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Oxytocine attachement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674985/dog-owner-attachment-is-associated-with-oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-in-both-parties-a-comparative-study-on-austrian-and-hungarian-border-collies
#1
Krisztina Kovács, Zsófia Virányi, Anna Kis, Borbála Turcsán, Ágnes Hudecz, Maria T Marmota, Dóra Koller, Zsolt Rónai, Márta Gácsi, József Topál
Variations in human infants' attachment behavior are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene, suggesting a genetic component to infant-mother attachment. However, due to the genetic relatedness of infants and their mothers, it is difficult to separate the genetic effects of infants' OXTR genotype from the environmental effects of mothers' genotype possibly affecting their parental behavior. The apparent functional analogy between child-parent and dog-owner relationship, however, offers a way to disentangle the effects of these factors because pet dogs are not genetically related to their caregivers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673618/association-between-maternal-childhood-maltreatment-and-mother-infant-attachment-disorganization-moderation-by-maternal-oxytocin-receptor-gene-and-cortisol-secretion
#2
Jaclyn A Ludmer, Andrea Gonzalez, James Kennedy, Mario Masellis, Paul Meinz, Leslie Atkinson
This study examined maternal oxytocin receptor (OXTR, rs53576) genotype and cortisol secretion as moderators of the relation between maternal childhood maltreatment history and disorganized mother-infant attachment in the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). A community sample of 314 mother-infant dyads completed the SSP at infant age 17 months. Self-reported maltreatment history more strongly predicted mother-infant attachment disorganization score and disorganized classification for mothers with more plasticity alleles of OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer plasticity alleles...
April 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596150/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-administration-on-sexual-functions-in-healthy-women-a-laboratory-paradigm
#3
Tillmann H C Kruger, Frank Deiter, Yuanyuan Zhang, Stefanie Jung, Cordula Schippert, Kai G Kahl, Markus Heinrichs, Manfred Schedlowski, Uwe Hartmann
PURPOSE: The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has a variety of physiological functions in maternal behavior and attachment including sexual behavior. Based on animal research and our previous human studies, we set out to investigate intranasal administration of OXT and hypothesized that OXT should be able to modulate sexual function in women. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory setting, the acute effects of intranasal administered OXT (24 international units) on sexual drive, arousal, orgasm, and refractory aspects of sexual behavior were analyzed in 27 healthy females (mean age ± SD, 27...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535656/child-maltreatment-is-associated-with-a-reduction-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#4
Sabrina Krause, Christina Boeck, Anja M Gumpp, Edit Rottler, Katharina Schury, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Anna Buchheim, Harald Gündel, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christiane Waller
Background: Child maltreatment (CM) and attachment experiences are closely linked to alterations in the human oxytocin (OXT) system. However, human data about oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels are lacking. Therefore, we investigated oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels in circulating immune cells and related them to circulating levels of OXT in peripheral blood. We hypothesized reduced OXTR protein levels, associated with both, experiences of CM and an insecure attachment representation. Methods: OXTR protein expressions were analyzed by western blot analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma OXT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 49 mothers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513137/epigenetic-modification-of-the-oxytocin-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-genes-is-linked-to-attachment-avoidance-in-young-adults
#5
Tsachi Ein-Dor, Willem J M I Verbeke, Michal Mokry, Pascal Vrtička
Attachment in the context of intimate pair bonds is most frequently studied in terms of the universal strategy to draw near, or away, from significant others at moments of personal distress. However, important interindividual differences in the quality of attachment exist, usually captured through secure versus insecure - anxious and/or avoidant - attachment orientations. Since Bowlby's pioneering writings on the theory of attachment, it has been assumed that attachment orientations are influenced by both genetic and social factors - what we would today describe and measure as gene by environment interaction mediated by epigenetic DNA modification - but research in humans on this topic remains extremely limited...
March 7, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494953/to-mirror-or-not-to-mirror-upon-mutual-gaze-oxytocin-can-pave-the-way-a-cross-over-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Jellina Prinsen, Stephanie Brams, Kaat Alaerts
The eyes constitute a highly salient cue to communicate social intent. Previous research showed that direct eye contact between two individuals can readily evoke an increased propensity to 'mirror' other peoples' actions. Considering the implicated role of the prosocial neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in enhancing the saliency of social cues and modulating approach/avoidance motivational tendencies, the current study adopted the non-invasive brain stimulation technique transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explore whether a single dose of intranasal OXT (24 IU) modulated (enhanced) a person's propensity to show heightened mirroring or motor resonance upon salient social cues, such as eye contact...
April 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443077/contractility-measurements-of-human-uterine-smooth-muscle-to-aid-drug-development
#7
Sarah Arrowsmith, Peter Keov, Markus Muttenthaler, Christian W Gruber
Discovery and characterization of novel pharmaceutical compounds or biochemical probes rely on robust and physiologically relevant assay systems. We describe methods to measure ex vivo myometrium contractility. This assay can be used to investigate factors and molecules involved in the modulation of myometrial contraction and to determine their excitatory or inhibitory actions, and hence their therapeutic potential in vivo. Biopsies are obtained from women undergoing cesarean section delivery with informed consent...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436774/oxytocin-structure-and-function-in-new-world-monkeys-from-pharmacology-to-behavior
#8
Aaryn Mustoe, Jack H Taylor, Jeffrey A French
Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic nonapeptide that mediates a host of physiological and behavioral processes including reproductive physiology and social attachments. While the OT sequence structure is highly conserved among mammals, New World monkeys (NWMs) represent an unusual 'hot spot' in OT structure variability among mammals. At least six distinct OT ligand variants among NWMs exist, yet it is currently unclear whether these evolved structural changes result in meaningful functional consequences. NWMs offer a new area to explore how these modifications to OT and its canonical G-protein coupled OT receptor (OTR) may mediate specific cellular, physiological, and behavioral outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412506/no-evidence-of-association-of-oxytocin-polymorphisms-with-breastfeeding-in-two-independent-samples
#9
Lucía Colodro-Conde, Juan F Sanchez-Romera, Penelope A Lind, Gu Zhu, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Juan R Ordoñana
Oxytocin has an important function in breastfeeding via its role in the milk ejection reflex and in attachment and bonding processes. Genetic factors account for a significant part of the individual differences in breastfeeding behaviour. OXT and OXTR have been proposed as gene candidates for breastfeeding. Previous studies have focused on certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes, finding null or inconsistent results. The present study analyses the associations between a wide coverage of polymorphisms in OXT and OXTR and breastfeeding duration from two large and independent unselected samples comprising a total of 580 and 2,112 female twin mothers from the Murcia Twin Registry (MTR; Spain) and QIMR (Australia), respectively...
February 7, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410310/associations-between-oxytocin-receptor-gene-oxtr-methylation-plasma-oxytocin-and-attachment-across-adulthood
#10
Natalie C Ebner, Tian Lin, Melis Muradoglu, Devon H Weir, Gabriela M Plasencia, Travis S Lillard, Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Ronald A Cohen, C Sue Carter, Jessica J Connelly
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in a wide range of affiliative processes. OT exerts its functions via OT receptors, which are encoded by the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Epigenetic modification of OXTR through the process of DNA methylation has been associated with individual differences in behavioral phenotypes. Specifically, lower levels of OXTR methylation have been linked to better social and affective functioning. However, research on epigenetic mechanisms of OXTR is scarce in non-clinical populations, and even less is known about epigenetic variability across adulthood...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353531/oxytocin-receptor-gene-variation-behavioural-inhibition-and-adult-separation-anxiety-role-in-complicated-grief
#11
Miriam A Schiele, Barbara Costa, Marianna Abelli, Claudia Martini, David S Baldwin, Katharina Domschke, Stefano Pini
OBJECTIVES: Complicated grief (CG) following bereavement significantly increases the risk for mood and anxiety disorders. The severity of grief reactions may be interactively influenced by temperamental and psychological factors such as behavioural inhibition (BI) and separation anxiety (SA) as well as biological factors. Given its central role in attachment and stress processing, a genetic variant in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene was thus investigated in order to elucidate the direction of association as well as its interaction with BI and SA in the moderation of CG severity...
February 5, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302631/oxytocin-monolayer-based-impedimetric-biosensor-for-zinc-and-copper-ions
#12
Kiran Kumar Tadi, Israel Alshanski, Evgeniy Mervinetsky, Gerard Marx, Panayiota Petrou, Karussis M Dimitrios, Chaim Gilon, Mattan Hurevich, Shlomo Yitzchaik
Zinc and copper are essential metal ions for numerous biological processes. Their levels are tightly maintained in all body organs. Impairment of the Zn2+ to Cu2+ ratio in serum was found to correlate with many disease states, including immunological and inflammatory disorders. Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide, and its activity is modulated by zinc and copper ion binding. Harnessing the intrinsic properties of OT is one of the attractive ways to develop valuable metal ion sensors. Here, we report for the first time an OT-based metal ion sensor prepared by immobilizing the neuropeptide onto a glassy carbon electrode...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244625/the-role-of-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-attachment
#13
C Sue Carter
Selective relationships and attachments are central to human health and well-being, both in current societies and during the course of evolution. The presence or absence of social bonds has consequences across the lifespan. The neurobiology of attachment is grounded in neuroendocrine substrates that are shared with reproduction and survival. Experimental studies of species, such as sheep or prairie voles, capable of showing selective social behaviors toward offspring or partners, have provided empirical evidence for the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in the formation of selective attachments...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244620/calming-cycle-theory-and-the-co-regulation-of-oxytocin
#14
Martha G Welch, Robert J Ludwig
The biological functions of oxytocin in attachment and bonding between mother and infant in parturition and breastfeeding and between adults have been studied extensively. However, most current authors have proposed that infant attachment to the mother is learned through operant conditioning mechanisms via the infant's brain and central nervous system. We propose that oxytocin levels in the mother and infant are co-regulated by emotional connection or disconnection, and that the autonomic co-conditioning learning mechanism can be exploited to change a negative physiological and behavioral response between mother and infant into a positive one...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236527/paradoxical-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-trust-in-inpatient-and-community-adolescents
#15
Amanda Venta, Carolyn Ha, Salome Vanwoerden, Elizabeth Newlin, Lane Strathearn, Carla Sharp
Research suggests that oxytocin, a neuropeptide implicated in attachment, is a promising clinical tool because it increases affiliation and attachment behaviors, which are reduced in a range of psychiatric disorders. Oxytocin has been recommended as a psychiatric treatment for adolescents, but this remains largely unstudied. Skepticism is warranted, based on mixed findings in adults and absence of data across development. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of intranasal oxytocin on attachment-related and non-attachment-related trust in an interactive game, determining how this effect differs among inpatient adolescents and healthy controls and whether this effect is moderated by attachment security...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204125/alcohol-s-effects-on-pair-bond-maintenance-in-male-prairie-voles
#16
Andre T Walcott, Andrey E Ryabinin
Alcohol abuse can have devastating effects on social relationships. In particular, discrepant patterns of heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased rates of separation and divorce. Previous studies have attempted to model these effects of alcohol using socially monogamous prairie voles. These studies showed that alcohol consumption can inhibit the formation of pair bonds in this species. While these findings indicated that alcohol's effects on social attachments can involve biological mechanisms, the formation of pair bonds does not properly model long-term human attachments...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157488/l%C3%A2-hypophyse-et-ses-traitements-comment-peuvent-ils-influer-sur-le-comportement-the-pituitary-and-its-treatments-how-can-they-influence-behaviour
#17
C Mouly, F Borson-Chazot, P Caron
Behaviour may be influenced by pituitary hormones or treatments. Dopamine agonist (DA) indicated in prolactinomas treatment can cause side effects, and especially impulse control disorders. In the context of prolactinomas treatment, impulse control disorders (ICD) have been reported like gambling, compulsive shopping, but mostly hypersexuality. These ICD can occur with low AD doses, and seem to be independent of type of molecule and psychiatric medical history. The main pathophysiologic hypothesis is a dysregulation of dopaminergic pathway involved in reward system...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104011/oxytocin-inhibits-ox-ldl-induced-adhesion-of-monocytic-thp-1-cells-to-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#18
Shuyan Liu, Shengying Pan, Jing Tan, Weina Zhao, Fengguo Liu
The attachment of monocytes to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVEs) caused by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is associated with an early event and the pathological progression of cerebrovascular diseases. Oxytocin (OT) is a human peptide hormone that is traditionally used as a medication to facilitate childbirth. However, little information is available regarding the physiological function of OT in brain endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, our results indicate that the oxytocin receptor (OTR) was expressed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVEs) and was upregulated in response to ox-LDL in a concentration-dependent manner...
December 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072476/oxytocin-modulates-charismatic-influence-in-groups
#19
Ilanit Gordon, Yair Berson
Charismatic leaders have had tremendous effects on the fortunes and fates of individuals and societies across the world. Via verbal and nonverbal signaling, such leaders form profound emotional bonds with followers. Despite evidence for its powerful effects, we know very little about what facilitates the charismatic relationship. Here, we argue that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), known to be implicated in parent-child attachment, also enhances the effects of charismatic leaders in groups. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, we administered intranasal OT to participants, led by a confederate trained to exhibit charisma, and monitored participants' responses to the confederate's signaling while leading a group task...
January 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059645/-prevention-postpartum-hemorrhage
#20
Валерий Г Волков, Елена М Гусева
INTRODUCTION: Postpartum hemorrhage remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. THE AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of oxytocin into the umbilical vein for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 105 women were included. Formed two groups. In group, I (n = 51) - as prevention of bleeding was administered oxytocin in the umbilical cord vein. In group, II (n = 54) 10 IU oxytocin was carried out by intramuscular injection in the thigh during the first minute after birth...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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