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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222382/corporeal-illusions-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injuries
#1
Michele Scandola, Salvatore Maria Aglioti, Renato Avesani, Gianettore Bertagnoni, Anna Marangoni, Valentina Moro
While several studies have investigated corporeal illusions in patients who have suffered from a stroke or undergone an amputation, only anecdotal or single case reports have explored this phenomenon after spinal cord injury. Here we examine various different types of bodily misperceptions in a comparatively large group of 49 people with spinal cord injury in the post-acute and chronic phases after the traumatic lesion onset. An extensive battery of questionnaires concerning a variety of body related feelings was administered and the results were correlated to the main clinical variables...
February 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220044/pregnenolone-blocks-cannabinoid-induced-acute-psychotic-like-states-in-mice
#2
A Busquets-Garcia, E Soria-Gómez, B Redon, Y Mackenbach, M Vallée, F Chaouloff, M Varilh, G Ferreira, P-V Piazza, G Marsicano
Cannabis-induced acute psychotic-like states (CIAPS) represent a growing health issue, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines against CIAPS is limited by side effects and/or by their ability to tackle only certain aspects of psychosis. Thus, safer wide-spectrum treatments are currently needed. Although the blockade of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) had been suggested as a therapeutical means against CIAPS, the use of orthosteric CB1 receptor full antagonists is strongly limited by undesired side effects and low efficacy...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214130/stability-of-sensory-topographies-in-adult-cortex
#3
REVIEW
Tamar R Makin, Sliman J Bensmaia
Textbooks teach us that the removal of sensory input to sensory cortex, for example, following arm amputation, results in massive reorganisation in the adult brain. In this opinion article, we critically examine evidence for functional reorganisation of sensory cortical representations, focusing on the sequelae of arm amputation on somatosensory topographies. Based on literature from human and non-human primates, we conclude that the cortical representation of the limb remains remarkably stable despite the loss of its main peripheral input...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196765/visual-illusion-of-tool-use-recalibrates-tactile-perception
#4
Luke E Miller, Matthew R Longo, Ayse P Saygin
Brief use of a tool recalibrates multisensory representations of the user's body, a phenomenon called tool embodiment. Despite two decades of research, little is known about its boundary conditions. It has been widely argued that embodiment requires active tool use, suggesting a critical role for somatosensory and motor feedback. The present study used a visual illusion to cast doubt on this view. We used a mirror-based setup to induce a visual experience of tool use with an arm that was in fact stationary...
February 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191033/algorithm-and-software-to-automatically-identify-latency-and-amplitude-features-of-local-field-potentials-recorded-in-electrophysiological-investigation
#5
Maria Rubega, Claudia Cecchetto, Stefano Vassanelli, Giovanni Sparacino
BACKGROUND: Local field potentials (LFPs) evoked by sensory stimulation are particularly useful in electrophysiological research. For instance, spike timing and current transmembrane current flow estimated from LFPs recorded in the barrel cortex in rats and mice are exploited to investigate how the brain represents sensory stimuli. Recent improvements in microelectrodes technology enable neuroscientists to acquire a great amount of LFPs during the same experimental session, calling for algorithms for their quantitative automatic analysis...
2017: Source Code for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153687/error-related-negativity-in-the-skilled-brain-of-pianists-reveals-motor-simulation
#6
Alice Mado Proverbio, Matteo Cozzi, Andrea Orlandi, Manuel Carminati
Evidences have been provided of a crucial role of multimodal audio-visuomotor processing in subserving the musical ability. In this paper we investigated whether musical audiovisual stimulation might trigger the activation of motor information in the brain of professional pianists, due to the presence of permanent gestures/sound associations. At this aim EEG was recorded in 24 pianists and naive participants engaged in the detection of rare targets while watching hundreds of video clips showing a pair of hands in the act of playing, along with a compatible or incompatible piano soundtrack...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139959/inside-speech-multisensory-and-modality-specific-processing-of-tongue-and-lip-speech-actions
#7
Avril Treille, Coriandre Vilain, Thomas Hueber, Laurent Lamalle, Marc Sato
Action recognition has been found to rely not only on sensory brain areas but also partly on the observer's motor system. However, whether distinct auditory and visual experiences of an action modulate sensorimotor activity remains largely unknown. In the present sparse sampling fMRI study, we determined to which extent sensory and motor representations interact during the perception of tongue and lip speech actions. Tongue and lip speech actions were selected because tongue movements of our interlocutor are accessible via their impact on speech acoustics but not visible because of its position inside the vocal tract, whereas lip movements are both "audible" and visible...
March 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139019/from-single-cells-single-columns-to-cortical-networks-dendritic-excitability-coincidence-detection-and-synaptic-transmission-in-brain-slices-and-brains
#8
Bert Sakmann
While patch pipettes were initially designed to record extracellularly elementary current events from muscle and neuron membrane, the whole-cell (eg Sakmann, 1992) and loose cell-attached recording configurations proved to be useful tools for examining signaling within and between nerve cells. In this Paton Lecture I will summarize first work on electrical signaling within single neurons, describing communication between its dendritic compartments, soma and nerve terminals via forward and backward propagating action potentials...
January 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119344/dermatomal-organization-of-si-leg-representation-in-humans-revising-the-somatosensory-homunculus
#9
Caroline Dietrich, Kathrin R Blume, Marcel Franz, Ralph Huonker, Maria Carl, Sandra Preißler, Gunther O Hofmann, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Thomas Weiss
Penfield and Rasmussen's homunculus is the valid map of the neural body representation of nearly each textbook of biology, physiology, and neuroscience. The somatosensory homunculus places the foot representation on the mesial surface of the postcentral gyrus followed by the representations of the lower leg and the thigh in superio-lateral direction. However, this strong homuncular organization contradicts the "dermatomal" organization of spinal nerves. We used somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields and source analysis to study the leg's neural representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI)...
January 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095365/barreloid-borders-and-neuronal-activity-shape-panglial-gap-junction-coupled-networks-in-the-mouse-thalamus
#10
Lena Claus, Camille Philippot, Stephanie Griemsmann, Aline Timmermann, Ronald Jabs, Christian Henneberger, Helmut Kettenmann, Christian Steinhäuser
The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus plays an important role in somatosensory information processing. It contains elongated cellular domains called barreloids, which are the structural basis for the somatotopic organization of vibrissae representation. So far, the organization of glial networks in these barreloid structures and its modulation by neuronal activity has not been studied. We have developed a method to visualize thalamic barreloid fields in acute slices. Combining electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and electroporation in transgenic mice with cell type-specific fluorescence labeling, we provide the first structure-function analyses of barreloidal glial gap junction networks...
November 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093551/multiple-shared-mechanisms-for-homeostatic-plasticity-in-rodent-somatosensory-and-visual-cortex
#11
REVIEW
Melanie A Gainey, Daniel E Feldman
We compare the circuit and cellular mechanisms for homeostatic plasticity that have been discovered in rodent somatosensory (S1) and visual (V1) cortex. Both areas use similar mechanisms to restore mean firing rate after sensory deprivation. Two time scales of homeostasis are evident, with distinct mechanisms. Slow homeostasis occurs over several days, and is mediated by homeostatic synaptic scaling in excitatory networks and, in some cases, homeostatic adjustment of pyramidal cell intrinsic excitability. Fast homeostasis occurs within less than 1 day, and is mediated by rapid disinhibition, implemented by activity-dependent plasticity in parvalbumin interneuron circuits...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069761/functional-and-quantitative-mri-mapping-of-somatomotor-representations-of-human-supralaryngeal-vocal-tract
#12
Daniel Carey, Saloni Krishnan, Martina F Callaghan, Martin I Sereno, Frederic Dick
Speech articulation requires precise control of and coordination between the effectors of the vocal tract (e.g., lips, tongue, soft palate, and larynx). However, it is unclear how the cortex represents movements of and contact between these effectors during speech, or how these cortical responses relate to inter-regional anatomical borders. Here, we used phase-encoded fMRI to map somatomotor representations of speech articulations. Phonetically trained participants produced speech phones, progressing from front (bilabial) to back (glottal) place of articulation...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053026/self-grounded-vision-hand-ownership-modulates-visual-location-through-cortical-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-oscillations
#13
Nathan Faivre, Jonathan Dönz, Michele Scandola, Herberto Dhanis, Javier Bello Ruiz, Fosco Bernasconi, Roy Salomon, Olaf Blanke
: Vision is known to be shaped by context, defined by environmental and bodily signals. In the Taylor illusion, the size of an afterimage projected on one's hand changes according to proprioceptive signals conveying hand position. Here, we assessed whether the Taylor illusion does not just depend on the physical hand position, but also on bodily self-consciousness as quantified through illusory hand ownership. Relying on the somatic rubber hand illusion, we manipulated hand ownership, such that participants embodied a rubber hand placed next to their own hand...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035900/perceptually-relevant-remapping-of-human-somatotopy-in-24-hours
#14
James Kolasinski, Tamar R Makin, John P Logan, Saad Jbabdi, Stuart Clare, Charlotte J Stagg, Heidi Johansen-Berg
Experience-dependent reorganisation of functional maps in the cerebral cortex is well described in the primary sensory cortices. However, there is relatively little evidence for such cortical reorganisation over the short-term. Using human somatosensory cortex as a model, we investigated the effects of a 24 hr gluing manipulation in which the right index and right middle fingers (digits 2 and 3) were adjoined with surgical glue. Somatotopic representations, assessed with two 7 tesla fMRI protocols, revealed rapid off-target reorganisation in the non-manipulated fingers following gluing, with the representation of the ring finger (digit 4) shifted towards the little finger (digit 5) and away from the middle finger (digit 3)...
December 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032008/effects-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-resting-state-fmri-signals-and-functional-connectivity-within-primary-somatosensory-cortex-of-monkeys
#15
Tung-Lin Wu, Arabinda Mishra, Feng Wang, Pai-Feng Yang, John C Gore, Li Min Chen
INTRODUCTION: Correlated low-frequency fluctuations of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) signals have been widely used for inferring intrinsic brain functional connectivity (FC). In animal studies, accurate estimate of anesthetic effects on rsfMRI signals is demanded for reliable interpretations of FC changes. We have previously shown that inter-regional FC can reliably delineate local millimeter-scale circuits within digit representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) subregions (areas 3a, 3b, and 1) in monkeys under isoflurane anesthesia...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999536/cortical-asymmetries-during-hand-laterality-task-vary-with-hand-laterality-a-fmri-study-in-295-participants
#16
Emmanuel Mellet, Bernard Mazoyer, Gaelle Leroux, Marc Joliot, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer
The aim of this study was to characterize, using fMRI, the functional asymmetries of hand laterality task (HLT) in a sample of 295 participants balanced for handedness. During HLT, participants have to decide whether the displayed picture of a hand represent a right or a left hand. Pictures of hands' back view were presented for 150 ms in the right or left hemifield. At the whole hemisphere level, we evidenced that the laterality of the hand and of the hemifield in which the picture was displayed combined their effects on the hemispheric asymmetry in an additive way...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923839/an-examination-of-the-neural-unreliability-thesis-of-autism
#17
John S Butler, Sophie Molholm, Gizely N Andrade, John J Foxe
An emerging neuropathological theory of Autism, referred to here as "the neural unreliability thesis," proposes greater variability in moment-to-moment cortical representation of environmental events, such that the system shows general instability in its impulse response function. Leading evidence for this thesis derives from functional neuroimaging, a methodology ill-suited for detailed assessment of sensory transmission dynamics occurring at the millisecond scale. Electrophysiological assessments of this thesis, however, are sparse and unconvincing...
December 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921066/review-of-imaging-network-activities-in-developing-rodent-cerebral-cortex-in-vivo
#18
REVIEW
Heiko J Luhmann
The combination of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in the rodent cerebral cortex in vivo allows the simultaneous analysis of large-scale network interactions and electrophysiological single-unit recordings. Using this approach, distinct patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity can be recorded in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) of newborn rats. Already at the day of birth, gamma oscillations and spindle bursts in the barrel cortex synchronize the activity of a local columnar ensemble, thereby generating an early topographic representation of the sensory periphery...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911020/changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-in-musicians-with-embouchure-dystonia
#19
Bernhard Haslinger, Jonas Noé, Eckart Altenmüller, Valentin Riedl, Claus Zimmer, Tobias Mantel, Christian Dresel
OBJECTIVE: Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling task-specific dystonia in professional brass musicians leading to spasms of perioral muscles while playing the instrument. As they are asymptomatic at rest, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in these patients can reveal changes in functional connectivity within and between brain networks independent from dystonic symptoms. METHODS: We therefore compared embouchure dystonia patients to healthy musicians with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with independent component analyses...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883017/differential-neural-encoding-of-sensorimotor-and-visual-body-representations
#20
David Perruchoud, Lars Michels, Marco Piccirelli, Roger Gassert, Silvio Ionta
Sensorimotor processing specifically impacts mental body representations. In particular, deteriorated somatosensory input (as after complete spinal cord injury) increases the relative weight of visual aspects of body parts' representations, leading to aberrancies in how images of body parts are mentally manipulated (e.g. mental rotation). This suggests that a sensorimotor or visual reference frame, respectively, can be relatively dominant in local (hands) versus global (full-body) bodily representations. On this basis, we hypothesized that the recruitment of a specific reference frame could be reflected in the activation of sensorimotor versus visual brain networks...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
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