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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213020/chitosan-inhibits-enterotoxigenic-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-in-growth-medium-and-chicken-meat
#1
Maryam Alnoman, Pathima Udompijitkul, Mahfuzur R Sarker
Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming bacterium and a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of chitosan against spore germination, spore outgrowth and vegetative growth of C. perfringens food poisoning (FP) isolates. Chitosan of differing molecular weights inhibited germination of spores of all tested FP isolates in a KCl germinant solution containing 0.1 mg/ml chitosan at pH 4.5. However, higher level (0.25 mg/ml) of chitosan was required to effectively arrest outgrowth of the germinated C...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209208/food-safety-in-vietnam-where-we-are-at-and-what-we-can-learn-from-international-experiences
#2
Hung Nguyen-Viet, Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh, Fred Unger, Sinh Dang-Xuan, Delia Grace
Food-borne diseases are attracting a lot of attention in Vietnam as a result of repeated episodes of adulterated and unsafe food. In this paper, we provide some perspectives on food safety in Vietnam from the point of view of an international research institution working on food safety with partners in the country. We argue that one of the key issues of food safety in Vietnam is that certain food value chain stakeholders lack ethics, which leads to the production and trading of unsafe foods in order to make profits irrespective of adverse health effects on consumers...
February 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207905/the-one-health-approach-to-identify-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-that-affect-community-involvement-in-the-control-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks
#3
Osama Ahmed Hassan, Hippolyte Affognon, Joacim Rocklöv, Peter Mburu, Rosemary Sang, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205112/autochthonous-sporadic-acute-hepatitis-e-caused-by-two-distinct-subgenotype-3b-hepatitis-e-virus-strains-with-only-90-nucleotide-identity
#4
Yasuko Yamaguchi, Hitoshi Takagi, Yuhei Suzuki, Kyoko Maruhashi, Takashi Kosone, Satoru Kakizaki, Ken Sato, Masanobu Yamada, Shigeo Nagashima, Masaharu Takahashi, Hiroaki Okamoto
Hepatitis E, which is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a public health concern in Japan, where the zoonotic food-borne transmission of HEV from domestic pigs and wild boars plays an important role. A 44-year-old Japanese man with autochthonous sporadic acute hepatitis E was admitted with general fatigue and moderate liver dysfunction. In the present study, two distinct HEV strains were recovered from the patient, who had consumed the raw or undercooked pig liver and intestine two or three times per week for 3 months before the disease onset...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202801/molecular-epidemiology-and-strain-comparison-between-hepatitis-e-virus-in-human-sera-and-pig-livers-during-2014-2016-in-hong-kong
#5
Martin C W Chan, Kirsty Kwok, Tin-Nok Hung, Paul K S Chan
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is considered an emerging food-borne pathogen in previously non-endemic developed countries. To investigate genetic association between human HEV infection and HEV-contaminated high-risk food in Hong Kong, we compared local virus strains obtained from hepatitis E patient sera with those surveyed from high-risk food items during 2014-2016. Twenty-four cases of laboratory-confirmed human HEV infections were identified from January 2014 to March 2016 in our hospitals...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160172/arsenic-uptake-accumulation-and-toxicity-in-rice-plants-possible-remedies-for-its-detoxification-a-review
#6
Hafiz Faiq Bakhat, Zahida Zia, Shah Fahad, Sunaina Abbas, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Ahmad Naeem Shahzad, Farhat Abbas, Hesham Alharby, Muhammad Shahid
Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid. Serious concerns have been raised in literature owing to its potential toxicity towards living beings. The metalloid causes various water- and food-borne diseases. Among food crops, rice contains the highest concentrations of As. Consuming As-contaminated rice results in serious health issues. Arsenic concentration in rice is governed by various factors in the rhizosphere such as availability and concentration of various mineral nutrients (iron, phosphate, sulfur and silicon) in soil solution, soil oxidation/reduction status, inter-conversion between organic and inorganic As compounds...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157786/campylobacter-jejuni-and-associated-immune-mechanisms-short-term-effects-and-long-term-implications-for-infants-in-low-income-countries
#7
Amanda E Schnee, William A Petri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as one of the most common causes of food-borne gastrointestinal illness worldwide, resulting in a self-limiting dysentery in developed countries. However, it is increasingly gaining attention due to its association with postinfectious complications such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome and recently recognized importance in early childhood diarrhea in developing countries. We hypothesize that the inflammation mediated by C. jejuni infection causes environmental enteric dysfunction, and with contribution from diet and the host, microbiome may be responsible for growth faltering in children and developmental disability...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155802/towards-an-understanding-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-persistence-in-swine
#8
Sheila K Patterson, Hyeun Bum Kim, Klaudyna Borewicz, Richard E Isaacson
Salmonella enterica is an important food borne pathogen that is frequently carried by swine. Carrier animals pose a food safety risk because they can transmit S. enterica to finished food products in the processing plant or by contamination of the environment. Environmental contamination has become increasingly important as non-animal foods (plant-based) have been implicated as sources of S. enterica. The prevalence of S. enterica in swine is high and yet carrier animals remain healthy. S. enterica has developed a highly sophisticated set of virulence factors that allow it to adapt to host environments and to cause disease...
December 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144952/unique-clinical-courses-of-transfusion-transmitted-hepatitis-e-in-patients-with-immunosuppression
#9
Masahiro Satake, Keiji Matsubayashi, Yuji Hoshi, Rikizo Taira, Yasumi Furui, Norihiro Kokudo, Nobuhisa Akamatsu, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi, Hiroaki Okamoto, Masato Miyoshi, Akinori Tamura, Kyoko Fuse, Kenji Tadokoro
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of specific immunoglobulin G for hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Japanese people raises the possibility of a high incidence of HEV-viremic blood donors and therefore frequent transfusion-transmitted HEV (TT-HEV). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: TT-HEV cases established in Japan through hemovigilance and those published in the literature were collected. Infectivity of HEV-contaminated blood components and disease severity in relation to immunosuppression were investigated...
January 31, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127369/molecular-identification-of-hemoprotozoan-parasites-in-camels-camelus-dromedarius-of-iran
#10
Alireza Sazmand, Barbara Eigner, Mohammad Mirzaei, Seyed Hossein Hekmatimoghaddam, Josef Harl, Georg Gerhard Duscher, Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Anja Joachim
BACKGROUND: Although camels represent a valuable source of food, wool and hide in many countries, in-depth information about their vector-borne pathogens is scarce compared to other animals. The aim of the current study was to characterize vector-borne protozoa in the blood of dromedaries from Iran by molecular tools. METHODS: From June to July 2014, 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from asymptomatic one-humped camels in two provinces of Kerman and Sistan- va-Baloochestan in central and southeastern Iran...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124851/hepatitis-e-virus-hev-infection-in-ireland
#11
C Hickey, D Spillane, J Benson, J Levis, L J Fanning, B Cryan, M B Prentice
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single stranded RNA virus causing infection worldwide. In developing countries HEV genotypes 1 and 2 spread faeco-orally via water. Recently, infections with HEV have been detected in Europe and North America in patients with no travel history. These are food-borne HEV genotypes 3 and 4, a pig-associated zoonosis. Most infections are asymptomatic but morbidity and chronic infection may occur with prior liver disease or immunosuppression. International seroprevalence rates vary and with improved diagnostics have increased...
September 9, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120046/music-and-mind-in-memoriam-professor-carlo-alberto-pagni-md-phd-february-13-1931-march-1-2009
#12
Klaus R H von Wild
Carlo Alberto Pagni, born in La Spezia, Italy, on February 13, 1931, was an eminent and respected professor of neurosurgery and chairman of the neurosurgical clinic of the University of Turin from 1980 to 2003. He died on March 1, 2009. As a professor of neurology and neurological surgery he was renowned as an expert on vascular, tumor, and functional neurosurgery. Beyond the Italian Neurosurgical Society, he was the doyen of functional neurosurgery, specializing in motor cortex stimulation for the treatment of focal dystonia, Parkinson's disease, and postictal spasticity and pain...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119474/negative-autogenous-control-of-the-master-type-iii-secretion-system-regulator-hrpl-in-pseudomonas-syringae
#13
Christopher Waite, Jörg Schumacher, Milija Jovanovic, Mark Bennett, Martin Buck
: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a principal virulence determinant of the model bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae T3SS effector proteins inhibit plant defense signaling pathways in susceptible hosts and elicit evolved immunity in resistant plants. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor HrpL coordinates the expression of most T3SS genes. Transcription of hrpL is dependent on sigma-54 and the codependent enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS for hrpL promoter activation...
January 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114888/transcriptome-profiling-of-gene-expression-during-immunisation-trial-against-fasciola-hepatica-identification-of-genes-and-pathways-involved-in-conferring-immunoprotection-in-a-murine-model
#14
Jose Rojas-Caraballo, Julio López-Abán, Darwin Andrés Moreno-Pérez, Belén Vicente, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Esther Del Olmo, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Antonio Muro
BACKGROUND: Fasciolosis remains a significant food-borne trematode disease causing high morbidity around the world and affecting grazing animals and humans. A deeper understanding concerning the molecular mechanisms by which Fasciola hepatica infection occurs, as well as the molecular basis involved in acquiring protection is extremely important when designing and selecting new vaccine candidates. The present study provides a first report of microarray-based technology for describing changes in the splenic gene expression profile for mice immunised with a highly effective, protection-inducing, multi-epitope, subunit-based, chemically-synthesised vaccine candidate against F...
January 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108060/yogurt-consumption-in-infancy-is-inversely-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis-and-food-sensitization-at-5-years-of-age-a-hospital-based-birth-cohort-study
#15
Tetsuo Shoda, Masaki Futamura, Limin Yang, Masami Narita, Hirohisa Saito, Yukihiro Ohya
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that habitual yogurt consumption is associated with favorable outcomes for health issues in children. However, the effects of yogurt consumption on allergic diseases and sensitization in children remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This prospective birth cohort study aimed to investigate for associations between habitual yogurt consumption in infancy and development of allergic diseases/sensitization at 5 years of age...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092346/differential-hypothalamic-leptin-sensitivity-in-obese-rat-offspring-exposed-to-maternal-and-postnatal-intake-of-chocolate-and-soft-drink
#16
M Kjaergaard, C Nilsson, A Secher, J Kildegaard, T Skovgaard, M O Nielsen, K Grove, K Raun
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S)...
January 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089198/point-of-care-detection-devices-for-food-safety-monitoring-proactive-disease-prevention
#17
REVIEW
Marie Yung-Chen Wu, Min-Yen Hsu, Shih-Jen Chen, De-Kuang Hwang, Tzung-Hai Yen, Chao-Min Cheng
Food safety has become an increasingly significant public concern in both developed and under-developed nations around the world; it increases morbidity, mortality, human suffering, and economic burden. This Opinion focuses on (i) examining the influence of pathogens and chemicals (e.g., food additives and pesticide residue) on food-borne illnesses, (ii) summarizing food hazards that are present in Asia, and (iii) summarizing the array of current point-of-care (POC) detection devices that have potential applications in food safety monitoring...
January 11, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073082/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-o4-k8-forms-a-potential-predominant-clone-in-southern-china-as-detected-by-whole-genome-sequence-analysis
#18
Baisheng Li, Xingfen Yang, Hailing Tan, Bixia Ke, Dongmei He, Changwen Ke, Yonghui Zhang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been the most common food-borne pathogen in southern China, especially the O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants. Recently, the serotype O4:K8 became more and more prevalent in southern China, which was different from the O3:K6 pandemic clone. Thus, the aim of the present work was to elucidate the molecular characteristics of the O4:K8. Some O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants isolated in the same period were selected for comparative analysis, which were still dominant clone locally...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067424/human-pathogens-in-plant-biofilms-formation-physiology-and-detection
#19
REVIEW
Eduardo Ximenes, Lori Hoagland, Seockmo Ku, Xuan Li, Michael Ladisch
Fresh produce, viewed as an essential part of a healthy life style is usually consumed in the form of raw or minimally processed fruits and vegetables, and is a potentially important source of food-borne human pathogenic bacteria and viruses. These are passed on to the consumer since the bacteria can form biofilms or otherwise populate plant tissues, thereby using plants as vectors to infect animal hosts. The life cycle of the bacteria in plants differs from those in animals or humans and results in altered physiochemical and biological properties (e...
January 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061850/food-safety-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-institutional-food-handlers-in-ghana
#20
Fortune Akabanda, Eli Hope Hlortsi, James Owusu-Kwarteng
BACKGROUND: In large scale cooking, food is handled by many individuals, thereby increasing the chances of food contamination due to improper handling. Deliberate or accidental contamination of food during large scale production might endanger the health of consumers, and have very expensive repercussions on a country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices among institutional food- handlers in Ghana. METHODS: The study was conducted using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 29 institutions by conducting face to face interview and administration of questionnaire to two hundred and thirty-five (235) institutional food-handlers...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
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