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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345251/cancer-associated-cachexia
#1
REVIEW
Vickie E Baracos, Lisa Martin, Murray Korc, Denis C Guttridge, Kenneth C H Fearon
Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells...
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345217/statistical-analysis-of-human-microarray-data-shows-that-dietary-intervention-with-n-3-fatty-acids-flavonoids-and-resveratrol-enriches-for-immune-response-and-disease-pathways
#2
Alix Warburton, Olga Vasieva, Peter Quinn, James P Stewart, John P Quinn
n-3 Fatty acids, flavonoids and resveratrol are well publicised for their beneficial effects on human health and wellbeing. Identifying common, underlying biological mechanisms targeted by these functional foods would therefore be informative for the public health sector for advising on nutritional health and disease, food and drug product development and consumer interest. The aim of this study was to explore the potential effects of gene expression changes associated with n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, flavonoids and resveratrol on modifying biological systems and disease pathways...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317383/research-and-practice-based-nutrition-education-and-cooking-workshops-in-pediatric-oncology-protocol-for-implementation-and-development-of-curriculum
#3
Cynthia Chaput, Sabrina Beaulieu-Gagnon, Véronique Bélanger, Simon Drouin, Laurence Bertout, Lucie Lafrance, Cinthia Olivier, Marthe Robitaille, Caroline Laverdière, Daniel Sinnett, Marie Marquis, Valérie Marcil
BACKGROUND: Progresses in childhood cancer treatment, diagnosis, and management have resulted in childhood cancer survival rates of over 80%. However, this therapeutic success comes with a heavy price: two-thirds of childhood cancer survivors will be affected by further complications, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Adequate nutrition during cancer treatment is essential to ensure the child's optimal development, improve tolerance to treatments, and can contribute to lower the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases...
January 9, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285616/correlation-between-the-skeletal-muscle-index-and-surgical-outcomes-of-pancreaticoduodenectomy
#4
Kenta Sui, Takehiro Okabayshi, Jun Iwata, Sojiro Morita, Tatsuaki Sumiyoshi, Tatsuo Iiyama, Yasuhiro Shimada
PURPOSES: Sarcopenia is known to be associated with a worse prognosis following abdominal operations; however, the relationship between sarcopenia and the outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy remains unclear. MATERIALS: We measured body composition parameters, including total abdominal muscle area, using preoperative staging computed tomography (CT), in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary cancer. The incidence of sarcopenia among these patients was evaluated and multivariable analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of postoperative pancreatic fistula...
December 28, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262509/-efficacy-of-weitan-waifu-patch-on-the-postsurgical-gastroparesis-syndrome-of-gastrointestinal-cancer-a-multi-center-trial
#5
Q Zhou, M H Zuo, Q W Li, Y T Tian, Y B Xie, Y B Wang, G Y Yang, Y J Ye, P Guo, J P Liu, Z L Liu, C An, T Zhou, Z Tian, C B Liu, Y Hu, X Y Chi, Y Shen, Y Xia, K W Hu
Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of the Weitan Waifu patch on the postsurgical gastroparesis syndrome (PGS) of gastrointestinal cancer. Methods: The multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted with superiority design. Patients with PGS of gastrointestinal cancer diagnosed in 4 AAA hospitals and the abdominal symptom manifested as cold syndrome by Chinese local syndrome differentiation were recruited. These patients were randomly divided into two groups according to 1∶1 proportion...
December 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233615/diet-quality-inflammation-and-quality-of-life-in-breast-cancer-survivors-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-pilot-study-data
#6
Tonya S Orchard, Rebecca R Andridge, Lisa D Yee, Maryam B Lustberg
BACKGROUND: Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as diet quality, could reduce inflammation and improve quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors, but data are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diet quality, as measured by Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score, is associated with inflammation, health status, or functional outcomes affecting QOL in survivors of early-stage breast cancer. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of baseline data collected from breast cancer survivors after completion of primary therapy and before random assignment to a pilot nutritional intervention aimed at reducing side effects of aromatase inhibitor treatment...
December 9, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224827/humidification-mitigates-acute-mucosal-toxicity-during-radiotherapy-when-factoring-volumetric-parameters-trans-tasman-radiation-oncology-group-trog-radiohum-07-03-substudy
#7
A Macann, F Fauzi, J Simpson, G Sasso, H Krawitz, C Fraser-Browne, J Manitz, A Raith
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): To model in a subset of patients from TROG 07.03 managed at a single site the association between domiciliary based humidification use and mucositis symptom burden during radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) when factoring in volumetric radiotherapy parameters derived from tumour and normal tissue regions of interest. MATERIALS/METHODS: From June 2008 through June 2011, 210 patients with HNC receiving RT were randomised to either a control arm or humidification using the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier...
December 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222889/effects-of-parenteral-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-postoperative-gastrointestinal-cancer-on-immune-function-and-length-of-hospital-stay-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Hao Bai, Zhaoping Li, Yan Meng, Yue Yu, Huanhuan Zhang, Deqiang Shen, Liyong Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Omega-3 fatty acids are widely used in nutritional support. However, whether parenteral supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids is effective for gastrointestinal cancer patients remains uncertain. This study assessed the effects of this form of parenteral nutrition on immune function and clinical outcomes in postoperative gastrointestinal cancer patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We searched Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the reference lists of selected studies to identify randomized controlled trials that compared ω-3 fatty acids with a control, and that included immune indices, infectious complications, or length of hospital stay in the final outcomes...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219922/multimodal-prehabilitation-programs-as-a-bundle-of-care-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-surgery-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Vladimir Bolshinsky, Michael H-G Li, Hilmy Ismail, Kate Burbury, Bernhard Riedel, Alexander Heriot
BACKGROUND: Prehabilitation reflects a proactive process of preoperative optimization undertaken between cancer diagnosis and definitive surgical treatment, with the intent of improving physiological capacity to withstand the major insult of surgery. Prehabilitation before GI cancer surgery is currently not widely adopted, and most research has focused on unimodal interventions such as exercise therapy, nutritional supplementation, and hematinic optimization. A review of the existing literature was undertaken to investigate the impact of multimodal prehabilitation programs as a "bundle of care...
January 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205414/a-joint-marginal-conditional-model-for-multivariate-longitudinal-data
#10
James Proudfoot, Walter Faig, Loki Natarajan, Ronghui Xu
Multivariate longitudinal data frequently arise in biomedical applications; however, their analyses are often performed one outcome at a time, or jointly using existing software in an ad hoc fashion. A main challenge in the proper analysis of such data is the fact that the different outcomes are measured on different unknown scales. Methodology for handling the scale problem has been previously proposed for cross-sectional data, and here we extend it to the longitudinal setting. We consider modeling the longitudinal data using random effects, while leaving the joint distribution of the multiple outcomes unspecified...
December 4, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203713/therapeutic-potential-of-heat-shock-protein-induction-for-muscular-dystrophy-and-other-muscle-wasting-conditions
#11
REVIEW
Savant S Thakur, Kristy Swiderski, James G Ryall, Gordon S Lynch
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common and severe of the muscular dystrophies, a group of inherited myopathies caused by different genetic mutations leading to aberrant expression or complete absence of cytoskeletal proteins. Dystrophic muscles are prone to injury, and regenerate poorly after damage. Remorseless cycles of muscle fibre breakdown and incomplete repair lead to progressive and severe muscle wasting, weakness and premature death. Many other conditions are similarly characterized by muscle wasting, including sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, sepsis, denervation, burns, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197960/sarcopenia-during-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-oesophageal-cancer-characterising-the-impact-on-muscle-strength-and-physical-performance
#12
Emer M Guinan, S L Doyle, A E Bennett, L O'Neill, J Gannon, J A Elliott, J O'Sullivan, J V Reynolds, J Hussey
PURPOSE: Preoperative chemo(radio)therapy for oesophageal cancer (OC) may have an attritional impact on body composition and functional status, impacting postoperative outcome. Physical decline with skeletal muscle loss has not been previously characterised in OC and may be amenable to physical rehabilitation. This study characterises skeletal muscle mass and physical performance from diagnosis to post-neoadjuvant therapy in patients undergoing preoperative chemo(radio)therapy for OC...
December 2, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194928/clinical-pathway-improves-implementation-of-evidence-based-strategies-for-the-management-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-induced-side-effects-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#13
Renée Bultijnck, Inge Van de Caveye, Elke Rammant, Sofie Everaert, Nicolaas Lumen, Karel Decaestecker, Valérie Fonteyne, Benedicte Deforche, Piet Ost
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of a prostate cancer (PCa) clinical pathway on the implementation of evidence-based strategies for the management of ADT-induced side effects. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A clinical pathway was introduced at hospital-level in 2015. The pathway consists out of evidence-based strategies for the management of ADT-induced side effects. All PCa patients receiving ADT for >6 months were eligible to enter the clinical pathway. Data of recommended evidence-based strategies were retrospectively extracted from electronic health records of all eligible patients in the year before (2014) and the year of implementation of the pathway (2015)...
December 1, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185928/dietary-intake-nutritional-status-and-mental-wellbeing-of-homeless-adults-in-reading-uk
#14
Rosalind Fallaize, Josephine V Seale, Charlotte Mortin, Lisha Armstrong, Julie A Lovegrove
Malnutrition has been reported in the homeless, yet the specific nutritional issues faced by each homeless community are unclear. This is in part due to nutrient intake often being compared with dietary reference values as opposed to a comparative housed population. In addition, the complex interplay between nutrient intake, reward mediated behaviour and mental illness is frequently overlooked. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, nutritional status and mental wellbeing of homeless and housed adults...
November 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183040/oncological-rehabilitation
#15
Oliver Rick, Timm Dauelsberg, Eva-Maria Kalusche-Bontemps
An increasing number of patients are living with or surviving cancer due to improvements in detection and treatment. However, patients who survive cancer may experience functional disabilities that impact on health, quality of life and ability to work. For example, physical disorders may include fatigue, reduced muscle strength, cognitive dysfunction, paresthesia or nutrition problems, while mental symptoms may include anxiety, depression, fear of relapse or insomnia. Multidimensional oncological rehabilitation programs have been developed to address these disabilities and to help cancer patients and long-term survivors to reduce morbidity and to improve quality of life...
2017: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181845/interventions-for-preventing-oral-mucositis-in-patients-with-cancer-receiving-treatment-cytokines-and-growth-factors
#16
REVIEW
Philip Riley, Anne-Marie Glenny, Helen V Worthington, Anne Littlewood, Luisa M Fernandez Mauleffinch, Jan E Clarkson, Martin G McCabe
BACKGROUND: Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high-risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty with eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and supplemental nutrition. These complications may disrupt cancer therapy, which may reduce survival. There is also a risk of death from sepsis if pathogens enter the ulcers of immunocompromised patients...
November 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173757/head-and-neck-cancer-survivorship-learning-the-needs-meeting-the-needs
#17
REVIEW
Jolie Ringash, Lori J Bernstein, Gerald Devins, Colleen Dunphy, Meredith Giuliani, Rosemary Martino, Sara McEwen
Cancers of the head and neck and the treatments required to control them frequently result in serious and persistent impairments that can affect participation and quality of life. Increased recognition of the needs of cancer survivors and their caregivers has prompted research focused on the unique concerns of this complex group. Unmet needs have been identified among 60-70% of patients and a similar proportion of their partners; impacts can include profound social effects, isolation, and psychiatric conditions...
January 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173466/nutritional-management-can-assist-a-significant-role-in-alleviation-of-arsenicosis
#18
REVIEW
Abha Sharma, S J S Flora
Consumption of arsenic contaminated water causes serious skin disease and cancer in a significant number of exposed people. Chelating agents, consider an expensive therapy, are employed in the treatment of arsenic intoxication. There are reports which suggest that the poorest suffer the most from arsenicosis. This may be due to improper diet intake, consist of low protein and micronutrients which increase the vulnerability to arsenic-related disorders. Several human studies demonstrated the associations between malnourishment and the development of arsenic-caused skin lesions, skin cancer and cardiovascular effects...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166141/adherence-to-the-wcrf-aicr-for-women-in-breast-cancer-adjuvant-treatment-submitted-to-educational-nutritional-intervention
#19
Sheyla de Liz, Francilene Gracieli Kunradi Vieira, Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis, Alyne Lizane Cardoso, Clarice Perucchi Lopes Pazini, Patricia Faria Di Pietro
Patients undergoing breast cancer treatment are susceptible to changes in eating behavior and nutrition status, thus making nutrition education relevant. Based on the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guide, with recommendations for cancer prevention released in 2007, the present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of educational nutritional intervention for women with breast cancer undergoing treatment while adhering to the 2007 WCRF/AICR guidelines. A nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with a population composed of female patients, divided in intervention (IG, n = 18) and comparison (CG, n = 68) groups...
November 22, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143540/association-between-nutrition-resource-stress-and-dietary-consumption-results-from-a-u-s-nationally-representative-survey
#20
Emily Grenen, Erin E Kent, Erin Hennessy, Jada G Hamilton, Rebecca A Ferrer
BACKGROUND: There is little research on how affective reactions (e.g., stress) to perceptions of nutritious food accessibility contribute to dietary behaviors. AIMS: This study explores whether stress associated with limited access to nutritious foods-termed nutrition resource stress (NRS)-contributes to diet outcomes, and whether these associations are mediated by health-related self-efficacy. METHOD: Using data from the cross-sectional National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey, analyses were conducted to examine whether reported NRS was associated with specific dietary behaviors (i...
November 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
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