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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340765/orotracheal-tube-as-a%C3%A2-risk-factor-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-preliminary-data-from-a%C3%A2-randomised-trial
#1
Igor Muzlovic, Janja Perme, David Stubljar
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether polyurethane (PU) endotracheal tubes, continuous measurements of cuff pressure and aspiration of the subglottic space as a bundle of parameters could reduce patients' risk for developing ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: Two groups of patients that differed only in terms of endotracheal tubes and intubation intervention were compared. Group A was ventilated using PU tubes a with conical cuff; they also had continuous cuff pressure measurement and continuous subglottic aspiration...
January 16, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340593/the-clinical-utility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-nasal-screening-to-rule-out-mrsa-pneumonia-a-diagnostic-meta-analysis-with-antimicrobial-stewardship-implications
#2
Diane M Parente, Cheston B Cunha, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Tristan T Timbrook
Background: Recent literature has highlighted MRSA nasal screening as a possible antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) tool for avoiding unnecessary empiric MRSA therapy for pneumonia, yet current guidelines recommend MRSA therapy based on risk factors. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of MRSA nasal screening in MRSA pneumonia. Methods: Pubmed and EMBASE were searched from inception to November 2016 for English studies evaluating MRSA nasal screening and development of MRSA pneumonia...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337703/new-antibiotics-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#3
Matteo Bassetti, Antionio Vena, Nadia Castaldo, Elda Righi, Maddalena Peghin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria represents a global emerging problem. Delayed prescription of an adequate treatment for VAP has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. New molecules have been developed to face the need of compounds that are active against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the current scenario of new therapeutic options for the treatment of VAP...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329916/impact-of-the-international-nosocomial-infection-control-consortium-s-multidimensional-approach-on-rates-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-14-intensive-care-units-in-11-hospitals-of-5-cities-within-argentina
#4
Victor Daniel Rosenthal, Javier Desse, Diego Marcelo Maurizi, Gustavo Jorge Chaparro, Pablo Wenceslao Orellano, Viviana Chediack, Rafael Cabrera, Daniel Golschmid, Cristina Graciela Silva, Julio Cesar Vimercati, Juan Pablo Stagnaro, Ivanna Perez, María Laura Spadaro, Adriana Miriam Montanini, Dina Pedersen, Teresa Laura Paniccia, Ana María Ríos Aguilera, Raul Cermesoni, Juan Ignacio Mele, Ernesto Alda, Analía Edith Paldoro, Agustín Román Ortta, Bettina Cooke, María Cecilia García, Mora Nair Obed, Cecilia Verónica Domínguez, Pablo Alejandro Saúl, María Cecilia Rodríguez Del Valle, Alberto Claudio Bianchi, Gustavo Alvarez, Ricardo Pérez, Carolina Oyola
BACKGROUND: To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional approach (IMA) on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates in 11 hospitals within 5 cities of Argentina from January 2014-April 2017. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, before-after surveillance study was conducted through the use of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Surveillance Online System. During baseline, we performed outcome surveillance of VAP applying the definitions of the Centers for Disease Control andPrevention's National Healthcare Safety Network...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325882/pathophysiology-of-escherichia-coli-pneumonia-respective-contribution-of-pathogenicity-islands-to-virulence
#5
Mathilde Phillips-Houlbracq, Jean-Damien Ricard, Arnaud Foucrier, Deborah Yoder-Himes, Stéphane Gaudry, Julie Bex, Jonathan Messika, Dimitri Margetis, Jérémie Chatel, Ulrich Dobrindt, Erick Denamur, Damien Roux
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains the most frequent life-threatening nosocomial infection. Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli are increasingly involved. If a cumulative effect of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) has been shown for E. coli virulence in urinary tract or systemic infections, very little is known regarding pathophysiology of E. coli pneumonia. This study aimed to determine the role of each of the 7 PAIs present in pathogenic E. coli strain 536 in pneumonia pathophysiology. We used mutant strains to screen pathophysiological role of PAI in a rat pneumonia model...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321327/human-papillomavirus-16-infection-induces-vap-dependent-endosomal-tubulation
#6
Abida Siddiqa, Paola Massimi, David Pim, Justyna Broniarczyk, Lawrence Banks
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans-Golgi network and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319497/comparison-of-the-treatment-efficacy-between-tigecycline-plus-high-dose-cefoperazone-sulbactam-and-tigecycline-monotherapy-against-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#7
Youfa Qin, Jie Zhang, Lei Wu, Dailong Zhang, Lunjiao Fu, Xiaoyan Xue
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effect of high-dose cefoperazone-sulbactam combined with tigecycline against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 42 patients with VAP due to XDR-AB infection were randomized into two groups: the TIG group (received tigecycline injection) and the TIG+CFS group (received tigecycline and cefoperazone-sulbactam (1 : 1) injection)...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317840/an-antibiotic-stewardship-exercise-in-the-icu-building-a-treatment-algorithm-for-the-management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-based-on-local-epidemiology-and-the-2016-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-american-thoracic-society-guidelines
#8
Lyn S Awad, Dania I Abdallah, Anas M Mugharbil, Tamima H Jisr, Nabila S Droubi, Nabila A El-Rajab, Rima A Moghnieh
Introduction: Management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most common infection in patients on mechanical ventilation, should be tailored to local microbiological data. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of organisms causing VAP to develop a treatment algorithm based on these findings and evidence from the literature. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the microbiological etiology of VAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a Lebanese tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to July 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310988/an-updated-diagnostic-approach-to-subtype-definition-of-vascular-parkinsonism-recommendations-from-an-expert-working-group
#9
REVIEW
Ivan Rektor, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Amos D Korczyn, Viktoria Gryb, Hrishikesh Kumar, Milica G Kramberger, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Zvezdan Pirtošek, Irena Rektorová, Ilana Schlesinger, Jaroslaw Slawek, Peter Valkovič, Branislav Veselý
This expert working group report proposes an updated approach to subtype definition of vascular parkinsonism (VaP) based on a review of the existing literature. The persistent lack of consensus on clear terminology and inconsistent conceptual definition of VaP formed the impetus for the current expert recommendation report. The updated diagnostic approach intends to provide a comprehensive tool for clinical practice. The preamble for this initiative is that VaP can be diagnosed in individual patients with possible prognostic and therapeutic consequences and therefore should be recognized as a clinical entity...
December 29, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309288/improving-resident-oral-health-and-adherence-to-a-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-bundle-in-a-skilled-nursing-facility
#10
Patricia Finch Guthrie, Shelley Rayborn, John Boatright, Valinda Pearson, Rosemary Wieting, Randy Peterson, Molly Danahy
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common with mechanical ventilation. VAP bundles have improved outcomes in acute care and long-term acute care hospitals. This article reports on an implementation of a VAP bundle designed for a skilled nursing facility (SNF). The primary goal was to improve oral health, a significant factor for VAP, and improve SNF nurse adherence to the bundle. Improvements in oral health and adherence were demonstrated. Nurses had difficulty with adhering to maintaining the tracheostomy cuff seal...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308759/-effect-of-indwelling-nasointestinal-tube-for-enteral-nutrition-support-in-patients-with-severe-craniocerebral-trauma-undergoing-mechanical-ventilation
#11
Feixiang Chen, Chao Xu, Cunhai Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of indwelling nasointestinal tube for enteral nutrition (EN) support on patients with severe craniocerebral trauma undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: A total of 100 severe craniocerebral trauma patients undergoing MV admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the 117th Hospital of People's Liberation Army from February 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into nasogastric tube group in which the EN was fed by nasogastric tube and nasal jejunal feeding tube group (nasointestinal tube group) by random digits table, with 50 patients in each group...
January 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308208/early-versus-late-tracheostomy-after-decompressive-craniectomy-for-stroke
#12
Michael P Catalino, Feng-Chang Lin, Nathan Davis, Keith Anderson, Casey Olm-Shipman, J Dedrick Jordan
Background: Stroke patients requiring decompressive craniectomy are at high risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Tracheostomy placement may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation. Predicting which patients will require tracheostomy and the optimal timing of tracheostomy remains a clinical challenge. In this study, the authors compare key outcomes after early versus late tracheostomy and develop a useful pre-operative decision-making tool to predict post-operative tracheostomy dependence...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305283/evidence-based-guidelines-for-prevention-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-evaluation-of-intensive-care-unit-nurses-adherence
#13
Muhammad W Darawad, Mohammad Abu Sa'aleek, Taghreed Shawashi
Using self-reported questionnaires, this descriptive study assessed nurses' adherence to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) guidelines, which was found to be 81.3%. Although items concerning infection control achieved the highest scores, items concerning the suctioning process achieved the lowest scores. Participants' score of VAP care knowledge had a significant positive correlation with their score of VAP guidelines adherence. Addressing the strength and weakness domains that affect nurses' adherence is crucial for health care administrators at different managerial levels, which may help in executing different strategies to improve nurses' adherence to VAP strategies...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301674/influence-of-cooling-temperature-in-sperm-subpopulations-of-domestic-cats
#14
REVIEW
Anne Kemmer Souza, Luiz Guilherme Corsi Trautwein, Cristiane Sella Paranzini, Felipe Montanheiro Perencin, Guilherme Schiess Cardoso, Maria Isabel Mello Martins
The objective of this study was to identify and compare domestic feline sperm subpopulations, chilled at -1 °C for 24 and 48 h, as well as to analyze the sperm frequency in different subpopulations. Ten adult cats were used. Sperm collection was performed using electroejaculation (EEJ). Spermatic kinetics were evaluated using a computerized system at three moments: fresh, 24 and 48 h after refrigeration. The ejaculates were divided into a group refrigerated at -1 °C (n = 5,) and a group refrigerated at 4 °C (n = 5),...
December 22, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300774/detection-of-vapn-in-rhodococcus-equi-isolates-cultured-from-humans
#15
Laura K Bryan, Ellen Ruth Alexander, Sara D Lawhon, Noah D Cohen
Rhodococcus equi can cause severe infections in people, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The R. equi virulence plasmids (vap) encoding vapA and vapB are linked to development of infections in domestic animals. Recently, a novel virulence plasmid, vapN, was identified in isolates cultured from cattle, but its prevalence or significance in human R. equi infections has not been extensively studied. To determine the prevalence of vapN in a diverse collection of human-derived isolates from different countries, 65 R...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300363/unusually-high-incidences-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-within-studies-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-prevention-using-topical-antibiotics-benchmarking-the-evidence-base
#16
James C Hurley
Selective digestive decontamination (SDD, topical antibiotic regimens applied to the respiratory tract) appears effective for preventing ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, potential contextual effects of SDD on Staphylococcus aureus infections in the ICU remain unclear. The S. aureus ventilator associated pneumonia (S. aureus VAP), VAP overall and S. aureus bacteremia incidences within component (control and intervention) groups within 27 SDD studies were benchmarked against 115 observational groups...
January 4, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300217/development-of-an-rn-champion-model-to-improve-the-outcomes-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#17
Carol Robinson, Marci Hoze, Stacy Hevener, Amy A Nichols
Healthcare-associated infections are costly. Methods to prevent infections must be effective and provide a return on investment to be sustainable. A funded project supported the design and implementation of a unique quality and safety model, using unit-based quality and safety RN champions. The goal was to create and sustain a hospital-wide safety culture focused on preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) by adopting the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's VAP bundle. The program began with a pilot in 7 ICUs...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298389/an-efficient-implementation-of-variation-after-projection-generalized-hartree-fock
#18
Patrick J Lestrange, David B Williams-Young, Carlos A Jimenez-Hoyos, Xiaosong Li
Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) theory can restore important symmetries to broken symmetry wave functions. Variation after projection (VAP) implementations make it possible to deliberatively break and then restore a given symmetry by directly minimizing the projected energy expression. This technique can be applied to any symmetry that can be broken from relaxing constraints on single Slater determinant wave functions. For instance, generalized Hartree-Fock (GHF) wave functions are neither eigenfunctions of Sz or S2...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288963/antioxidant-reserve-of-the-lungs-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-clinical-trial-of-high-dose-selenium-in-critically-ill-patients
#19
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Hadi Hamishehkar, Sarvin Sanaie, Nazila Behruzizad, Afshin Iranpour, Evin Koleini, Nader D Nader
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of supplemental selenium administration on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill patients. METHODS: Ninety-nine mechanically ventilated patients were randomized to receive either selenium or isotonic saline infusion for 10days. The primary endpoint was serum glutathione peroxidase-3 (GPX-3) activity and secondary endpoints were development of VAP or death, ICU stay and vasopressor requirement. Serum concentrations of selenium and GPX-3 were measured on Day-1, Day-4 and Day-10...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286009/efficacy-of-loading-dose-of-colistin-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#20
Emine Alp, Esma Eren, Gülseren Elay, Fatma Cevahir, Aliye Esmaoğlu, Jordi Rello
Colistin loading dose (LD) has been postulated as an advance in therapy. The clinical, microbiological effectiveness and nephrotoxicity of adding an LD to systemic colistin in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii remain unknown. In this quasi experimental study, the efficacy, outcomes and nephrotoxicity in 30 adults who received intravenous colistin with LD for MDR A. baumannii ventilator associated pneumonia were compared with 22 in absence of LD...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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