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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914366/rapid-and-low-cost-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Sahar Alhogail, Mohammed Zourob
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common etiological agents in hospital-acquired infections and food-borne illness. S. aureus toxins and virulence proteases often circulate in host blood vessels leading to life-threatening diseases. Standard identification approaches include bacterial culturing method, which takes several days. Other nucleic acid-based methods were expensive and required trained personnel. To surmount these limitations, a paper-based biosensor was developed. The sensing mechanism was based on the proteolytic activity of S...
November 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911410/experimental-infection-with-listeria-monocytogenes-as-a-model-for-studying-host-interferon-%C3%AE-responses
#2
Jeeyoon Jennifer Ahn, Thirumahal Selvanantham, Monan Angela Zhang, Thierry Mallevaey, Shannon E Dunn
L. monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacterium that is a cause of food borne disease in humans. Experimental infection of mice with this pathogen has been highly informative on the role of innate and adaptive immune cells and specific cytokines in host immunity against intracellular pathogens. Production of IFN-γ by innate cells during sublethal infection with L. monocytogenes is important for activating macrophages and early control of the pathogen(1-3). In addition, IFN-γ production by adaptive memory lymphocytes is important for priming the activation of innate cells upon reinfection(4)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#3
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
November 29, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899155/comparative-sequence-analysis-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-apicoplast-genomes-originating-from-diverse-geographical-regions
#4
Hediye Nese Cinar, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Michael J Arrowood, Helen R Murphy, AhYoung Jang, Eunje Kim, RaeYoung Kim, Alexandre da Silva, Gopal R Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging coccidian parasite that causes endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease called cyclosporiasis, and this infection is associated with consumption of contaminated produce or water in developed and developing regions. Food-borne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have occurred almost every year in the USA since the 1990s. Investigations of these outbreaks are currently hampered due to lack of molecular epidemiological tools for trace back analysis...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895856/genetic-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-spp-among-patients-with-gastrointestinal-complaints
#5
Reza Ranjbar, Kaveh Baghaei, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad
AIM: This study investigated subtypes of Cryptosporidium in patients with gastrointestinal complaints in Tehran, Iran. BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium, an intracellular protozean parasite, is among the major causative agents of gastroenteritis disorders in humans. It also causes water-borne and food-borne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1685 fecal samples were collected from patients with gastrointestinal complaints who had been referred to clinical laboratories Tehran, Iran...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893949/phenotypic-and-genotypic-resistance-of-salmonella-isolates-from-healthy-and-diseased-pigs-in-china-during-2008-2015
#6
Yueguang Jiu, Shun Zhu, Sher Bahadar Khan, Mengzhen Sun, Geng Zou, Xianrong Meng, Bin Wu, Rui Zhou, Shaowen Li
The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella strains is rapidly increasing worldwide, which poses significant threats to animal and public health. In this study, a total of 249 porcine Salmonella isolates collected in China during 2008-2015 were examined, including 155 clinical isolates from diseased pigs and 94 nonclinical isolates from healthy pigs. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration of seven antimicrobial agents, 96.4% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the tested antibiotics and 81...
November 28, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890039/genetic-diversity-of-infective-larvae-of-gnathostoma-spinigerum-nematoda-gnathostomatidae-in-freshwater-swamp-eels-from-thailand
#7
P Eamsobhana, D Wanachiwanawin, K Roongruangchai, S L Song, H S Yong
Human gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by a tissue nematode of the genus Gnathostoma. The disease is highly endemic in Asia, including Thailand. The freshwater swamp eel (Monopterus albus), the second intermediate host of the gnathostome nematode, has an important role in transmitting the infection in Thailand. Surveys on the infective larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum based on morphological features in freshwater swamp eels have been performed continuously and reported in Thailand. However, there is still limited molecular data on intra-species variations of the parasite...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884785/viable-but-non-culturable-state-and-toxin-gene-expression-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o157-under-cryopreservation
#8
Junyan Liu, Rong Zhou, Lin Li, Brian M Peters, Bing Li, Chii-Wann Lin, Tsung-Liang Chuang, Dingqiang Chen, Xihong Zhao, Zhiyong Xiong, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff
As major food-borne pathogens worldwide, Escherichia coli are capable of toxin production directly causing severe human disease. However, routine methods are incapable of detecting viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria in food products and raw materials, leading to false-negative identification. In this study, VBNC E. coli O157 strains were acquired after cryopreservation at -20 °C, with and without freeze-thawing; morphology was observed to be of shorter rod-shape, and toxin expression remained at relatively high levels...
November 21, 2016: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882313/experiences-in-tick-control-by-acaricide-in-the-traditional-cattle-sector-in-zambia-and-burkina-faso-possible-environmental-and-public-health-implications
#9
REVIEW
Daniele De Meneghi, Frédéric Stachurski, Hassane Adakal
Livestock, especially cattle, play a paramount role in agriculture production systems, particularly in poor countries throughout the world. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have an important impact on livestock and agriculture production in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors review the most common methods used for the control of ticks and TBDs. Special emphasis is given to the direct application of acaricides to the host animals. The possible environmental and public health adverse effects (i.e., risks for the workers, residues in the environment and in food products of animal origin) are mentioned...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871241/prevalence-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-and-associated-risk-factors-of-shigella-and-salmonella-among-food-handlers-in-arba-minch-university-south-ethiopia
#10
Mohammedaman Mama, Getaneh Alemu
BACKGROUND: The availability of safe food improves health of the people that contributes to productivity and provides an effective platform for development and poverty alleviation. On the other hand, unsafe food handling and processing can serve as a vehicle for the transmission of a variety of disease causing agents. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are therefore a public health problem in developed and developing countries which is also true for Ethiopia...
November 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863014/a-multicenter-study-of-diet-quality-on-birth-weight-and-gestational-age-in-infants-of-hiv-infected-women
#11
Tracie L Miller, Denise L Jacobson, Gabriel Somarriba, Daniela Neri, Joy Kurtz-Vraney, Patricia Graham, Matthew W Gillman, David C Landy, Suzanne Siminski, Laurie Butler, Kenneth C Rich, Kristy Hendricks, David A Ludwig
We determined factors associated with diet quality and assessed the relationship between diet quality, birth weight, and gestational age in a prospective national multicenter cohort study. We evaluated diet quality with the Healthy Eating Index (HEI, scale 0-100) in the third trimester of pregnancy with three 24-hr multiple-pass dietary recalls in 266 HIV+ women enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Covariates included demographics, food security, pre-pregnancy body mass index, HIV disease severity, substance use, and antiretroviral exposures...
November 8, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860343/isolation-of-campylobacter-spp-from-client-owned-dogs-and-cats-and-retail-raw-meat-pet-food-in-the-manawatu-new-zealand
#12
K Bojanić, A C Midwinter, J C Marshall, L E Rogers, P J Biggs, E Acke
Campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. The disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on New Zealand pets are limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food products in New Zealand and to characterize Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
November 12, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859643/undernourishment-in-utero-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-later-life-a-potential-issue-in-japanese-people-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Hiroaki Itoh, Keiko Muramatsu-Kato, Urmi J Ferdous, Yukiko Kohmura-Kobayashi, Naohiro Kanayama
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of NAFLD in Japan has nearly doubled in the last 10-15 years. Increasing evidence supports undernourishment in utero being causatively connected with the risk of NAFLD in later life. Low body mass index (BMI) has been common among Japanese women of childbearing age for several decades due to their strong desire to be thin. It is plausible that insufficient maternal energy intake by pregnant Japanese women may underlie the rapid increase in the prevalence of NAFLD in Japan...
November 16, 2016: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857935/synchronous-disease-kinetics-in-a-murine-model-for-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-infection-using-food-borne-inoculation
#14
Laurice J Flowers, Elsa N Bou Ghanem, John M Leong
Upon colonization of the intestinal epithelium, the attaching and effacing (AE) pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) effaces microvilli and forms pedestal-like structures beneath the adherent bacterium. The production of one of its virulence factors, the phage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) results in systemic disease, including the development of renal failure. Although EHEC does not productively infect conventional mice, EHEC infection can be modeled in mice utilizing a derivative of the natural murine AE pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849226/association-between-maternal-lifestyle-and-preschool-nutrition
#15
Érica Bezerra Nobre, Alexandra Valéria Maria Brentani, Alexandre Archanjo Ferraro
Introduction: Many of the health behaviors involved in the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) are originated in childhood under parental influence. Mothers are the ones most involved in the education and health care of children. Lifestyle (LS) is a social determinant of health. Very few studies tried to understand the influence of maternal LS on child nutrition. Objective: To verify the association between maternal behavioral and non-behavioral LS and nutritional aspects in preschool children...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807091/cohort-profile-pacific-islands-families-pif-growth-study-auckland-new-zealand
#16
E Rush, M Oliver, L D Plank, S Taylor, L Iusitini, S Jalili-Moghaddam, F Savila, J Paterson, E Tautolo
PURPOSE: This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. PARTICIPANTS: From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795338/clinical-microbiology-laboratories-adoption-of-culture-independent-diagnostic-tests-are-a-threat-to-food-borne-disease-surveillance-in-the-united-states
#17
Shari Shea, Kristy A Kubota, Hugh Maguire, Stephen Gladbach, Amy Woron, Robyn Atkinson-Dunn, Marc Roger Couturier, Melissa B Miller
In November, 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a letter to State and Territorial epidemiologists, State and Territorial public health laboratory directors, and State and Territorial health officials. In this letter, culture independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) for detection for enteric pathogens were characterized as "a serious and current threat to public health surveillance, particularly for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and Salmonella." The document says CDC and its public health partners are approaching this issue, in part, by "reviewing regulatory authority in public health agencies to require culture isolates or specimen submission if CIDTs are used...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790290/culling-and-the-common-good-re-evaluating-harms-and-benefits-under-the-one-health-paradigm
#18
Chris Degeling, Zohar Lederman, Melanie Rock
One Health (OH) is a novel paradigm that recognizes that human and non-human animal health is interlinked through our shared environment. Increasingly prominent in public health responses to zoonoses, OH differs from traditional approaches to animal-borne infectious risks, because it also aims to promote the health of animals and ecological systems. Despite the widespread adoption of OH, culling remains a key component of institutional responses to the risks of zoonoses. Using the threats posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses to human and animal health, economic activity and food security as a case exemplar, we explore whether culling and other standard control measures for animal-borne infectious disease might be justified as part of OH approaches...
November 2016: Public Health Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789246/detection-of-toxigenic-clostridium-perfringens-and-clostridium-botulinum-from-food-sold-in-lagos-nigeria
#19
Emelda E Chukwu, Francisca O Nwaokorie, AkitoyeO Coker, Mario J Avila-Campos, Rosa L Solis, Luis A Llanco, Folasade T Ogunsola
Food-borne diseases contribute to the huge burden of sickness and death globally and in the last decade, have become more frequently reported in Africa. In line with this, food safety is becoming a significant and growing public health problem in Nigeria. Diarrhoea is a common problem in Nigeria and has been reported but there has been little data on the possibility of clostridia as aetiological agents. Clostridium species are ubiquitous in the environment and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals and can serve as a marker for faecal contamination...
October 24, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772539/cyclic-patterns-in-the-central-european-tick-borne-encephalitis-incidence-series
#20
P Zeman
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is peculiar due to its unstable dynamics with profound inter-annual fluctuations in case numbers - a phenomenon not well understood to date. Possible reasons - apart from variable human contact with TBE foci - include external factors, e.g. climatic forcing, autonomous oscillations of the disease system itself, or a combined action of both. Spectral analysis of TBE data from six regions of central Europe (CE) revealed that the ostensibly chaotic dynamics can be explained in terms of four superposed (quasi-)periodical oscillations: a quasi-biennial, triennial, pentennial, and a decadal cycle...
October 24, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
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