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cutaneous leishmaniasis

Astrid Christine Erber, Byron Arana, Issam Bennis, Afif Ben Salah, Aicha Boukthir, Maria Del Mar Castro Noriega, Mamoudou Cissé, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Farhad Handjani, Mairie Guizaw Kebede, Trudie Lang, Liliana López Carvajal, Kevin Marsh, Dalila Martinez Medina, Emma Plugge, Piero Olliaro
INTRODUCTION: Lack of investments in drug development, lack of standardisation of clinical trials and the complexity of disease presentations contribute to the current lack of effective, safe and adapted treatments for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). One aspect concerns outcomes affecting patients' quality of life (QoL): these are hardly assessed in trials, despite potential functional and/or aesthetic impairment caused by CL, which typically affects disadvantaged and vulnerable people living in rural areas...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Marina L Rodrigues-Alves, Otoni A O Melo-Júnior, Jordana G Coelho-Dos-Reis, Marcelo A Pascoal-Xavier, Heloisa Alves-Costa, Clovis A Reis, Walderez O Dutra, Rosiana E Silva, Maria C R Senna, Andreia C Faria, Nayara I Medeiros, Juliana A S Gomes, Denise Silveira-Lemos, Olindo A Martins-Filho, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Matheus F Costa-Silva, Rodolfo C Giunchetti, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) treatment is based on therapy with Glucantime® , yet there are few laboratory methods to monitor its success. In this study, ex vivo and in vitro evaluations of peripheral blood monocytes were performed in a longitudinal study to characterize the impact of Glucantime® on overall phenotypic/functional features of these cells from CL patients to identify predictive biomarkers for post-therapeutic monitoring by flow cytometry. The ex vivo evaluation from CL patients demonstrated a modulatory profile before treatment, with a decrease in TLR-2, FcγRII, HLA-DR, CD86, IFN-γR, TNF, IL-12, NO, and an increase in FcγRIII and IL-10R...
June 16, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Krishanthi S Subramaniam, Victoria Austin, Nathaniel S Schocker, Alba L Montoya, Matthew S Anderson, Roger A Ashmus, Mina Mesri, Waleed Al-Salem, Igor C Almeida, Katja Michael, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano
Outbreaks of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) have significantly increased due to the conflicts in the Middle East, with most of the cases occurring in resource-limited areas such as refugee settlements. The standard methods of diagnosis include microscopy and parasite culture, which have several limitations. To address the growing need for a CL diagnostic that can be field applicable, we have identified five candidate neoglycoproteins (NGPs): Galα (NGP3B), Galα(1,3)Galα (NGP17B), Galα(1,3)Galβ (NGP9B), Galα(1,6)[Galα(1,2)]Galβ (NGP11B), and Galα(1,3)Galβ(1,4)Glcβ (NGP1B) that are differentially recognized in sera from individuals with Leishmania major infection as compared with sera from heterologous controls...
June 14, 2018: Parasitology
Adil El Hamouchi, Sofia El Kacem, Rajaa Ejghal, Meryem Lemrani
BACKGROUND: Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and sporadic human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Mediterranean region. The genetic variation of the Leishmania parasites may result in different phenotypes that can be associated with the geographical distribution and diversity of the clinical manifestations. The main objective of this study was to explore the genetic polymorphism in L. infantum isolates from human and animal hosts in different regions of Morocco...
June 14, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Cheick Amadou Coulibaly, Bourama Traore, Adama Dicko, Sibiry Samake, Ibrahim Sissoko, Jennifer M Anderson, Jesus Valenzuela, Sekou F Traore, Ousmane Faye, Shaden Kamhawi, Fabiano Oliveira, Seydou Doumbia
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic neglected tropical disease prevalent in several areas where seasonal malaria transmission is active. We assessed the effect of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and the mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs) for malaria control on sand fly population diversity and abundance, and its impact on the risk of Leishmania transmission in the district of Baroueli, endemic for CL in Mali. METHODS: Kemena and Sougoula, two villages in the district of Baroueli, were selected for entomology surveys from March to September 2016 to evaluate sand fly species composition and density, and Leishmania infection rates in the vector Phlebotomus duboscqi...
June 14, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Aline de Souza, Débora Soares Souza Marins, Samir Leite Mathias, Lis Marie Monteiro, Megumi Nishitani Yukuyama, Cauê Benito Scarim, Raimar Löbenberg, Nádia Araci Bou-Chacra
Leishmaniases are infectious diseases caused by an intracellular protozoan in humans by 20 different species of Leishmania among more than 53 species. There are at least twelve million cases of infections worldwide and three hundred and fifty million people are at risk in at least 98 developing countries in Africa, South-East Asia, and the Americas. Only Brazil presented high burden for both visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous (CL). Chemotherapy is the main means of dealing with this infection. Nevertheless, only a few effective drugs are available, and each has a particular disadvantage; toxicity and long-term regimens compromise most chemotherapeutic options, which decreases patient compliance and adherence to the treatment and consequently the emergence of drug-resistant strains...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Néstor Añez, Agustina Rojas, José Vicente Scorza-Dagert, Carmen Morales
One hundred and twenty-two lesions caused by Leishmania braziliensis in 92 patients were treated using weekly intralesional (IL) infiltrations of a generic pentavalent antimonial compound, combined with local anesthetics. The topical therapy produced satisfactory healing in all the included patients, bearing from single-small ulcers to multiple or big lesions, after receiving an average 6 ± 3 IL infiltrations (90 mgSb5+ each). The rapid effect of this compound was demonstrated by the observed decrease of the Leishmania-amastigote population following microscopical grading in complicated ulcers after receiving two infiltrations...
June 5, 2018: Acta Tropica
Kimia G Ganjaei, Kira Lawton, Sunanda Gaur
We present here the case of a healthy 16-year-old American girl who returned from an organized trip to Israel with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major; the infection was treated successfully with paromomycin-gentamicin ointment. She was initially misdiagnosed with staphylococcal and pseudomonal cellulitis. Although cutaneous leishmaniasis is seen only rarely in the United States, it should be considered when diagnosing new skin lesions after travel to affected countries.
June 6, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Paul Cos, Jo Janssens, Abel Piñón, Osmany Cuesta-Rubio, Arianna Yglesias-Rivera, Alexis Díaz-García, Wagner Vilegas, Lianet Monzote
Background: Leishmaniasis is a complex protozoa disease caused by Leishmania genus (Trypanosomatidae family). Currently, there have been renewed interests worldwide in plants as pharmaceutical agents. In this study, the in vivo efficacy of Solanum spp. is assessed in an L. amazonensis BALB/c mice model for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: Animals were infected with 5 × 10⁶ metacyclic promastigotes and 30-day post-infection, a treatment with 30 mg/kg of Solanum extracts or Glucantime® (GTM) was applied intralesionally every four days to complete 5 doses...
June 5, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Jesùs Rojas-Jaimes, Helena L Frischtak, Jose Arenas, Andres G Lescano
Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is associated with progressive tissue destruction and granuloma formation, often after a considerable period of latency from an initial cutaneous infection. We report a case of recurrent epistaxis of 3 years duration and nasopharyngeal obstruction in a woman with treated cutaneous leishmaniasis nearly 30 years before and with no further exposure to Leishmania. Computed tomography revealed nasal septal perforation and histopathology demonstrated chronic inflammation. Microscopy was negative for amastigotes, but molecular testing of nasal mucosa biopsy detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis ...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ryan Lamm, Clark Alves, Grace Perrotta, Meagan Murphy, Catherine Messina, Juan F Sanchez, Erika Perez, Luis Angel Rosales, Andres G Lescano, Edward Smith, Hugo Valdivia, Jack Fuhrer, Sarah-Blythe Ballard
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic to South America where diagnosis is most commonly conducted via microscopy. Patients with suspected leishmaniasis were referred for enrollment by the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Lima, Iquitos, Puerto Maldonado, and several rural areas of Peru. A 43-question survey requesting age, gender, occupation, characterization of the lesion(s), history of leishmaniasis, and insect-deterrent behaviors was administered. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted on lesion materials at the Naval Medical Research Unit No...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Daniel Holanda Barroso, Sarah De Athayde Couto Falcão, Jorgeth de Oliveira Carneiro da Motta, Laís Sevilha Dos Santos, Gustavo Henrique Soares Takano, Ciro Martins Gomes, Cecília Beatriz Fiuza Favali, Beatriz Dolabela de Lima, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio
Introduction: Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is a rare disease form associated with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis in South America. It represents the "anergic" pole of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis, and the explanation for its resistance to treatment remains elusive. We aimed to study some possible immunological mechanisms involved in the poor DCL treatment response by evaluating some cell surface molecules obtained from a patient with DCL by flow cytometry. Case presentation: A 65-year-old DCL patient who initially failed to respond to the standard treatment for the disease showed vacuolated macrophages filled with amastigotes in lesion biopsy, and L ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
S K Söbirk, M Inghammar, M Collin, L Davidsson
In Sweden, leishmaniasis is an imported disease and its epidemiology and incidence were not known until now. We conducted a retrospective, nationwide, epidemiological study from 1993 to 2016. Probable cases were patients with leishmaniasis diagnoses reported to the Swedish Patient registry, collecting data on admitted patients in Swedish healthcare since 1993 and out-patient visits since 2001. Confirmed cases were those with a laboratory test positive for leishmaniasis during 1993-2016. 299 probable cases and 182 confirmed cases were identified...
May 31, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Asad Mirzaei, Fereshteh Ahmadipour, Arnaud Cannet, Pierre Marty, Pascal Delaunay, Pascale Perrin, Franck Dorkeld, Denis Sereno, Mohammad Akhoundi
The diagnosis of leishmaniasis relies mainly on the use of invasive processes, to collect the biological material for detecting Leishmania parasites. Body fluids, which can be collected by non-invasive process, would greatly facilitate the leishmaniasis diagnosis. In the present study, we investigated the potency of urine immunoblotting to diagnose cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis and we compared with routine molecular methods. A total of 80 samples, including 40 sera and their 40 corresponding urine samples were collected from 37 suspected patients with cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, and 3 healthy individuals (as control), in Ilam and Ardabil provinces of Iran...
May 27, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mahmood Reza Gholamian-Shahabad, Kourosh Azizi, Qasem Asgari, Mohsen Kalantari, Mohammad Djaefar Moemenbellah-Fard
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniosis (ZCL) is a crucial public health challenge in Iran. Sandflies feed on reservoir rodents' blood infected with Leishmania parasite and transmit it to other hosts. This study was conducted to find out the composition and monthly activity of sandflies as well as to identify the protozoan pathogens ( Leishmania / Crithidia ) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an emerging ZCL focus of Abarkooh, Yazd province, Iran, in 2016. A cross-sectional study was done in rural areas of Abarkooh...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Mohammad Moradi, Yavar Rassi, Mohammad Reza Abai, Alireza Zahraei Ramazani, Mehdi Mohebali, Sayena Rafizadeh
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic and a major health problem in 17 provinces out of 31 in Iran. This study aimed to determine vectors and reservoirs of the disease using molecular techniques in the borderline of Iran and Iraq. Sand flies and rodents were sampled using sticky paper traps and metal wire live traps, respectively, in the selected villages. About 10% of archived confirmed human positive slides was randomly checked for Leishmania by PCR-RFLP assay. The female sand flies were dissected in alcohol 96% in a sterile condition, the head and two segments of the abdomen end permanently mounted for identification and the remaining of body used for DNA extraction...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Lígia Moraes Barizon de Souza, Vanete Thomaz Soccol, Ricardo Rasmussen Petterle, Michelle D Bates, Paul A Bates
Oligosaccharides are broadly present on Leishmania cell surfaces. They can be useful for the leishmaniases diagnosis and also helpful in identifying new cell markers for the disease. The disaccharide Galα1-3Galβ is the immunodominant saccharide in Leishmania cell surface and is the unique non-reducing terminal glycosphingolipids structure recognized by anti-α-Gal. This study describes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to measure serum levels of anti-α-galactosyl (α-Gal) antibodies in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)...
May 28, 2018: Parasitology
Patricia Gijón-Robles, Naima Abattouy, Gemma Merino-Espinosa, Nora El Khalfaoui, Francisco Morillas-Márquez, Victoriano Corpas-López, Laura Porcel-Rodríguez, Noureddine Jaaouani, Victoriano Díaz-Sáez, Myriam Riyad, Joaquina Martín-Sánchez
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania tropica is emerging in new areas, initially as outbreaks and then establishing endemic foci. There is little evidence of the risk factors and effectiveness of existing control measures, what limits our ability to generalize in different epidemiological settings. The disease is described as anthroponotic; however, zoonotic outbreaks have been reported in some countries. Our aim was to identify risk factors in a recently reported endemic focus in Morocco in order to design more effective control programmes...
May 28, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Bruno José Martins Da Silva, José Rogério Souza-Monteiro, Herve Rogez, Maria Elena Crespo-López, Jose Luiz M Do Nascimento, Edilene O Silva
Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania infantum (=Leishmania chagasi) are protozoa that cause American cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. These diseases show a high incidence in developing countries such as Brazil. The treatments used for leishmaniasis are still limited due to their high cost and toxicity. Currently, some natural products are considered an important alternative source of new leishmanicidal agents. Euterpe oleracea Martius, a palm producing black fruits, is frequently consumed in the Amazon region, as a juice, known as açai, with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticonvulsant properties...
January 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hamid Reza Tohidinik, Mehdi Mohebali, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Sharareh R Niakan Kalhori, Mohsen Ali-Akbarpour, Kamran Yazdani
OBJECTIVES: To predict the occurrence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) and evaluate the effect of climatic variables on disease incidence in the east of Fars province, Iran using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model. METHODS: The Box-Jenkins approach was applied to fit the SARIMA model for ZCL incidence from 2004 to 2015. Then the model was used to predict the number of ZCL cases for the year 2016. Finally, we assessed the relation of meteorological variables (rainfall, rainy days, temperature, hours of sunshine and relative humidity) with ZCL incidence...
May 22, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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