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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435262/ecological-drivers-of-song-evolution-in-birds-disentangling-the-effects-of-habitat-and-morphology
#1
Elizabeth Perrault Derryberry, Nathalie Seddon, Graham Earnest Derryberry, Santiago Claramunt, Glenn Fairbanks Seeholzer, Robb Thomas Brumfield, Joseph Andrew Tobias
Environmental differences influence the evolutionary divergence of mating signals through selection acting either directly on signal transmission ("sensory drive") or because morphological adaptation to different foraging niches causes divergence in "magic traits" associated with signal production, thus indirectly driving signal evolution. Sensory drive and magic traits both contribute to variation in signal structure, yet we have limited understanding of the relative role of these direct and indirect processes during signal evolution...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433487/development-and-validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-evaluate-the-factors-influencing-training-transfer-among-nursing-professionals
#2
Yangjing Bai, Jiping Li, Yangjuan Bai, Weiguang Ma, Xiangyu Yang, Fang Ma
BACKGROUND: Most organizations invest in people for training to improve human capital and maximize profitability. Yet it is reported in industry and nursing as well that training effectiveness is constrained because of inadequate transfer of training and the underlying reasons for the transfer problem remain unknown. And there is lack of tool to measure transfer problem. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to evaluate the scores of factors influencing training transfer (FITT) among nursing professionals...
February 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422028/the-curious-case-of-peroxiredoxin-5-what-its-absence-in-aves-can-tell-us-and-how-it-can-be-used
#3
Marc Pirson, André Clippe, Bernard Knoops
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-dependent peroxidases that represent a major antioxidant defense in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic organisms. Among the six vertebrate peroxiredoxin isoforms, peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5) appears to be a particular peroxiredoxin, displaying a different catalytic mechanism, as well as a wider substrate specificity and subcellular distribution. In addition, several evolutionary peculiarities, such as loss of subcellular targeting in certain species, have been reported for this enzyme...
February 8, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421983/emerging-immune-targets-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#4
Atif Sohail, Adeela Mushtaq, Ahmad Iftikhar, Zabih Warraich, Sandra E Kurtin, Pavan Tenneti, Ali McBride, Faiz Anwer
We reviewed emerging immune strategies for multiple myeloma (MM) therapy excluding US FDA approved drugs. In relapsed refractory MM, isatuximab (anti-CD38) monotherapy achieved overall response (OR) of 24%. Other monoclonal antibodies that have shown efficacy in combination therapy include siltuximab (OR: 66%), indatuximab (OR: 78%), isatuximab (OR: 64.5%), pembrolizumab (OR: 60%), bevacizumab (OR: 70%), dacetuzumab (OR: 39%) and lorvotuzumab (OR: 56.4%). No OR was observed with monotherapy using BI-505, siltuximab, bevacizumab, AVE-1642, figitumumab, atacicept, milatuzumab, dacetuzumab, lucatumumab, IPH2101, lorvotuzumab, BT062 and nivolumab...
February 1, 2018: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420542/host-preferences-support-the-prominent-role-of-hyalomma-ticks-in-the-ecology-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever
#5
Jessica R Spengler, Agustin Estrada-Peña
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne zoonotic agent that is maintained in nature in an enzootic vertebrate-tick-vertebrate cycle. Hyalomma genus ticks have been implicated as the main CCHFV vector and are key in maintaining silent endemic foci. However, what contributes to their central role in CCHFV ecology is unclear. To assess the significance of host preferences of ticks in CCHFV ecology, we performed comparative analyses of hosts exploited by 133 species of ticks; these species represent 5 genera with reported geographical distribution over the range of CCHFV...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404832/redescription-of-the-kiwi-tick-ixodes-anatis-acari-ixodidae-from-new-zealand-with-notes-on-its-biology
#6
Mackenzie L Kwak, Allen C G Heath
Ixodes anatis Chilton is of veterinary and conservation importance in New Zealand due to its association with the threatened kiwi (Aves: Apterygidae: Apteryx spp.). Since the tick's description in 1904, there has been debate regarding its correct taxonomic position and nomenclature. Herein all life stages of this species are redescribed and accompanied by electron micrographs and drawings. The systematics, host preferences, distribution, disease relationships and conservation biology of the species are also discussed...
February 6, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385563/phenotypic-and-genetic-structure-support-gene-flow-generating-gene-tree-discordances-in-an-amazonian-floodplain-endemic-species
#7
Gregory Thom, Fabio R Amaral, Michael J Hickerson, Alexandre Aleixo, Lucas E Araujo-Silva, Camila C Ribas, Erik Choueri, Cristina Y Miyaki
Before populations become independent evolutionary lineages, the effects of micro evolutionary processes tend to generate complex scenarios of diversification that may affect phylogenetic reconstruction. Not accounting for gene flow in species tree estimates can directly impact topology, effective population sizes and branch lengths and the resulting estimation errors are still poorly understood in wild populations. In this study we used an integrative approach, including sequence capture of Ultra Conserved Elements (UCEs), mtDNA Sanger sequencing and morphological data to investigate species limits and phylogenetic relationships in face of gene flow in an Amazonian endemic species (Myrmoborus lugubris: Aves)...
January 29, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385141/contrasting-impacts-of-competition-on-ecological-and-social-trait-evolution-in-songbirds
#8
Jonathan P Drury, Joseph A Tobias, Kevin J Burns, Nicholas A Mason, Allison J Shultz, Hélène Morlon
Competition between closely related species has long been viewed as a powerful selective force that drives trait diversification, thereby generating phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales. However, although the impact of interspecific competition has been documented in a handful of iconic insular radiations, most previous studies have focused on traits involved in resource use, and few have examined the role of competition across large, continental radiations. Thus, the extent to which broad-scale patterns of phenotypic diversity are shaped by competition remain largely unclear, particularly for social traits...
January 31, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344525/psychometric-properties-of-the-communication-skills-attitude-scale-csas-measure-in-a-sample-of-iranian-medical-students
#9
Afsaneh Yakhforoshha, Mandana Shirazi, Naser Yousefzadeh, Amin Ghanbarnejad, Mohammadali Cheraghi, Rita Mojtahedzadeh, Behrooz Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Seyed Amir Hossein Emami
Introduction: Communication skill (CS) has been regarded as one of the fundamental competencies for medical and other health care professionals. Student's attitude toward learning CS is a key factor in designing educational interventions. The original CSAS, as positive and negative subscales, was developed in the UK; however, there is no scale to measure these attitudes in Iran. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristic of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS), in an Iranian context and to understand if it is a valid tool to assess attitude toward learning communication skills among health care professionals...
January 2018: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329954/comparative-myology-of-the-ankle-of-leopardus-wiedii-and-l-geoffroyi-carnivora-felidae-functional-consistency-with-osteology-locomotor-habits-and-hunting-in-captivity
#10
Miriam M Morales, S Rocío Moyano, Agustina M Ortiz, Marcos D Ercoli, Luis I Aguado, Sergio A Cardozo, Norberto P Giannini
Leopardus wiedii (margay) is the only arboreal Neotropical felid able to climb head-first down trees, due to its ability to rotate its tarsal joint 180°. A closely related, similar-sized species, L. geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat) exhibits more typical terrestrial habits and lacks the arboreal capabilities of L. wiedii. There is osteological evidence that supports a mechanical specialization of L. wiedii's tarsal joint for inversion, but there have been no studies on the myology of this specialization. Based on comparative gross-anatomy dissections of zeugo- and autopodial muscles related to the ankle joint of one margay specimen and two Geoffroýs cats, we identified myological specializations of L...
December 26, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326024/aerodynamic-characteristics-of-syllable-and-sentence-productions-in-normal-speakers
#11
Cedric Thiel, Jin Yang, Brianna Crawley, Priya Krishna, Thomas Murry
BACKGROUND: Aerodynamic measures of subglottic air pressure (Ps) and airflow rate (AFR) are used to select behavioral voice therapy versus surgical treatment for voice disorders. However, these measures are usually taken during a series of syllables, which differs from conversational speech. Repeated syllables do not share the variation found in even simple sentences, and patients may use their best rather than typical voice unless specifically instructed otherwise. This study examined the potential differences in estimated Ps and AFR in syllable and sentence production and their effects on a measure of vocal efficiency in normal speakers...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322535/anatomy-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-in-domestic-birds-with-emphasis-on-vocalization
#12
REVIEW
C Casteleyn, P Cornillie, S Van Cruchten, W Van den Broeck, C Van Ginneken, P Simoens
This work reviews the anatomy of the upper respiratory tract in domestic birds including the chicken and pigeon. Non-exhaustive additional information on other bird species, illustrating the extraordinary diversity in the biological class Aves, can be found in several footnotes. The described anatomical structures are functionally considered in view of avian sound production. In particular, the Syrinx is invaluable. Its most important structures are the Labia and the lateral and medial tympaniform membranes in non-songbirds and songbirds, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317637/structural-absorption-by-barbule-microstructures-of-super-black-bird-of-paradise-feathers
#13
Dakota E McCoy, Teresa Feo, Todd Alan Harvey, Richard O Prum
Many studies have shown how pigments and internal nanostructures generate color in nature. External surface structures can also influence appearance, such as by causing multiple scattering of light (structural absorption) to produce a velvety, super black appearance. Here we show that feathers from five species of birds of paradise (Aves: Paradisaeidae) structurally absorb incident light to produce extremely low-reflectance, super black plumages. Directional reflectance of these feathers (0.05-0.31%) approaches that of man-made ultra-absorbent materials...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305243/colonization-and-diversification-of-the-white-browed-shortwing-aves-muscicapidae-brachypteryx-montana-in-the-philippines
#14
Christopher C Kyriazis, Bushra Alam, Mark Wjodyla, Shannon Hackett, Peter Hosner, Herman L Mays, Lawrence R Heaney, Sushma Reddy
Molecular phylogenetic approaches have greatly improved our knowledge of the pattern and process of biological diversification across the globe; however, many regions remain poorly documented, even for well-studied vertebrate groups. The Philippine archipelago, one of the least-studied 'biodiversity hotspots', is an ideal natural laboratory for investigating the mechanisms driving diversification in an insular and geologically dynamic setting. We investigated the history and geography of diversification of the Philippine populations of a widespread montane bird, the White-browed Shortwing (Brachypteryx montana)...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285828/mixed-evidence-for-early-bursts-of-morphological-evolution-in-extant-clades
#15
Mark N Puttick
Macroevolutionary theory predicts high rates of evolution should occur early in a clade's history as species exploit ecological opportunity. Evidence from the fossil record has shown a high prevalence of early bursts in morphological evolution, but recent work has provided little evidence for early high rates in the evolution of extant clades. Here I test the prevalence of early bursts in extant data using phylogenetic comparative methods. Existing models are extended to allow a shift from a background Brownian motion (BM) process to an early burst process within sub-clades of phylogenies, rather than an early burst being applied to an entire phylogenetic tree...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284444/comparison-of-efficacy-between-coaxial-microincision-and-standard-incision-phacoemulsification-in-patients-with-age-related-cataracts-a-meta-analysis
#16
Lijun Wang, Xiao Xiao, Lin Zhao, Yi Zhang, Jianming Wang, Aiyi Zhou, Jianchao Wang, Qian Wu
BACKGROUND: Incision size plays a critical role in the efficacy of cataract surgery, but the available evidence on ideal incision size is inconsistent. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of coaxial microincisional phacoemulsification surgery (MICS) compared with that of standard-incision phacoemulsification surgery (SICS) in patients with age-related cataracts. METHODS: The Cochrane Library (Wiley Online Library), PubMed, Medline, National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and VIP databases were searched to identify reports of clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing MICS to SICS for the treatment of age-related cataracts...
December 29, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258503/development-and-validation-of-a-new-tool-to-measure-the-facilitators-barriers-and-preferences-to-exercise-in-people-with-osteoporosis
#17
Isabel B Rodrigues, Jonathan D Adachi, Karen A Beattie, Joy C MacDermid
BACKGROUND: Despite the widely known benefits of exercise and physical activity, adherence rates to these activities are poor. Understanding exercise facilitators, barriers, and preferences may provide an opportunity to personalize exercise prescription and improve adherence. The purpose of this study was to develop the Personalized Exercise Questionnaire (PEQ) to identify these facilitators, barriers, and preferences to exercise in people with osteoporosis. METHODS: This study comprises two phases, instrument design and judgmental evidence...
December 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251595/natural-variation-in-stochastic-photoreceptor-specification-and-color-preference-in-drosophila
#18
Caitlin Anderson, India Reiss, Cyrus Zhou, Annie Cho, Haziq Siddiqi, Benjamin Mormann, Cameron M Avelis, Peter Deford, Alan Bergland, Elijah Roberts, James Taylor, Daniel Vasiliauskas, Robert J Johnston
Each individual perceives the world in a unique way, but little is known about the genetic basis of variation in sensory perception. In the fly eye, the random mosaic of color-detecting R7 photoreceptor subtypes is determined by stochastic on/off expression of the transcription factor Spineless (Ss). In a genome-wide association study, we identified a naturally occurring insertion in a regulatory DNA element in ss that lowers the ratio of SsON to SsOFF cells. This change in photoreceptor fates shifts the innate color preference of flies from green to blue...
December 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250531/impact-of-blood-vessel-quantity-and-vascular-expression-of-cd133-and-icam-1-on-survival-of-glioblastoma-patients
#19
Ave Minajeva, Marju Kase, Mikk Saretok, Aidi Adamson-Raieste, Sandra Kase, Kristi Niinepuu, Markus Vardja, Toomas Asser, Jana Jaal
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most angiogenic tumor. Nevertheless, antiangiogenic therapy has not shown significant clinical efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess blood vessel characteristics on survival of GB patients. Surgically excised GB tissues were histologically examined for overall proportion of glomeruloid microvascular proliferation (MP) and the total number of blood vessels. Also, immunohistochemical vascular staining intensities of CD133 and ICAM-1 were determined. Vessel parameters were correlated with patients' overall survival...
2017: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246108/origin-and-cross-century-dynamics-of-an-avian-hybrid-zone
#20
Andrea Morales-Rozo, Elkin A Tenorio, Matthew D Carling, Carlos Daniel Cadena
BACKGROUND: Characterizations of the dynamics of hybrid zones in space and time can give insights about traits and processes important in population divergence and speciation. We characterized a hybrid zone between tanagers in the genus Ramphocelus (Aves, Thraupidae) located in southwestern Colombia. We evaluated whether this hybrid zone originated as a result of secondary contact or of primary differentiation, and described its dynamics across time using spatial analyses of molecular, morphological, and coloration data in combination with paleodistribution modeling...
December 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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