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diabetes and pregnancy insulin

Yurena Vivas, Monica Díez-Hochleitner, Adriana Izquierdo-Lahuerta, Patricia Corrales, Daniel Horrillo, Ismael Velasco, Cristina Martínez-García, Mark Campbell, Julio Sevillano, Mercedes Ricote, Manuel Ros, Maria Pilar Ramos, Gema Medina-Gomez
Pregnancy requires the adaptation of maternal energy metabolism including expansion and functional modifications of adipose tissue. Insulin resistance (IR), predominantly during late gestation, is a physiological metabolic adaptation that serves to support the metabolic demands of fetal growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations are not fully understood and may contribute to gestational diabetes mellitus. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) controls adipogenesis, glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Laura Ozer Kettner, Niels Bjerregaard Matthiesen, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen, Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel, Bjørn Bay, Tine Brink Henriksen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between specific types of fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Nationwide birth cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): All pregnancies resulting in a live-born singleton child in Denmark from 1995 to 2003. INTERVENTION(S): Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus identified from redeemed prescriptions for insulin until 2013...
October 20, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Vasileios Charalampakis, Abd A Tahrani, Ahmed Helmy, Janesh K Gupta, Rishi Singhal
One of the most effective methods to tackle obesity and its related comorbidities is bariatric surgery. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), which are associated with increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, have been identified as potentially new indications for bariatric surgery. PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women in the reproductive age and is associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. EH is a pre-cancerous condition which arises in the presence of chronic exposure to estrogen unopposed by progesterone such as both in PCOS and obesity...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Robert Wagner, Louise Fritsche, Martin Heni, Ellen Fehlert, Norbert Stefan, Harald Staiger, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche
AIMS: Insulin resistance underlies the etiology of both type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. In pregnancy, insulin resistance is also associated with an unfavorable metabolic programming of the fetus, potentially contributing to a higher risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the offspring. To assess insulin sensitivity, several methods based on glucose and insulin levels during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) exist. It is unclear how they perform during pregnancy, where physiologically altered metabolism could introduce a bias...
October 22, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Kelly Valério Prates, Audrei Pavanello, Ananda Malta, Laize Peron Tófolo, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Elaine Vieira, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Luiz Felipe Barella, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Vander Silva Alves, Sandra da Silva Silveira, Veridiana Mota Moreira, Gabriel Sergio Fabricio, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Deborah M Sloboda, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
Acephate has been used extensively as an insecticide in agriculture. Its downstream sequelae are associated with hyperglycemia, lipid metabolism dysfunction, DNA damage, and cancer, which are rapidly growing epidemics and which lead to increased morbidity and mortality rates and soaring health-care costs. Developing interventions will require a comprehensive understanding of which excess insecticides during perinatal life can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A Wistar rat animal model suggests that acephate exposure during pregnancy and lactation causes alterations in maternal glucose metabolism and programs the offspring to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes at adulthood...
October 17, 2016: Toxicology
Riki Bergel, Eran Hadar, Yoel Toledano, Moshe Hod
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common morbidities complicating pregnancy, with short- and long-term consequences to the mothers, fetuses, and newborns. Management and treatment are aimed to achieve best possible glycemic control, while avoiding hypoglycemia and ensuring maternal and fetal safety. It involves behavioral modifications, nutrition and medications, if needed; concurrent with maternal and fetal surveillance for possible adverse outcomes. This review aims to elaborate on the pharmacological options for GDM therapy...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Sansnee Jirojwong, Suzanne Brownhill, Hannah G Dahlen, Maree Johnson, Virginia Schmied
Issue addressed: In many developed countries the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for Asian-born women is higher than other groups. Studies suggest that some women have limited knowledge of the disease and poor self-management leading to health problems for themselves and their baby. Few studies report the experience of GDM among Southeast Asian migrant women living in Australia and factors that influence their management of the disease. Methods: A qualitative interpretive design was used to explore Southeast Asian migrant women's experience and management of GDM...
October 13, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Giridhara R Babu, Gvs Murthy, R Deepa, Yamuna, Prafulla, H Kiran Kumar, Maithili Karthik, Keerti Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, D Prabhakaran, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra
BACKGROUND: India is experiencing an epidemic of obesity-hyperglycaemia, which coincides with child bearing age for women. The epidemic can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. This presents an opportunity for exploring a clear strategy for the control of this epidemic in India. We conducted a study between November 2013 and May 2015 to inform the design of a large pregnancy cohort study. Based on the findings of this pilot, we developed the protocol for the proposed birth cohort of 5000 women, the recruitment for which will start in April 2016...
October 14, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Arivudainambi Kayal, Viswanathan Mohan, Belma Malanda, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Balaji Bhavadharini, Manni Mohanraj Mahalakshmi, Kumar Maheswari, Ram Uma, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Gunasekaran Kalaiyarasi, Lyudmil Ninov, Anne Belton
AIM: The Women In India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) project was conducted with the aim of developing a model of care (MOC) suitable for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in low- and middle-income countries. METHODOLOGY: The WINGS project was carried out in Chennai, Southern India, in two phases. In Phase I, a situational analysis was conducted to understand the practice patterns of health-care professionals and to determine the best screening criteria through a pilot screening study...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
Filip A Dąbrowski, Patrycja Jarmużek, Agata Gondek, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Dorota Bomba-Opoń, Mirosław Wielgoś
OBJECTIVES: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disease diagnosed in 1.7% up to 11.6% pregnancies. The prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcome is significantly higher in the case of early onset of diabetes mellitus. Adropin is a hormone promoting carbohydrate oxidation over fat oxidation, and influence nitric oxide synthase. Copeptin is a cleavage product of the vasopressin precursor recently correlated with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine maternal serum adropin and copeptin concentrations in women with early and late manifestation of GDM and to discuss their potential role as biochemical markers of insulin resistance...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Gustavo Tadeu Volpato, Rafaianne Queiroz Moraes-Souza, Thaigra Sousa Soares, Thais Leal-Silva, Débora Cristina Damasceno
Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of great importance that affects an increasing number of people every day. In particular, diabetes is a common and important disease during pregnancy and is marked by complications, both fetal and maternal, that increase the risks of morbidity and mortality for diabetic pregnant women and their offspring. Drugs such as insulin and hypoglycemic drugs are given to treat diabetes, but regular exercise and adequate diet have also been indicated. Furthermore, coadjutant therapies such as medicinal plants are popularly used to reduce diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, either within or outside the context of pregnancy...
October 3, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Apolonia García-Patterson, Inka Miñambres, Juan María Adelantado, Ignasi Gich, Teresa Puig, Alberto de Leiva, Rosa Corcoy
AIMS: To assess the association between maternal diabetes characteristics and sex ratio at birth (SRB) in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We performed a case-control study. The study subjects were infants born alive to women with type 1 diabetes and singleton pregnancies. Cases and controls were defined as male and female newborns, respectively. SRB was analysed according to diabetes-related characteristics adjusting in a logistic regression analysis for maternal characteristics known to affect SRB in the general population...
October 1, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
Bao-Long Pan, Run-Mei Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of serum omentin-1 and chemerin with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Serum levels of omentin-1 chemerin, glycolipids biochemical index, inflammation index, fasting insulin (FINS), and insulin resistance indexes (HOMA-IR) were determined in 85 women with GDM and 85 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). RESULTS: BMI, FPG, hs-CRP, blood lipids, blood glucose, FINS, HOMA-IR and serum chemerin level were all significantly higher while serum omentin-1 significantly lower in GDM group than in NGT group (P<0...
August 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Claire L Meek
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common pregnancy disorder which is generally managed with diet, exercise, metformin or insulin treatment and which usually resolves after delivery of the infant. Identifying and treating GDM improves maternal and fetal outcomes, and allows for health promotion to reduce the mother's risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. However, there remains considerable controversy about the optimal method of identification and diagnosis of women with GDM. The NICE-2015 diagnostic criteria (75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 0 hr ⩾5...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Maciej Tarnowski, Damian Malinowski, Krzysztof Safranow, Violetta Dziedziejko, Michał Czerewaty, Andrzej Pawlik
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder that occurs during pregnancy. HHEX and PROX1 are genetic loci associated with diabetes mellitus type 2. HHEX and PROX1 play significant roles in carbohydrate intolerance and diabetes because these transcription factors may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion and in glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the association between HHEX (rs5015480) and PROX1 (rs340874) gene polymorphisms and GDM. This study included 204 pregnant women with GDM and 207 pregnant women with the normal glucose tolerance (NGT)...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Tiina Vilmi-Kerälä, Outi Palomäki, Päivi Kankkunen, Leena Juurinen, Jukka Uotila, Ari Palomäki
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an indicator of future cardiovascular disease. We investigated if sensitive biomarkers of increased cardiovascular risk differ between women with and without a history of GDM few years after pregnancy, and whether obesity affects the results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied two cohorts - 120 women with a history of GDM and 120 controls, on average 3.7 years after delivery. Circulating concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) were determined by ELISA...
September 28, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Sarah H Koning, Klaas Hoogenberg, Kirsten A Scheuneman, Mick G Baas, Fleurisca J Korteweg, Krystyna M Sollie, Bertine J Schering, Aren J van Loon, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Paul P van den Berg, Helen L Lutgers
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the neonatal and obstetric outcomes of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Screening and treatment - diet-only versus additional insulin therapy - were based on the 2010 national Dutch guidelines. METHODS: Retrospective study of the electronic medical files of 820 singleton GDM pregnancies treated between January 2011 and September 2014 in a university and non-university hospital. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between regular care treatment regimens -diet-only versus additional insulin therapy- and pregnancy outcomes of the Northern region of the Netherlands served as a reference population...
September 29, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Majid Valizadeh, Zahra Piri, Farnaz Mohammadian, Koorosh Kamali, Hamid Reza Amir Moghadami
BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in many observational studies. OBJECTIVES: We report the first study of the impact of prenatal vitamin D supplementation on postpartum dysglycemia in GDM patients in a randomized clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with GDM at 12 - 32 weeks of gestation were assigned randomly to either the intervention group (in which serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25OHD] levels were measured immediately, n = 48) or the control group (in which the serum was stored and assayed at 6 - 12 weeks post-partum, n = 48)...
April 2016: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Elise L Donovan, Emma J Buckels, Serina Hancock, Danielle Smeitink, Mark H Oliver, Frank H Bloomfield, Anne L Jaquiery
Twins are often born small and early and have increased risk of obesity and diabetes later in life. Twin conception in sheep, regardless of whether the pregnancy continues as twins or is reduced to singleton in early gestation, alters offspring growth trajectory and body composition in young adulthood. We hypothesized that twin conception would result in insulin resistance in adulthood, with insulin-resistant adipose tissue and skeletal muscle phenotypes. At 3 years of age, body weight was not different among singletons, twins, and reductions; females weighed less than males...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
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