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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120105/age-differences-in-arterial-and-venous-extra-cerebral-blood-flow-in-healthy-adults-contributions-of-vascular-risk-factors-and-genetic-variants
#1
Naftali Raz, Ana M Daugherty, Sean K Sethi, Muzamil Arshad, E Mark Haacke
Sufficient cerebral blood flow (CBF) and venous drainage are critical for normal brain function, and their alterations can affect brain aging. However, to date, most studies focused on arterial CBF (inflow) with little attention paid to the age differences in venous outflow. We measured extra-cerebral arterial and venous blood flow rates with phase-contrast MRI and assessed the influence of vascular risk factors and genetic polymorphisms (ACE insertion/deletion, COMT val158met, and APOEε4) in 73 adults (age 18-74 years)...
January 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119508/hierarchical-prediction-errors-in-midbrain-and-septum-during-social-learning
#2
Andreea O Diaconescu, Christoph Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Lars Kasper, Jan Mauer, Klaas E Stephan
Social learning is fundamental to human interactions, yet its computational and physiological mechanisms are not well understood. One prominent open question concerns the role of neuromodulatory transmitters. We combined fMRI, computational modelling, and genetics to address this question in two separate samples (N=35, N=47). Participants played a game requiring inference on an advisor's intentions whose motivation to help or mislead changed over time. Our analyses suggest that hierarchically structured belief updates about current advice validity and the adviser's trustworthiness, respectively, depend on different neuromodulatory systems...
January 24, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119206/sex-differences-in-verbal-working-memory-performance-emerge-at-very-high-loads-of-common-neuroimaging-tasks
#3
Jessica L Reed, Natalie M Gallagher, Marie Sullivan, Joseph H Callicott, Adam E Green
Working memory (WM) supports a broad range of intelligent cognition and has been the subject of rich cognitive and neural characterization. However, the highest ranges of WM have not been fully characterized, especially for verbal information. Tasks developed to test multiple levels of WM demand (load) currently predominate brain-based WM research. These tasks are typically used at loads that allow most healthy participants to perform well, which facilitates neuroimaging data collection. Critically, however, high performance at lower loads may obscure differences that emerge at higher loads...
January 21, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102561/stressful-life-events-and-catechol-o-methyl-transferase-comt-gene-in-bipolar-disorder
#4
Georgina M Hosang, Helen L Fisher, Sarah Cohen-Woods, Peter McGuffin, Anne E Farmer
BACKGROUND: A small body of research suggests that gene-environment interactions play an important role in the development of bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study is to contribute to this work by exploring the relationship between stressful life events and the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) Val(158) Met polymorphism in bipolar disorder. METHODS: Four hundred eighty-two bipolar cases and 205 psychiatrically healthy controls completed the List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire...
January 19, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101524/the-role-of-dopamine-in-anticipatory-pursuit-eye-movements-insights-from-genetic-polymorphisms-in-healthy-adults
#5
Jutta Billino, Jürgen Hennig, Karl R Gegenfurtner
There is a long history of eye movement research in patients with psychiatric diseases for which dysfunctions of neurotransmission are considered to be the major pathologic mechanism. However, neuromodulation of oculomotor control is still hardly understood. We aimed to investigate in particular the impact of dopamine on smooth pursuit eye movements. Systematic variability in dopaminergic transmission due to genetic polymorphisms in healthy subjects offers a noninvasive opportunity to determine functional associations...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078547/znf804a-rs1344706-interacts-with-comt-rs4680-to-affect-prefrontal-volume-in-healthy-adults
#6
Qiang Xu, Yongqin Xiong, Congcong Yuan, Feng Liu, Fangshi Zhao, Junlin Shen, Wen Qin, Chunshui Yu
The biological function of ZNF804A rs1344706, the first genome-wide supported risk variant of schizophrenia, remains largely unknown. Based on the upregulating effect of ZNF804A on the expression of COMT, we hypothesize that ZNF804A may affect grey matter volume (GMV) by interacting with COMT. Voxel-based morphometry was applied to analyze the main and interaction effects of ZNF804A rs1344706 and COMT rs4680 on brain GMV in 274 healthy young human subjects. The GMV of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed a significant COMT rs4680 × ZNF804A rs1344706 interaction, manifesting as an inverted U-shape modulation by the presumed dopamine signaling...
January 11, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049082/catechol-o-methyltransferase-val-108-158-met-polymorphism-affects-fronto-limbic-connectivity-during-emotional-processing-in-bipolar-disorder
#7
B Vai, M Riberto, S Poletti, I Bollettini, C Lorenzi, C Colombo, F Benedetti
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates catecholamines, Val/Val genotype was associated to an increased amygdala (Amy) response to negative stimuli and can influence the symptoms severity and the outcome of bipolar disorder, probably mediated by the COMT polymorphism (rs4680) interaction between cortical and subcortical dopaminergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study is to explore how rs4680 and implicit emotional processing of negative emotional stimuli could interact in affecting the Amy connectivity in bipolar depression...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032000/reduced-brain-activation-during-inhibitory-control-in-children-with-comt-val-val-genotype
#8
Lora M Cope, Jillian E Hardee, Mary E Soules, Margit Burmeister, Robert A Zucker, Mary M Heitzeg
INTRODUCTION: Behavioral undercontrol is a well-established risk factor for substance use disorder, identifiable at an early age well before the onset of substance use. However, the biological mechanistic structure underlying the behavioral undercontrol/substance use relationship is not well understood. The enzyme catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) catabolizes dopamine and norepinephrine in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, brain regions involved in behavioral control. The goal of this work was to investigate the association between genetic variation in COMT functioning and fronto-striatal brain functioning during successful inhibitory control, a critical aspect of behavioral control...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930497/the-comt-val158met-polymorphism-is-associated-with-response-to-add-on-dextromethorphan-treatment-in-bipolar-disorder
#9
Sheng-Yu Lee, Shiou-Lan Chen, Tzu-Yun Wang, Yun-Hsuan Chang, Po See Chen, San-Yuan Huang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Liang-Jen Wang, I Hui Lee, Kao Ching Chen, Yen Kuang Yang, Ru-Band Lu
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: We previously conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled, 12-week study evaluating the effect of add-on dextromethorphan (DM), a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on patients with bipolar disorder (BD) treated using valproate (VPA), which showed negative clinical differences. The genetic variation between each individual may be responsible for interindividual differences. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been a candidate gene for BD...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909011/age-dependent-effects-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-gene-val158met-polymorphism-on-language-function-in-developing-children
#10
Lisa Sugiura, Tomoko Toyota, Hiroko Matsuba-Kurita, Yoshimi Iwayama, Reiko Mazuka, Takeo Yoshikawa, Hiroko Hagiwara
The genetic basis controlling language development remains elusive. Previous studies of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met genotype and cognition have focused on prefrontally guided executive functions involving dopamine. However, COMT may further influence posterior cortical regions implicated in language perception. We investigated whether COMT influences language ability and cortical language processing involving the posterior language regions in 246 children aged 6-10 years. We assessed language ability using a language test and cortical responses recorded during language processing using a word repetition task and functional near-infrared spectroscopy...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898499/comt-and-bdnf-gene-variants-help-to-predict-alcohol-consumption-in-alcohol-dependent-patients
#11
Anna Klimkiewicz, Anna Mach, Andrzej Jakubczyk, Jakub Klimkiewicz, Anna Wnorowska, Maciej Kopera, Sylwia Fudalej, Margit Burmeister, Kirk Brower, Marcin Wojnar
BACKGROUND: The neurobiology of alcohol dependence (AD) involves alterations in neurotransmitters and the stress response. We hypothesized that an interaction between functional variants of dopaminergic and neurotrophic genes may influence drinking in AD. METHODS: The relationship between alcohol consumption and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, Val66Met in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Val158Met in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), was analyzed among 281 alcohol-dependent individuals...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836240/influence-of-comt-val-158-met-polymorphism-on-emotional-decision-making-a-sex-dependent-relationship
#12
Danielle de Souza Costa, Antoine Bechara, Jonas Jardim de Paula, Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva, Humberto Correa, Guilherme Menezes Lage, Débora Marques de Miranda, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz
The biological underpinnings of sex-related differences in decision-making are still under-explored. The COMT gene is related to sexual dimorphism and with different choices made under uncertainty, albeit no study has specifically investigated a moderation effect of sex on the association between the COMT gene and the performance on decision-making paradigms. In this study, we investigated the influence of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism on Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance depending on sex in a healthy adult sample...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825784/does-comt-val158met-polymorphism-influence-p50-sensory-gating-eye-tracking-or-saccadic-inhibition-dysfunctions-in-schizophrenia
#13
Caroline Demily, Sandrine Louchart-de-la-Chapelle, Irène Nkam, Nicolas Ramoz, Pierre Denise, Alain Nicolas, Caroline Savalle, Florence Thibaut
Three electrophysiological endophenotypes are routinely studied in schizophrenia (SCZ): smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) dysfunction, deficits in P50 auditory-evoked potential inhibition, and saccadic inhibition deficits. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the COMT val158met polymorphism and these three endophenotypes. One hundred four SCZ patients (DSM-IV-R criteria) and 89 healthy controls were included in this study. P50 auditory-evoked potential inhibition, antisaccade paradigm and SPEM were analyzed...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793591/association-between-comt-genotype-and-the-control-of-memory-guided-saccades-individual-differences-in-healthy-adults-reveal-a-detrimental-role-of-dopamine
#14
Jutta Billino, Jürgen Hennig, Karl R Gegenfurtner
The neural circuits involved in oculomotor control are well described; however, neuromodulation of eye movements is still hardly understood. Memory guided saccades have been extensively studied and in particular neurophysiological evidence from monkey studies points to a crucial functional role of prefrontal dopamine activity. We exploited individual differences in dopamine regulation due to the well established COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) Val(158)Met polymorphism to explore the link between prefrontal dopamine activity and memory guided saccades in healthy subjects...
December 15, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785396/association-between-the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-val158met-polymorphism-with-susceptibility-and-severity-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#15
E Erkol İnal, P Eroğlu, O Görükmez, Ş Özemri Sağ, T Yakut
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity. In this study, we aimed to clarify the relationships between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val158Met (rs4680) polymorphism and development, functional and clinical status of CTS. Ninety-five women with electro diagnostically confirmed CTS and 95 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The functional and clinical status of the patients was measured by the Turkish version of the Boston Questionnaire and intensity of pain related to the past 2 weeks was evaluated on a visual analog scale (VAS)...
December 1, 2015: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769642/comt-val-158-met-polymorphism-is-associated-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-functional-outcome-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Ethan A Winkler, John K Yue, Adam R Ferguson, Nancy R Temkin, Murray B Stein, Jason Barber, Esther L Yuh, Sourabh Sharma, Gabriela G Satris, Thomas W McAllister, Jonathan Rosand, Marco D Sorani, Hester F Lingsma, Phiroz E Tarapore, Esteban G Burchard, Donglei Hu, Celeste Eng, Kevin K W Wang, Pratik Mukherjee, David O Okonkwo, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Geoffrey T Manley
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical trajectories and outcomes. The source of variability remains unclear, but may involve genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A SNP in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is suggested to influence development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its role in TBI remains unclear. Here, we utilize the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study to investigate whether the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with PTSD and global functional outcome as measured by the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744110/comtval158met-polymorphism-is-associated-with-behavioral-response-and-physiologic-reactivity-to-socio-emotional-stress-in-4-month-old-infants
#17
Rosario Montirosso, Livio Provenzi, Daniela Tavian, Sara Missaglia, Maria Elisabetta Raggi, Renato Borgatti
Individual variability exists in infants' socio-emotional stress regulation, in terms of behavioral response (i.e., negative emotionality) as well as magnitude and direction (i.e., increase or decrease) of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol post-stress concentration). The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism at codon 158 (COMTval158met) associates with stress regulation, but no evidence exists for infants. This study aimed to assess the association between COMTval158met and both negative emotionality and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 4-month-old infants...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683563/childhood-trauma-and-comt-genotype-interact-to-increase-hippocampal-activation-in-resilient-individuals
#18
Sanne J H van Rooij, Jennifer S Stevens, Timothy D Ely, Negar Fani, Alicia K Smith, Kimberly A Kerley, Adriana Lori, Kerry J Ressler, Tanja Jovanovic
Both childhood trauma and a functional catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genetic polymorphism have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression; however, it is still unclear whether the two interact and how this interaction relates to long-term risk or resilience. Imaging and genotype data were collected on 73 highly traumatized women. DNA extracted from saliva was used to determine COMT genotype (Val/Val, n = 38, Met carriers, n = 35). Functional MRI data were collected during a Go/NoGo task to investigate the neurocircuitry underlying response inhibition...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664968/prefrontal-volume-mediates-effect-of-comt-polymorphism-on-interference-resolution-capacity-in-healthy-male-adults
#19
Jiayuan Xu, Wen Qin, Qiaojun Li, Wei Li, Feng Liu, Bing Liu, Tianzi Jiang, Chunshui Yu
There exist gender differences in the modulation of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism on cognitive performance; however, the underlying gene-anatomy-cognition pathways remain unknown. Here we hypothesize that prefrontal volume may mediate the modulation of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on interference resolution capacity in a gender-dependent manner. In 261 healthy young human subjects (143 males and 118 females), a 2-way analysis of variance showed a COMT × gender interaction (P = 0...
September 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622935/evidence-that-comt-genotype-and-proline-interact-on-negative-symptom-outcomes-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#20
C L Clelland, V Drouet, K C Rilett, J A Smeed, R H Nadrich, A Rajparia, L L Read, J D Clelland
Elevated peripheral proline is associated with psychiatric disorders, and there is evidence that proline is a neuromodulator. The proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes proline catabolism, maps to human chromosome 22q11.2, a region conferring risk of schizophrenia. In the Prodh-null mouse, an interaction between elevated peripheral proline and another 22q11.2 gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), on neurotransmission and behavior has been reported. We explored the relationship between fasting plasma proline levels and COMT Val(158)Met genotype on symptoms (positive, negative and total) in schizophrenia patients...
September 13, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
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