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Anneke H van Heteren, Roland C H van Dierendonk, Maria A N E van Egmond, Sjang L Ten Hagen, Jippe Kreuning
The dodo (Raphus cucullatus) might be the most enigmatic bird of all times. It is, therefore, highly remarkable that no consensus has yet been reached on its body mass; previous scientific estimates of its mass vary by more than 100%. Until now, the vast amount of bones stored at the Natural History Museum in Mauritius has not yet been studied morphometrically nor in relation to body mass. Here, a new estimate of the dodo's mass is presented based on the largest sample of dodo femora ever measured (n = 174)...
2017: PeerJ
Patricio González-Navarrete, Juan Andrés, V Sixte Safont
A comprehensive theoretical investigation of the thermal Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether (AVE) to allylacetaldehyde has been carried out. We present the use of the electron localization function (ELF) to monitor the bonding evolution aspects in the course of this thermal rearrangement and the results are compared with a photo-impulsive process where instantaneous vibration frequencies are monitored [I. Iwakura, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 12, 5546-5555]. Our results reveal an asynchronous electron density rearrangement inasmuch that the breaking of the C3-O bond and the formation of C1-C5 do not take place simultaneously...
December 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Nobuyoshi Shiojiri, Harunobu Kametani, Noriaki Ota, Yusuke Akai, Tomokazu Fukuchi, Tomoka Abo, Sho Tanaka, Junri Sekiguchi, Sachie Matsubara, Hayato Kawakami
The mammalian liver has a structural and functional unit called the liver lobule, in the periphery of which the portal triad consisting of the portal vein, bile duct and hepatic artery is developed. This type of hepatic architecture is detectable in many other vertebrates, including amphibians and birds, whereas intrahepatic bile ducts run independently of portal vein distribution in actinopterygians such as the salmon and tilapia. It remains to be clarified how the hepatic architectures are phylogenetically developed among vertebrates...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Cameron J Gilbert, Paul Angaran, Zana Mariano, Theresa Aves, Paul Dorian
OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia presentation to the emergency department (ED) and frequently results in admission to the hospital. Although rarely life-threatening and not usually an emergent condition, AF places a large burden on our health-care system. The objective of this study was to describe the practices of ED physicians in the management of AF in a large urban Canadian city. METHODS: From January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010, patients with a primary diagnosis of AF were identified across 10 EDs in Toronto, Canada (N=2,609)...
December 5, 2017: CJEM
Knud Andreas Jønsson, Mozes P K Blom, Martin Päckert, Per G P Ericson, Martin Irestedt
Molecular studies have revealed a number of cases in which traditional assessments of evolutionary relationships have been incorrect. This has implications not only for systematics and taxonomy but also for our understanding of how diversity patterns on Earth have been formed. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing technology to obtain molecular data from the holotype specimen of the elusive Eutrichomyias rowleyi, which is endemic to the Indonesian island of Sangihe. We show that E. rowleyi unexpectedly is a member of the family Lamproliidae, which dates back some 20 Million years and only include two other species, Lamprolia victoriae from Fiji and Chaetorhynchus papuensis from New Guinea...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Gavin M Leighton
Although communicative complexity is often predicted to correlate with social complexity in animal societies, few studies have employed large-scale comparative analyses to test whether socially complex species have more complex systems of communication. I tested this social complexity hypothesis in birds (Class: Aves) using the large amount of natural history information that describes both vocal repertoire and social system in these species. To do so, I marshalled data from primary and secondary records of avian vocal repertoires (n = 253), and for each of the species in the dataset I recorded the reported repertoire size and associated species information...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Anne L Dalle Ave, David M Shaw, Bernice Elger
Faced with similar issues of organ scarcity to its neighbors, Switzerland has developed donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) as a way to expand the organ pool since 1985. Here, we analyze the history, practical considerations, and ethical issues relating to the Swiss donation after circulatory death programs. In Switzerland, determination of death for DCDD requires a stand-off period of 10 minutes. This time between cardiac arrest and the declaration of death is mandated in the guidelines of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences...
September 2017: Progress in Transplantation
Laurent Chatre, Julien Fernandes, Valérie Michel, Laurence Fiette, Patrick Avé, Giuseppe Arena, Utkarsh Jain, Rainer Haas, Timothy C Wang, Miria Ricchetti, Eliette Touati
Targeting mitochondria is a powerful strategy for pathogens to subvert cell physiology and establish infection. Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen associated with gastric cancer development that is known to target mitochondria directly and exclusively through its pro-apoptotic and vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. By in vitro infection of gastric epithelial cells with wild-type and VacA-deficient H. pylori strains, treatment of cells with purified VacA proteins and infection of a mouse model, we show that H...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Denise M Saint Arnault, Moonhee Gang, Seoyoon Woo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Beliefs Toward Mental Illness Scale (BMI) across women from the United States, Japan, and South Korea. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was employed. The sample was 564 women aged 21-64 years old who were recruited in the United States and Korea (American = 127, Japanese immigrants in the United States = 204, and Korean = 233). We carried out item analysis, construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency using SPSS Version 22 and AMOS Version 22...
November 1, 2017: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
Delia Juronen, Ave Kuusk, Kairi Kivirand, Ago Rinken, Toonika Rinken
Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland and udder tissue, is the major endemic disease of dairy cattle. In addition to causing health problems to the animals, mastitis leads to the reduction of milk production and quality, representing a significant economic burden for farmers. To enable timely treatment of infected animals with pathogen-specific antibiotics, the development of automated analytical methods for rapid on-site identification and quantification of mastitis-causing pathogens in milk is particularly important...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Glenn F Seeholzer, Robb T Brumfield
During the process of ecological speciation, reproductive isolation results from divergent natural selection and leads to a positive correlation between genetic divergence and adaptive phenotypic divergence, i.e. isolation-by-adaptation (IBA). In natural populations, phenotypic differentiation is often autocorrelated with geographic distance, making IBA difficult to distinguish from the neutral expectation of isolation-by-distance (IBD). We examined these two alternatives in a dramatic case of clinal phenotypic variation in an Andean songbird, the Line-cheeked Spinetail (Cranioleuca antisiensis)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Edwin Scholes, Julia M Gillis, Timothy G Laman
The distinctive and divergent courtship phenotypes of the birds-of-paradise make them an important group for gaining insights into the evolution of sexually selected phenotypic evolution. The genus Astrapia includes five long-tailed species that inhabit New Guinea's montane forests. The visual and acoustic components of courtship among Astrapia species are very poorly known. In this study, we use audiovisual data from a natural history collection of animal behavior to fill gaps in knowledge about the visual and acoustic components of Astrapia courtship...
2017: PeerJ
Trevor H Worthy, Federico J Degrange, Warren D Handley, Michael S Y Lee
The extinct dromornithids, gastornithids and phorusrhacids are among the most spectacular birds to have ever lived, with some giants exceeding 500 kg. The affinities and evolution of these and other related extinct birds remain contentious, with previous phylogenetic analyses being affected by widespread convergence and limited taxon sampling. We address these problems using both parsimony and tip-dated Bayesian approaches on an expansive taxon set that includes all key extinct flightless and flighted (e...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Clive A Slaughter
This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, MCG-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Tel: (706) 713-2216; Fax: (706) 713-2221; E-mail:, or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association.
October 26, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
Jayanth S Chandran, Paul S Sharp, Evangelia Karyka, João Miguel da Conceição Aves-Cruzeiro, Ian Coldicott, Lydia Castelli, Guillaume Hautbergue, Mark O Collins, Mimoun Azzouz
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are attractive gene therapy vectors due to their low toxicity, high stability, and rare integration into the host genome. Expressing ligands on the viral capsid can re-target AAVs to new cell types, but limited sites have been identified on the capsid that tolerate a peptide insertion. Here, we incorporated a site-specific tetracysteine sequence into the AAV serotype 9 (AAV9) capsid, to permit labelling of viral particles with either a fluorescent dye or biotin. We demonstrate that fluorescently labelled particles are detectable in vitro, and explore the utility of the method in vivo in mice with time-lapse imaging...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Richard Pebody, Fiona Warburton, Joanna Ellis, Nick Andrews, Alison Potts, Simon Cottrell, Arlene Reynolds, Rory Gunson, Catherine Thompson, Monica Galiano, Chris Robertson, Naomh Gallagher, Mary Sinnathamby, Ivelina Yonova, Ana Correa, Catherine Moore, Muhammad Sartaj, Simon de Lusignan, Jim McMenamin, Maria Zambon
IntroductionThe United Kingdom is in the fourth season of introducing a universal childhood influenza vaccine programme. The 2016/17 season saw early influenza A(H3N2) virus circulation with care home outbreaks and increased excess mortality particularly in those 65 years or older. Virus characterisation data indicated emergence of genetic clusters within the A(H3N2) 3C.2a group which the 2016/17 vaccine strain belonged to. Methods: The test-negative case-control (TNCC) design was used to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory confirmed influenza in primary care...
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
André Fonseca, Rui A R Boaventura, Vítor J P Vilar
Nutrient nonpoint pollution has a significant impact on water resources worldwide. The main challenge of this work was to assess the application of best management practices in agricultural land to comply with water quality legislation for surface waters. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN was used to evaluate water quality of Ave River in Portugal. Best management practices (infiltration basin) (BMP) were applied to agricultural land (for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% area) with removal efficiencies of 50% for fecal coliforms and 30% for nitrogen, phosphorus, and biochemical oxygen demand...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Renata F Gerhardt, Andrea J Peretzki, Sebastian K Piendl, Detlev Belder
We introduce an approach for the integration of high performance liquid chromatography and droplet microfluidics on a single high-pressure resistant microfluidic glass chip. By coupling these two functionalities, separated analyte bands eluting from the HPLC column are fractionated into numerous droplets in a continuous flowing oil phase. The compartmentalization of the HPLC-eluate in a segmented flow was performed with droplet sizes of approximately 1 nL and with droplet frequencies reaching up to 45 Hz. This approach prevents peak dispersion and facilitates post column processing of chromatographic fractions on chip...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Arild Johnsen, Anna M Kearns, Kevin E Omland, Jarl Andreas Anmarkrud
Previous studies based on single mitochondrial markers have shown that the common raven (Corvus corax) consists of two highly diverged lineages that are hypothesised to have undergone speciation reversal upon secondary contact. Furthermore, common ravens are paraphyletic with respect to the Chihuahuan raven (C. cryptoleucus) based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Here we explore the causes of mtDNA paraphyly by sequencing whole mitochondrial genomes of 12 common ravens from across the Northern Hemisphere, in addition to three Chihuahuan ravens and one closely related brown-necked raven (C...
2017: PloS One
Georg Wolfstetter, Kathrin Pfeifer, Jesper R van Dijk, Fredrik Hugosson, Xiangyi Lu, Ruth H Palmer
In Drosophila melanogaster, the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk) and its ligand jelly belly (Jeb) are required to specify muscle founder cells in the visceral mesoderm. We identified a critical role for the scaffolding protein Cnk (connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras) in this signaling pathway. Embryos that ectopically expressed the minimal Alk interaction region in the carboxyl terminus of Cnk or lacked maternal and zygotic cnk did not generate visceral founder cells or a functional gut musculature, phenotypes that resemble those of jeb and Alk mutants...
October 24, 2017: Science Signaling
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