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Executive Function Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790729/prenatal-phthalates-maternal-thyroid-function-and-risk-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-the-norwegian-mother-and-child-cohort
#1
Stephanie M Engel, Gro D Villanger, Rachel C Nethery, Cathrine Thomsen, Amrit K Sakhi, Samantha S M Drover, Jane A Hoppin, Pal Zeiner, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Amy H Herring, Heidi Aase
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that phthalate exposures may have an impact on child neurodevelopment. Prenatal exposure to phthalates has been linked with externalizing behaviors and executive functioning defects suggestive of an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotype. OBJECTIVES: We undertook an investigation into whether prenatal exposure to phthalates was associated with clinically confirmed ADHD in a population-based nested case-control study of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) between the years 2003 and 2008...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790568/-social-cognition-and-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-epilepsy-treated-with-eslicarbazepine-acetate
#2
L Abraira, A Sanabria, G Ortega, M Quintana, E Santamarina, J Salas-Puig, M Toledo
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is accompanied by cognitive disorders, frequently aggravated by the use of antiepileptic drugs, which can affect social empathy. AIM: To analyse the impact of treatment with eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) on social cognition and prefrontal cognitive functions in adults with focal epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective single-centre study with patients aged between 18 and 65 years with focal seizures treated with ESL...
June 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789032/neuropsychological-correlates-of-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-neurocognitive-disorders-a-possible-role-for-executive-dysfunction-and-mood-changes
#3
Martina Amanzio, Sara Palermo, Milena Zucca, Rosalba Rosato, Elisa Rubino, Daniela Leotta, Massimo Bartoli, Innocenzo Rainero
ABSTRACTSince baseline executive dysfunction predicts worsening Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (i-ADL) over time and progression to Alzheimer's Disease (AD), we aimed to analyze the role of neuropsychological variables to outline which factors can contribute to functional impairment. Specific attention to executive functions (EFs) has been given.A total of 144 subjects complaining of different cognitive deficits - ranging from "MCI likely due to AD" to "mild AD patients" - underwent an overall neuropsychological assessment...
May 23, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787739/apathy-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-associated-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-neuropsychological-investigation
#4
Alberto Costa, Antonella Peppe, Silvia Zabberoni, Francesco Scalici, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
Apathy is frequently reported in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is hypothesized to be associated with frontal-striatal related cognitive functions. Available data, however, do not provide univocal results. Moreover, this relationship has been poorly investigated in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study was aimed at investigating the association between severity of apathy of PD patients and their performance on neuropsychological tests investigating executive abilities. Individuals with PD (i...
May 19, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779670/a-connectome-wide-functional-signature-of-transdiagnostic-risk-for-mental-illness
#5
Maxwell L Elliott, Adrienne Romer, Annchen R Knodt, Ahmad R Hariri
BACKGROUND: High rates of comorbidity, shared risk, and overlapping therapeutic mechanisms have led psychopathology research toward transdiagnostic dimensional investigations of clustered symptoms. One influential framework accounts for these transdiagnostic phenomena through a single general factor, sometimes referred to as the "p" factor, associated with risk for all common forms of mental illness. METHODS: We build on previous research identifying unique structural neural correlates of the p factor by conducting a data-driven analysis of connectome-wide intrinsic functional connectivity (n = 605)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776623/nonrestorative-sleep-in-healthy-young-adults-without-insomnia-associations-with-executive-functioning-fatigue-and-pre-sleep-arousal
#6
Ruben Tinajero, Paula G Williams, Matthew R Cribbet, Holly K Rau, Daniel L Bride, Yana Suchy
OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that nonrestorative sleep (NRS), even in the absence of insomnia symptoms or other sleep disorders, may be associated with daytime dysfunction. This study examined the association between NRS and daytime dysfunction in healthy adults screened for insomnia and sleep apnea. DESIGN: Multi-day assessment approach. SETTING: Community-based adults and college students. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy young adults without insomnia and sleep apnea (n = 79; 68% female, mean age = 27...
June 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775870/adverse-and-adaptive-childhood-experiences-are-associated-with-parental-reflective-functioning-in-mothers-with-substance-use-disorder
#7
Ulrika Håkansson, Reidulf Watten, Kerstin Söderström, Finn Skårderud, Merete Glenne Øie
Mothers with a substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk for maladaptive parenting practices, and have heightened likelihood of having experienced childhood adversity themselves. In addition, parental reflective functioning (PRF), a capacity underlying sensitive caregiving, is often low in mothers with SUD. This study examines the relationship between PRF and aversive (emotional, physical, sexual abuse and neglect) and adaptive (safety and competence) experiences, in different developmental phases (early childhood, latency, and adolescence) in mothers with a SUD...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773210/cognitive-and-behavioral-effects-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Thiago da Silva Gusmão Cardoso, Sabine Pompéia, Mônica Carolina Miranda
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a common respiratory sleep disorder in children that is believed to adversely affect both quality of life and cognition. The purpose of the present systematic review was to obtain evidence of the impact of OSA on children's cognitive/behavioral abilities from primary studies published in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from 2002 to 2016. Of the 649 articles found, only 34 met the eligibility criteria: studies that evaluated cognition, behavior, and/or academic achievement of children meeting clinical criteria for OSA to compare their data to those of healthy controls or normative data, provided that the samples did not present conditions that might affect cognition/behavior irrespective of OSA...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771624/virtual-reality-training-to-enhance-behavior-and-cognitive-function-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-brief-report
#9
Shirley Shema-Shiratzky, Marina Brozgol, Pablo Cornejo-Thumm, Karen Geva-Dayan, Michael Rotstein, Yael Leitner, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a combined motor-cognitive training using virtual reality to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Fourteen non-medicated school-aged children with ADHD, received 18 training sessions during 6 weeks. Training included walking on a treadmill while negotiating virtual obstacles. Behavioral symptoms, cognition and gait were tested before and after the training and at 6-weeks follow-up...
May 17, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769613/genetic-variant-for-behavioral-regulation-factor-of-executive-function-and-its-possible-brain-mechanism-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Xiao Sun, Zhaomin Wu, Qingjiu Cao, Ying Qian, Yong Liu, Binrang Yang, Suhua Chang, Li Yang, Yufeng Wang
As a childhood-onset psychiatric disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Lifelong executive function deficits in ADHD are described in many literatures and have been proposed as endophenotypes of ADHD. However, its genetic basis is still elusive. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study of executive function, rated with Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), in ADHD children. We identified one significant variant (rs852004, P = 2...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768952/meta-analysis-of-the-association-between-rumination-and-reduced-autobiographical-memory-specificity
#11
Connie P Y Chiu, James W Griffith, Bert Lenaert, Filip Raes, Dirk Hermans, Tom J Barry
The CaRFAX model, proposed by Williams J. M. G. (2006. Capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and executive control (CaRFAX): Three processes that underlie overgeneral memory. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 548-568. doi: 10.1080/02699930500450465 ; Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Herman, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., & Dalgleish, T. (2007). Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 122-148. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.122 ) posits that reduced autobiographical memory specificity, a key factor associated with the emergence and maintenance of emotional disorders, may result from heightened rumination...
May 16, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768089/a-commentary-on-effects-of-regular-physical-activity-on-the-cognitive-performance-of-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-systematic-review-by-podolski-et-al-metab-syndr-relat-disord-2017-15-481-493
#12
Erin M Shellington, Sonja M Reichert, Robert J Petrella
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) imparts an increased risk for cognitive decline, specifically executive function, which is important to maintain for diabetes self-management. There is evidence to suggest that exercise improves cognition in healthy older adults; however, the literature in adults with T2DM is lacking. This commentary is in complement to Podolski et al.'s systematic review evaluating the effects of physical activity on cognitive function in adults with T2DM. We have included eight additional studies and further highlight their conclusions on the heterogeneity of the literature thus far...
May 16, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766459/cognitive-functioning-in-chiari-malformation-type-i-without-posterior-fossa-surgery
#13
Maitane García, Esther Lázaro, Juan Francisco López-Paz, Oscar Martínez, Manuel Pérez, Sarah Berrocoso, Mohammad Al-Rashaida, Imanol Amayra
Chiari Malformation type I (CM-I) is a neurological disorder characterized by a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. Most research has focused on physical symptomatology but few studies include neuropsychological examinations. Moreover, although current research highlights the involvement of the cerebellum on higher cognitive functions, little is known about cognitive consequences associated with CM-I. The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive functioning between 39 CM-I patients and 39 healthy controls, matched by gender, age and years of education...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762177/neuropsychological-phenotypes-among-men-with-and-without-hiv-disease-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#14
Samantha A Molsberry, Yu Cheng, Lawrence Kingsley, Lisa Jacobson, Andrew J Levine, Eileen Martin, Eric N Miller, Cynthia A Munro, Ann Ragin, Ned Sacktor, James T Becker
OBJECTIVE: Mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain prevalent in the combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) era. This study's objective was to identify neuropsychological subgroups within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) based on the participant-based latent structure of cognitive function and to identify factors associated with subgroups. DESIGN: The MACS is a four-site longitudinal study of the natural and treated history of HIV disease among gay and bisexual men...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756803/attitude-toward-own-aging-as-a-risk-factor-for-cognitive-disorder-in-old-age-12-year-evidence-from-the-ilse-study
#15
Jelena S Siebert, Hans-Werner Wahl, Christina Degen, Johannes Schröder
Previous research has demonstrated the harmful impact of subjective aging processes (e.g., negative age self-stereotyping) on normal cognitive aging in different domains of cognitive functioning, such as memory, executive function, and fluid abilities. Recently, subjective aging has also been linked to important biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia-related outcomes, indicating associations with pathological cognitive aging. With data from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development and Aging (ILSE), the present study extends this research by examining the long-term effect of attitude toward own aging (ATOA) on expert-based clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD in old age...
May 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756356/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-individuals-exhibiting-parkinson-s-disease-risk-markers
#16
Marcus Heldmann, Janna Heeren, Christine Klein, Linus Rauch, Johann Hagenah, Thomas F Münte, Meike Kasten, Norbert Brüggemann
BACKGROUND: The concept of prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) involves variable combinations of nonmotor features and subtle motor abnormalities as a result of ongoing neurodegeneration in the brain stem including substantia nigra (SN) and abnormal findings upon transcranial sonography and nuclear imaging. Except for nuclear imaging, the predictive value of risk markers for the conversion to overt PD is low. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether PD risk markers are associated with changes in brain structure and to what extent cognitive changes are risk markers for PD...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755332/neurofeedback-and-the-neural-representation-of-self-lessons-from-awake-state-and-sleep
#17
Andreas A Ioannides
Neurofeedback has been around for half a century, but despite some promising results it is not yet widely appreciated. Recently, some of the concerns about neurofeedback have been addressed with functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography adding their contributions to the long history of neurofeedback with electroencephalography. Attempts to address other concerns related to methodological issues with new experiments and meta-analysis of earlier studies, have opened up new questions about its efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755331/immediate-early-genes-memory-and-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-c-fos-egr1-and-arc
#18
REVIEW
Francisco T Gallo, Cynthia Katche, Juan F Morici, Jorge H Medina, Noelia V Weisstaub
Many psychiatric disorders, despite their specific characteristics, share deficits in the cognitive domain including executive functions, emotional control and memory. However, memory deficits have been in many cases undervalued compared with other characteristics. The expression of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) such as, c-fos , Egr1 and arc are selectively and promptly upregulated in learning and memory among neuronal subpopulations in regions associated with these processes. Changes in expression in these genes have been observed in recognition, working and fear related memories across the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754497/the-compensatory-adhd-behaviors-scale-cabs-development-and-initial-validation
#19
Peter J Castagna, Scott Roye, Matthew Calamia
Several measures are available that assess inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and executive functioning deficits. Treatments for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and skill-based academic interventions focus on improving compensatory strategies to ameliorate functional impairment; however, no measure exists that examines the compensatory behaviors adults utilize to compensate for the functional deficits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The current study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Compensatory ADHD Behaviors Scale (CABS)...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753752/the-cingulum-bundle-anatomy-function-and-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Emma J Bubb, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P Aggleton
The cingulum bundle is a prominent white matter tract that interconnects frontal, parietal, and medial temporal sites, while also linking subcortical nuclei to the cingulate gyrus. Despite its apparent continuity, the cingulum's composition continually changes as fibres join and leave the bundle. To help understand its complex structure, this review begins with detailed, comparative descriptions of the multiple connections comprising the cingulum bundle. Next, the impact of cingulum bundle damage in rats, monkeys, and humans is analysed...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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