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Executive Function Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341323/test-retest-reliability-and-longitudinal-analysis-of-automated-hippocampal-subregion-volumes-in-healthy-ageing-and-alzheimer-s-disease-populations
#1
Amanda Worker, Danai Dima, Anna Combes, William R Crum, Johannes Streffer, Steven Einstein, Mitul A Mehta, Gareth J Barker, Steve C R Williams, Owen O'daly
The hippocampal formation is a complex brain structure that is important in cognitive processes such as memory, mood, reward processing and other executive functions. Histological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the hippocampal region in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. This highly plastic limbic region is made up of several subregions that are believed to have different functional roles. Therefore, there is a growing interest in imaging the subregions of the hippocampal formation rather than modelling the hippocampus as a homogenous structure, driving the development of new automated analysis tools...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340801/maternal-depression-trajectories-from-pregnancy-to-3%C3%A2-years-postpartum-are-associated-with-children-s-behavior-and-executive-functions-at-3-and-6%C3%A2-years
#2
Mina Park, Ursula Brain, Ruth E Grunau, Adele Diamond, Tim F Oberlander
The objective of this study was to investigate how patterns of maternal depressive symptoms from mid-pregnancy to 3 years postpartum are associated with children's behavior at age 3 years and executive functions. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured from mid-pregnancy to 3 years postpartum. Growth mixture modeling was used on standardized maternal depression scores (n = 147) to identify trajectories. Children's behavioral problems and mental health symptomatology (internalizing, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) were obtained at 3 and 6 years...
January 16, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337277/compensatory-dopaminergic-cholinergic-interactions-in-conflict-processing-evidence-from-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Kamin Kim, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Martijn L T M Müller, Cindy Lustig
Executive functions are complex both in the cognitive operations involved and in the neural structures and functions that support those operations. This complexity makes executive function highly vulnerable to the detrimental effects of aging, brain injury, and disease, but may also open paths to compensation. Neural compensation is often used to explain findings of additional or altered patterns of brain activations by older adults or patient populations compared to young adults or healthy controls, especially when associated with relatively preserved performance...
January 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334322/plasma-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-pbdnf-and-executive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Stefanie Wagner, Sarah Kayser, Jan Engelmann, Konrad F Schlicht, Nadine Dreimüller, Oliver Tüscher, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Dieter F Braus, André Tadić, Alexandra Neyazi, Helge Frieling, Klaus Lieb
OBJECTIVES: Executive dysfunctions are frequently seen in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and normalize in many cases during effective antidepressant therapy. This study investigated whether a normalization of executive dysfunctions during antidepressant treatment correlates with or can be predicted by clinical parameters or levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). METHODS: In 110 MDD patients with executive dysfunctions (percentile < 16), executive functions and plasma BDNF levels were analysed at baseline, day 14 and 56 of an antidepressant treatment...
January 15, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333599/developmental-coordination-disorder-the-role-of-executive-functions
#5
Rainer Blank
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331692/memory-performance-predicts-response-to-psychotherapy-for-depression-in-bipolar-disorder-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-exploratory-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Thilo Deckersbach, Amy T Peters, Conor Shea, Aishwarya Gosai, Jonathan P Stange, Andrew D Peckham, Kristen K Ellard, Michael W Otto, Scott L Rauch, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg
OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial compared Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Psychotherapy (SP) for the treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder. We also examined whether exploratory verbal memory, executive functioning, and neural correlates of verbal memory during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicted change in depression severity. METHODS: Thirty-two adults (ages 18-65) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder meeting current criteria for a major depressive episode were randomized to 18 weeks of CBT or SP...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331595/the-interaction-between-neurocognitive-functioning-subthreshold-psychotic-symptoms-and-pharmacotherapy-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-longitudinal-comparative-study
#7
R Weinberger, O Weisman, Y Guri, T Harel, A Weizman, D Gothelf
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common genetic syndrome associated with schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to evaluate longitudinally the interaction between neurocognitive functioning, the presence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms (SPS) and conversion to psychosis in individuals with 22q11DS. In addition, we attempted to identify the specific neurocognitive domains that predict the longitudinal evolution of positive and negative SPS, as well as the effect of psychiatric medications on 22q11DS psychiatric and cognitive developmental trajectories...
December 8, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331264/altered-levels-of-the-splicing-factor-muscleblind-modifies-cerebral-cortical-function-in-mouse-models-of-myotonic-dystrophy
#8
Gang Chen, Russell E Carter, John D Cleary, Tammy S Reid, Laura P Ranum, Maurice S Swanson, Timothy J Ebner
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a progressive, multisystem disorder affecting skeletal muscle, heart, and central nervous system. In both DM1 and DM2, microsatellite expansions of CUG and CCUG RNA repeats, respectively, accumulate and disrupt functions of alternative splicing factors, including muscleblind (MBNL) proteins. Grey matter loss and white matter changes, including the corpus callosum, likely underlie cognitive and executive function deficits in DM patients. However, little is known how cerebral cortical circuitry changes in DM...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327279/emotion-recognition-and-psychological-comorbidity-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#9
Teresa Costabile, Veronica Capretti, Filomena Abate, Agnese Liguori, Francesca Paciello, Chiara Pane, Anna De Rosa, Silvio Peluso, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Francesco Saccà
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease presenting with ataxia, corticospinal signs, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac abnormalities. Little effort has been made to understand the psychological and emotional burden of the disease. The aim of our study was to measure patients' ability to recognize emotions using visual and non-verbal auditory hints, and to correlate this ability with psychological, neuropsychological, and neurological variables. We included 20 patients with FRDA, and 20 age, sex, and education matched healthy controls (HC)...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325626/fragile-x-syndrome-and-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#10
Deborah A Hall, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
Fragile X-associated disorders encompass several conditions, which are caused by expansion mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited etiology of intellectual disability and results from a full mutation or >200 CGG repeats in FMR1. It is associated with developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and seizures. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in premutation carriers of 55-200 CGG repeats in FMR1 and is characterized by kinetic tremor, gait ataxia, parkinsonism, executive dysfunction, and neuropathy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325477/cognitive-performance-and-apathy-predict-unemployment-in-huntington-s-disease-mutation-carriers
#11
Milou Jacobs, Ellen P Hart, Raymund A C Roos
Unemployment is common for those with Huntington's disease (HD), a genetic neurodegenerative disorder, and affects patients' quality of life. HD is characterized by motor disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. The purpose of this article was to determine which clinical signs of HD are predictive of unemployment. Data for employed (N=114) and unemployed (N=106) HD mutation carriers were used to investigate group differences. Univariate logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, were performed to determine individual predictors of unemployment...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321703/executive-functions-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-panic-disorder-patients-in-comparison-to-healty-controls
#12
Emel Kurt, Erol Yildirim, Volkan Topçuoğlu
Introduction: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired cognitive functions, including attention, verbal and visual memory, and visual-spatial abilities as well as executive function But some studies did not show any disturbance in executive function of patients with OCD. To date, only few studies have been conducted on neuropsychological functioning of patients with panic disorder (PD). There are limited studies to reach a definite conclusion on executive functions of patients with OCD and those with PD...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318974/-understanding-the-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-during-neurodegeneration-for-new-therapeutics-opportunities
#13
Amalia Merelli, Julio Cesar Garcia Rodriguez, Jaume Folch, Marcelo R Regueiro, Antoni Camins, Lazarowski Alberto
Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated with NDG. Since other pathologies such as refractory epilepsy, brain infections, or hereditary diseases such as "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation", also lead to chronic brain inflammation with loss of neural cells, NDG can be said to affect all ages...
January 10, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314557/assessment-of-cognitive-functions-in-bipolar-i-disorder-a-1-year-naturalistic-follow-up-study
#14
Rajesh Sagar, Anamika Sahu, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Biswadip Chatterjee
OBJECTIVE: Available findings from cross-sectional studies have demonstrated cognitive impairments in bipolar I disorder (BD-I) during various phases of illness. However, very little is known about the longitudinal course of these cognitive impairments. The purpose of the study was to explore the longitudinal pattern of changes in cognitive functioning of BD-I patients. METHODS: A total of 129 BD-I subjects (manic, depressed and euthymic groups) and 49 healthy controls were recruited using predefined selection criteria...
January 4, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310907/co-occurrence-and-severity-of-neurodevelopmental-burden-cognitive-impairment-cerebral-palsy-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-epilepsy-at-age-10-years-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#15
Rachel G Hirschberger, Karl C K Kuban, Thomas M O'Shea, Robert M Joseph, Tim Heeren, Laurie Douglass, Carl E Stafstrom, Hernan Jara, Jean A Frazier, Deborah Hirtz, Julie Rollins, Nigel Paneth
BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairments at age ten years among children born extremely preterm (less than 28 weeks gestational age) and to offer a framework for categorizing neurological limitations. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective cohort follow-up study recruited 889 ten-year-old children born from 2002 to 2004. We assessed prevalence of cognitive impairment, measured by intelligent quotient and tests of executive function, cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and epilepsy singly and in combination...
November 13, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306692/neurocognitive-features-in-clinical-subgroups-of-bipolar-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Emre Bora
OBJECTIVE: There is a significant cognitive heterogeneity in bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this systematic review was to examine the potential distinctive neuropsychological of features of clinical subgroups of BD. A literature search investigating cognitive differences between potential subtypes of BD was conducted. METHODS: It was possible to conduct a meta-analysis of studies investigating the relationship between cognitive deficits and subgroups of DSM-IV BD (type I (BD-I) and type II (BD-II)), subgroups based on history of psychosis (PBD and NPBD)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304167/the-language-disorder-of-prion-disease-is-characteristic-of-a-dynamic-aphasia-and-is-rarely-an-isolated-clinical-feature
#17
Diana Caine, Akin Nihat, Philippa Crabb, Peter Rudge, Lisa Cipolotti, John Collinge, Simon Mead
BACKGROUND: Akinetic mutism is a key diagnostic feature of prion diseases, however, their rapidly progressive nature makes detailed investigation of the language disorder in a large cohort extremely challenging. This study aims to position prion diseases in the nosology of language disorders and improve early clinical recognition. METHODS: A systematic, prospective investigation of language disorders in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with prion diseases. 568 patients were included as a sub-study of the National Prion Monitoring Cohort...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302219/individual-differences-in-the-neuropsychopathology-of-addiction
#18
Olivier George, George F Koob
Drug addiction or substance-use disorder is a chronically relapsing disorder that progresses through binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages. These stages represent diverse neurobiological mechanisms that are differentially involved in the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use and from positive to negative reinforcement. The progression from recreational to compulsive substance use is associated with downregulation of the brain reward systems and upregulation of the brain stress systems...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300226/intervention-program-to-improve-executive-functions-and-enhance-planning-abilities-of-patients-with-mild-neurocognitive-disorder
#19
Daisuke Fukuta, Chizuru Mori
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an intervention program to improve executive functions and enhance the planning abilities of patients with mild neurocognitive disorder. DESIGN: A pilot intervention study. METHODS: Ten inpatients performed an intervention program based on Lezak's conceptual model that teaches task-specific routines. The program consisted of six training sessions presented over a 2-week period. Neuropsychological assessments were performed pre- and postintervention...
January 3, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296616/everolimus-for-treatment-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-associated-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#20
Darcy A Krueger, Anjali Sadhwani, Anna W Byars, Petrus J de Vries, David N Franz, Vicky H Whittemore, Rajna Filip-Dhima, Donna Murray, Kush Kapur, Mustafa Sahin
Objective: To evaluate if short-term treatment with everolimus was safe and could improve neurocognition and behavior in children with TSC. Methods: This was a prospective, double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled two-center phase II study. Participants diagnosed with TSC and age 6-21 years were treated with 4.5 mg/m2 per day of oral everolimus (n = 32) or matching placebo (n = 15) taken once daily for 6 months. For efficacy, a comprehensive neurocognitive and behavioral evaluation battery was performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months...
December 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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