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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#1
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902693/the-long-term-benefits-of-increased-aspirin-use-by-at-risk-americans-aged-50-and-older
#2
David B Agus, Étienne Gaudette, Dana P Goldman, Andrew Messali
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of aspirin to defend against cardiovascular disease in both primary and secondary settings is well recognized by the medical profession. Multiple studies also have found that daily aspirin significantly reduces cancer incidence and mortality. Despite these proven health benefits, aspirin use remains low among populations targeted by cardiovascular prevention guidelines. This article seeks to determine the long-term economic and population-health impact of broader use of aspirin by older Americans at higher risk for cardiovascular disease...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873046/commercially-available-lifestyle-modification-program-randomized-controlled-trial-addressing-heart-and-bone-health-in-brca1-2-breast-cancer-survivors-after-risk-reducing-salpingo-oophorectomy
#3
Kathleen M Sturgeon, Lorraine T Dean, Mariane Heroux, Jessica Kane, Toni Bauer, Erica Palmer, Jin Long, Shannon Lynch, Linda Jacobs, David B Sarwer, Mary B Leonard, Kathryn Schmitz
PURPOSE: The goal of this RCT was to examine the efficacy and safety of a web-based program to improve cardiovascular and bone health outcomes, among 35 BRCA1/2+ breast cancer survivors who underwent prophylactic oophorectomy and thus experienced premature surgical menopause. METHODS: A 12-month commercially available web-based lifestyle modification program (Precision Nutrition Coaching) was utilized. Cardiovascular fitness, dietary intake, leisure time activity, body composition, bone mineral density, bone structure, and muscle strength were assessed...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865369/feasibility-of-using-head-and-neck-ct-imaging-to-assess-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#4
Justin E Swartz, Ajit J Pothen, Inge Wegner, Ernst J Smid, Karin M A Swart, Remco de Bree, Loek P H Leenen, Wilko Grolman
OBJECTIVES: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have a higher risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, which is associated with adverse clinical outcome. As abdominal CT-imaging is often used to detect sarcopenia, such scans are rarely available in HNC patients, possibly explaining why no studies investigate the effect of sarcopenia in this population. We correlated skeletal muscle mass assessed on head and neck CT-scans with abdominal CT-imaging. METHODS: Head and neck, and abdominal CT-scans of trauma (n=51) and HNC-patients (n=52) were retrospectively analyzed...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864163/developing-a-web-based-weight-management-program-for-childhood-cancer-survivors-rationale-and-methods
#5
Fang Fang Zhang, Susan Meagher, Michael Scheurer, Sara Folta, Emily Finnan, Kerry Criss, Christina Economos, ZoAnn Dreyer, Michael Kelly
BACKGROUND: Due to advances in the field of oncology, survival rates for children with cancer have improved significantly. However, these childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk for obesity and cardiovascular diseases and for developing these conditions at an earlier age. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we describe the rationale, conceptual framework, development process, novel components, and delivery plan of a behavioral intervention program for preventing unhealthy weight gain in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)...
November 18, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858548/cancer-cachexia-beyond-weight-loss
#6
Andrew R Bruggeman, Arif H Kamal, Thomas W LeBlanc, Joseph D Ma, Vickie E Baracos, Eric J Roeland
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle loss leading to progressive functional impairment. Despite the ubiquity of cachexia in clinical practice, prevention, early identification, and intervention remain challenging. The impact of cancer cachexia on quality of life, treatment-related toxicity, physical function, and mortality are well established; however, establishing a clinically meaningful definition has proven challenging because of the focus on weight loss alone. Attempts to more comprehensively define cachexia through body composition, physical functioning, and molecular biomarkers, while promising, are yet to be routinely incorporated into clinical practice...
November 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847115/pre-therapeutic-nutritional-assessment-for-predicting-severe-adverse-events-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-treated-by-radiotherapy
#7
Takeyuki Kono, Koji Sakamoto, Seiichi Shinden, Kaoru Ogawa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition is common in patients with head and neck cancer (HNSCC). It may be related to severe adverse toxicity as a result of radiotherapy. The aim was to investigate nutritional screening factors for severe adverse events. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 101 patients who underwent radiotherapy from 2009 to 2013 was performed. The relationships among severe adverse events and pretreatment nutritional parameters, including static variables (serum albumin, total protein, total lymphocyte counts, body mass index), dynamic variables (retinol-binding protein, transferrin, pre-albumin), and nutritional screening tools (Onodera's Prognostic Nutrition Index [O-PNI]; Nutrition Risk Index; Controlling Nutritional Status [CONUT] score; Nutritional Risk Screening 2002) were evaluated in addition to patient and treatment factors...
November 5, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832350/the-impact-of-total-parenteral-nutrition-on-postoperative-recovery-in-patients-treated-for-advanced-stage-ovarian-cancer
#8
Alberto A Mendivil, Mark A Rettenmaier, Lisa N Abaid, John V Brown, Kristina M Mori, Bram H Goldstein
OBJECTIVES: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) presumably benefits cancer patients although reports have disputed the significance of this nutritional intervention. We sought to compare the postoperative outcomes of ovarian cancer patients treated with either TPN or conservative management. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the impact of TPN and conservative management in ovarian cancer patients who underwent debulking surgery and a bowel resection. The primary study variables encompassed patient time until restoration of bowel function, number of postoperative complications and duration of hospital stay...
November 10, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812512/the-efficacy-of-oral-nutritional-intervention-in-malnourished-cancer-patients-a-systemic-review
#9
REVIEW
Jin-Min Kim, Mi-Kyung Sung
Cancer is currently a leading cause of deaths worldwide and the number of new cases is growing rapidly in both, developed and developing countries. Nutritional management during and after cancer treatment affects treatment efficacy and patient quality of life (QOL). This review systemically examined the effect of oral nutritional interventions on nutritional and clinical outcomes in cancer patients. We especially focused on outcomes such as nutritional status indices, immune-associated biochemical markers, and QOL assessments to provide insights on the applicability of different outcomes...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807666/effects-of-a-multimodal-rehabilitation-programme-on-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-oesophageal-cancer-survivors-the-restore-feasibility-study
#10
Emer M Guinan, Suzanne L Doyle, Linda O'Neill, Margaret R Dunne, Emma K Foley, Jacintha O'Sullivan, John V Reynolds, Juliette Hussey
PURPOSE: Physical, nutritional and quality-of-life compromises are known sequelae of oesophageal cancer (OC) treatment. Inflammation and oxidative stress may be relevant to adverse consequences. Multimodal rehabilitation involving exercise and diet prescription may attenuate some of the negative consequences and optimise survivorship, and this was assessed in this feasibility study in OC patients at least 1 year post-oesophagectomy. METHODS: The 12-week programme included supervised and home-based exercise, dietetic counselling to ensure energy balance and multidisciplinary education...
November 3, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807617/randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-assessing-the-effects-of-oral-nutritional-supplements-in-postoperative-gastric-cancer-patients
#11
Fumihiko Hatao, Kuen-Yuan Chen, Jin-Ming Wu, Ming-Yang Wang, Susumu Aikou, Haruna Onoyama, Nobuyuki Shimizu, Kazuhiko Fukatsu, Yasuyuki Seto, Ming-Tsan Lin
BACKGROUND: Postoperative weight loss and malnutrition are major issues in gastric cancer patients. The concept of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) is gaining widespread acceptance. We investigated the effects of ONS administration on postoperative body weight loss in patients with gastric cancer who had undergone total gastrectomy or distal gastrectomy. METHODS: Patients were randomized to either the treatment or the control group. In both groups, standard surgery for gastric cancer was performed...
November 2, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806516/evaluating-nutritional-knowledge-and-physical-activity-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-cancers-and-their-first-degree-relatives-compared-with-non-relatives
#12
Aliakbar Hajaghamohammadi, Ali Zargar
BACKGROUND: Cancer is considered as one the preventable and manageable diseases. Promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity should be one of the major priorities of national strategy in cancer prevention. Aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional knowledge and physical activity in patients with gastrointestinal cancers and their first degree relatives as compared with non-relatives. METHODS: This study was done as case-control study. Patients with gastrointestinal cancers older than 18 years of age who were diagnosed from April 2007 to June 2012 and their first degree relatives and also non-relatives were included...
July 21, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803567/assessment-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-oral-mucositis-patients-undergoing-cancer-chemoradiotherapy-a-randomized-cross-sectional-study
#13
Nallan Csk Chaitanya, Komali Garlapati, Danam Reshma Priyanka, Sravani Soma, Ujwala Suskandla, Niharika Harsha Boinepally
INTRODUCTION: Oral mucositis is an unavoidable complication occurring during the treatment of cancer by radiotherapy, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), or chemotherapy. This is a painful sequelae, significantly affecting the nutritional intake and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicentric cross-sectional study was done at four cancer centers in Hyderabad. About 455 subjects of both genders between 20 and 80 years undergoing cancer treatment such as chemotherapy (Group I), CCRT (Group II), radiotherapy within 14 days of initiation (Group III), and radiotherapy after 14 days of initiation of therapy (Group IV) who had oral mucositis were included in the study...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788388/preoperative-nutritional-deficiency-is-a-useful-predictor-of-postoperative-outcome-in-patients-undergoing-curative-resection-for-gastric-cancer
#14
Xuechao Liu, Pengfei Xu, Haibo Qiu, Dazhi Xu, Wei Li, Youqing Zhan, Yuanfang Li, Yingbo Chen, Zhiwei Zhou, Xiaowei Sun
BACKGROUND: Preoperative nutritional deficiency (ND) has been shown to be a valuable prognostic factor in urologic malignancies. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of ND in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: A single-center cohort of 1026 GC patients undergoing curative resection between 2003 and 2012 was categorized to ND and nutritionally replete (NR) groups. Patients with body mass index <18.5 kg/m(2), preoperative albumin <35 g/l, or preoperative weight loss ≥5% of body weight were defined as ND...
October 24, 2016: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785689/complications-of-feeding-jejunostomy-tubes-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-cancer
#15
Audrey H Choi, Michael P O'Leary, Shaila J Merchant, Virginia Sun, Joseph Chao, Dan J Raz, Jae Y Kim, Joseph Kim
BACKGROUND: Feeding jejunostomy tubes (FJT) in patients undergoing resection of gastroesophageal cancers facilitate perioperative nutrition. Data regarding FJT use and complications are limited. STUDY DESIGN: A single institution review was performed for patients who underwent perioperative FJT placement for gastrectomy or esophagogastrectomy from 2007 to 2015. FJT-related and unrelated complications were evaluated. RESULTS: FJTs were inserted for total/completion gastrectomy (n = 49/117, 41...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758689/mechanisms-of-anorexia-cancer-cachexia-syndrome-and-potential-benefits-of-traditional-medicine-and-natural-herbs
#16
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757935/impact-of-salt-intake-on-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hypertension
#17
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756322/effectiveness-of-postoperative-elemental-diet-elental%C3%A2-in-elderly-patients-after-gastrectomy
#18
Yu Ohkura, Shusuke Haruta, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Masaki Ueno, Harushi Udagawa
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of postoperative early intervention with an elemental diet to reduce weight loss and enhance recovery after gastrectomy. Nutritional status and gastrointestinal immune function tend to worsen, and postoperative weight loss is inevitable in these patients; therefore, improvement in their postoperative condition is important, especially in gastric cancer patients aged ≥80 years. METHODS: Clinical outcomes and postoperative nutritional status were compared between 21 and 22 consecutive elderly patients aged ≥80 years who underwent distal gastrectomy before and after the introduction of postoperative oral elemental diet (Elental®, 300 kcal/day), respectively, between October 2011 and June 2016...
October 19, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748414/prospective-study-of-serum-b-vitamins-levels-and-oesophageal-and-gastric-cancers-in-china
#19
Jiansong Ren, Gwen Murphy, Jinhu Fan, Sanford M Dawsey, Philip R Taylor, Jacob Selhub, Youlin Qiao, Christian C Abnet
B vitamins play an essential role in DNA synthesis and methylation, and may protect against oesophageal and gastric cancers. In this case-cohort study, subjects were enrolled from the General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial in Linxian, China. Subjects included 498 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), 255 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCAs), and an age- and sex-matched sub-cohort of 947 individuals. Baseline serum riboflavin, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), folate, vitamin B12, and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) were measured for all subjects...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745597/nutrition-intervention-in-cancer
#20
David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Nutrition intervention supports the patient with malnutrition secondary to cancer and its treatment and has been used in the primary and secondary prevention of common forms of cancer. During the emotional stress of dealing with cancer at any stage, patients derive increased quality of life and a sense of control over their lives as the result of receiving supportive advice on diet and lifestyle. Therefore, the use of nutrition intervention in cancer patients is justified in the absence of absolute proof of efficacy as long as it is done safely and with the consent of the cancer patient...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
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