecure-adolescents-study-protocol-for-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Monika Szymanska, Carmela Chateau Smith, Julie Monnin, Patrice Andrieu, Frédérique Girard, Lucie Galdon, Marie Schneider, Lionel Pazart, Sylvie Nezelof, Lauriane Vulliez-Coady
BACKGROUND: Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are potential contributors to the development of psychopathology in adolescence. This raises the question of whether oxytocin (OT), the paradigmatic "attachment hormone," may be beneficial in such contexts. Recent evidence suggests that intranasal administration of OT increases affiliative behavior, including trust and empathy. OT may also facilitate social reciprocity by attenuating the stress response to interpersonal conflict...
November 2, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793769/oxytocin-receptors-modulate-a-social-salience-neural-network-in-male-prairie-voles
#18
Zachary V Johnson, Hasse Walum, Yao Xiao, Paula C Riefkohl, Larry J Young
Social behavior is regulated by conserved neural networks across vertebrates. Variation in the organization of neuropeptide systems across these networks is thought to contribute to individual and species diversity in network function during social contexts. For example, oxytocin (OT) is an ancient neuropeptide that binds to OT receptors (OTRs) in the brain and modulates social and reproductive behavior across vertebrate species, including humans. Central OTRs exhibit extraordinarily diverse expression patterns that are associated with individual and species differences in social behavior...
January 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743766/genetic-variants-in-oxytocin-receptor-and-arginine-vasopressin-receptor-1a-are-associated-with-the-neural-correlates-of-maternal-and-paternal-affection-towards-their-child
#19
Shota Nishitani, Kazuya Ikematsu, Tsunehiko Takamura, Sumihisa Honda, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Kazuyuki Shinohara
There is extensive evidence in animal studies, particularly in vole species (Microtus), that oxytocin (OT) receptor and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) receptor 1a is critical for the regulation of maternal and paternal behavior, respectively. Human studies have gained insight into the relationship between both hormone receptor gene variants and behavior, but not between the variants and the underlying brain activity. To study this, we investigated the association between neural activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex (APFC) in mothers and fathers in response to their child smiling video stimuli to induce the positive affect related to attachment with their child, and genetic variants of OT receptor (OXTR) and AVP receptor 1A (AVPR1A)...
January 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681779/-effect-of-oxytocin-on-human-pain-perception
#20
A-C Pfeifer, B Ditzen, E Neubauer, M Schiltenwolf
BACKGROUND: Over the years the effect of the neuropeptide oxytocin and its possible utilization for pain management has been increasingly more investigated and discussed. Initial results emphasized the effects of oxytocin with respect to labor and breastfeeding. Diverse animals studies were also able to demonstrate the effectiveness of the peptide in attachment behavior and pain perception; however, it is still unclear how oxytocin affects pain perception in humans. The potential therapeutic effectiveness of oxytocin could be particularly important for primary and secondary treatment of pain patients because chronification of pain can occur more frequently in this area...
October 2016: Der Schmerz
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