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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923839/an-examination-of-the-neural-unreliability-thesis-of-autism
#1
John S Butler, Sophie Molholm, Gizely N Andrade, John J Foxe
An emerging neuropathological theory of Autism, referred to here as "the neural unreliability thesis," proposes greater variability in moment-to-moment cortical representation of environmental events, such that the system shows general instability in its impulse response function. Leading evidence for this thesis derives from functional neuroimaging, a methodology ill-suited for detailed assessment of sensory transmission dynamics occurring at the millisecond scale. Electrophysiological assessments of this thesis, however, are sparse and unconvincing...
December 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921066/review-of-imaging-network-activities-in-developing-rodent-cerebral-cortex-in-vivo
#2
REVIEW
Heiko J Luhmann
The combination of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in the rodent cerebral cortex in vivo allows the simultaneous analysis of large-scale network interactions and electrophysiological single-unit recordings. Using this approach, distinct patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity can be recorded in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) of newborn rats. Already at the day of birth, gamma oscillations and spindle bursts in the barrel cortex synchronize the activity of a local columnar ensemble, thereby generating an early topographic representation of the sensory periphery...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911020/changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-in-musicians-with-embouchure-dystonia
#3
Bernhard Haslinger, Jonas Noé, Eckart Altenmüller, Valentin Riedl, Claus Zimmer, Tobias Mantel, Christian Dresel
OBJECTIVE: Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling task-specific dystonia in professional brass musicians leading to spasms of perioral muscles while playing the instrument. As they are asymptomatic at rest, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in these patients can reveal changes in functional connectivity within and between brain networks independent from dystonic symptoms. METHODS: We therefore compared embouchure dystonia patients to healthy musicians with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with independent component analyses...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883017/differential-neural-encoding-of-sensorimotor-and-visual-body-representations
#4
David Perruchoud, Lars Michels, Marco Piccirelli, Roger Gassert, Silvio Ionta
Sensorimotor processing specifically impacts mental body representations. In particular, deteriorated somatosensory input (as after complete spinal cord injury) increases the relative weight of visual aspects of body parts' representations, leading to aberrancies in how images of body parts are mentally manipulated (e.g. mental rotation). This suggests that a sensorimotor or visual reference frame, respectively, can be relatively dominant in local (hands) versus global (full-body) bodily representations. On this basis, we hypothesized that the recruitment of a specific reference frame could be reflected in the activation of sensorimotor versus visual brain networks...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872586/loss-of-ensemble-segregation-in-dentate-gyrus-but-not-in-somatosensory-cortex-during-contextual-fear-memory-generalization
#5
Marie Yokoyama, Naoki Matsuo
The details of contextual or episodic memories are lost and generalized with the passage of time. Proper generalization may underlie the formation and assimilation of semantic memories and enable animals to adapt to ever-changing environments, whereas overgeneralization of fear memory evokes maladaptive fear responses to harmless stimuli, which is a symptom of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To understand the neural basis of fear memory generalization, we investigated the patterns of neuronal ensemble reactivation during memory retrieval when contextual fear memory expression is generalized using transgenic mice that allowed us to visualize specific neuronal ensembles activated during memory encoding and retrieval...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872293/emergence-of-an-abstract-categorical-code-enabling-the-discrimination-of-temporally-structured-tactile-stimuli
#6
Román Rossi-Pool, Emilio Salinas, Antonio Zainos, Manuel Alvarez, José Vergara, Néstor Parga, Ranulfo Romo
The problem of neural coding in perceptual decision making revolves around two fundamental questions: (i) How are the neural representations of sensory stimuli related to perception, and (ii) what attributes of these neural responses are relevant for downstream networks, and how do they influence decision making? We studied these two questions by recording neurons in primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (DPC) cortex while trained monkeys reported whether the temporal pattern structure of two sequential vibrotactile stimuli (of equal mean frequency) was the same or different...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852022/-parietal-cortices-and-body-information
#7
Eiichi Naito, Kaoru Amemiya, Tomoyo Morita
Proprioceptive signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints contribute to the formation of both the human body schema and the body image. In this chapter, we introduce various types of bodily illusions that are elicited by proprioceptive inputs, and we discuss distinct functions implemented by different parietal cortices. First, we illustrate the primary importance of the motor network in the processing of proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals originating from muscle spindles. Next, we argue that the right inferior parietal cortex, in concert with the inferior frontal cortex (both regions connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus-SLF III), may be involved in the conscious experience of body image...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847313/abnormal-brain-responses-to-action-observation-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#8
Jaakko Hotta, Jukka Saari, Miika Koskinen, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Nina Forss, Riitta Hari
: Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. Here, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper-limb CRPS patients (all females, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821580/self-grounded-vision-hand-ownership-modulates-visual-location-through-cortical-beta-and-gamma-oscillations
#9
Nathan Faivre, Jonathan Doenz, Michele Scandola, Herberto Dhanis, Javier Bello Ruiz, Fosco Bernasconi, Roy Salomon, Olaf Blanke
: Vision is known to be shaped by context, defined by environmental and bodily signals. In the Taylor illusion, the size of an afterimage projected on one's hand changes according to proprioceptive signals conveying hand position. Here, we assessed whether the Taylor illusion does not just depend on the physical hand position, but also on bodily self-consciousness as quantified through illusory hand ownership. Relying on the somatic rubber hand illusion, we manipulated hand ownership, such that participants embodied a rubber hand placed next to their own hand...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816777/concurrent-use-of-somatotopic-and-external-reference-frames-in-a-tactile-mislocalization-task
#10
Luigi Tamè, Anja Wühle, Caroline D Petri, Francesco Pavani, Christoph Braun
Localizing tactile stimuli on our body requires sensory information to be represented in multiple frames of reference along the sensory pathways. These reference frames include the representation of sensory information in skin coordinates, in which the spatial relationship of skin regions is maintained. The organization of the primary somatosensory cortex matches such somatotopic reference frame. In contrast, higher-order representations are based on external coordinates, in which body posture and gaze direction are taken into account in order to localise touch in other meaningful ways according to task demands...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790087/functional-and-structural-neuroplasticity-induced-by-short-term-tactile-training-based-on-braille-reading
#11
Weronika Debowska, Tomasz Wolak, Anna Nowicka, Anna Kozak, Marcin Szwed, Malgorzata Kossut
Neuroplastic changes induced by sensory learning have been recognized within the cortices of specific modalities as well as within higher ordered multimodal areas. The interplay between these areas is not fully understood, particularly in the case of somatosensory learning. Here we examined functional and structural changes induced by short-term tactile training based of Braille reading, a task that requires both significant tactile expertise and mapping of tactile input onto multimodal representations. Subjects with normal vision were trained for 3 weeks to read Braille exclusively by touch and scanned before and after training, while performing a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters and meaningless characters...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777015/high-resolution-fmri-investigations-of-the-fingertip-somatotopy-and-variability-in-ba3b-and-ba1-of-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex
#12
Jörg Peter Pfannmöller, Marvin Greiner, Mukund Balasubramanian, Martin Lotze
The fingertip somatotopy in BA1 and BA3b of monkeys exhibits characteristic differences with a more discrete separation of the body parts in BA3b and a continuous orientation column-like structure in BA1. We present evidence for similar differences in the human somatotopy using BOLD fMRI for the investigations. Though the variability between the individual maps was large, we found a group-wide somatotopic representation in BA3b and BA1. The variability due to anatomical differences was small in our sample. This was demonstrated by comparing exact shortest distances in the individual brains and after nonlinear normalization to the group space template, for the removal of the individual anatomical variability...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717064/high-order-motor-cortex-in-rats-receives-somatosensory-inputs-from-the-primary-motor-cortex-via-cortico-cortical-pathways
#13
Nobuo Kunori, Ichiro Takashima
The motor cortex of rats contains two forelimb motor areas; the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and the rostral forelimb area (RFA). Although the RFA is thought to correspond to the premotor and/or supplementary motor cortices of primates, which are higher-order motor areas that receive somatosensory inputs, it is unknown whether the RFA of rats receives somatosensory inputs in the same manner. To investigate this issue, voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging was used to assess the motor cortex in rats following a brief electrical stimulation of the forelimb...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712455/independent-component-decomposition-of-human-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-recorded-by-micro-electrocorticography
#14
Irene Rembado, Elisa Castagnola, Luca Turella, Tamara Ius, Riccardo Budai, Alberto Ansaldo, Gian Nicola Angotzi, Francesco Debertoldi, Davide Ricci, Miran Skrap, Luciano Fadiga
High-density surface microelectrodes for electrocorticography (ECoG) have become more common in recent years for recording electrical signals from the cortex. With an acceptable invasiveness/signal fidelity trade-off and high spatial resolution, micro-ECoG is a promising tool to resolve fine task-related spatial-temporal dynamics. However, volume conduction - not a negligible phenomenon - is likely to frustrate efforts to obtain reliable and resolved signals from a sub-millimeter electrode array. To address this issue, we performed an independent component analysis (ICA) on micro-ECoG recordings of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) elicited by median nerve stimulation in three human patients undergoing brain surgery for tumor resection...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708566/is-the-sensorimotor-cortex-relevant-for-speech-perception-and-understanding-an-integrative-review
#15
Malte R Schomers, Friedemann Pulvermüller
In the neuroscience of language, phonemes are frequently described as multimodal units whose neuronal representations are distributed across perisylvian cortical regions, including auditory and sensorimotor areas. A different position views phonemes primarily as acoustic entities with posterior temporal localization, which are functionally independent from frontoparietal articulatory programs. To address this current controversy, we here discuss experimental results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as well as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701434/representation-of-afferent-signals-from-forearm-muscle-and-cutaneous-nerves-in-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-of-the-macaque-monkey
#16
Hiroshi Yamada, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Saeka Tomatsu, Tomohiko Takei, Tomomichi Oya, Kazuhiko Seki
Proprioception is one's overall sense of the relative positions and movements of the various parts of one's body. The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is involved in generating the proprioception by receiving peripheral sensory inputs from both cutaneous and muscle afferents. In particular, area 3a receives input from muscle afferents and areas 3b and 1 from cutaneous afferents. However, segregation of two sensory inputs to these cortical areas has not been evaluated quantitatively because of methodological difficulties in distinguishing the incoming signals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699211/altered-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-cortical-activation-to-tactile-stimuli-in-somatosensory-area-3b-and-area-1-of-monkeys-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Ruiqi Wu, Langting Su, Pai-Feng Yang, Li Min Chen
Reactivation of deafferented cortex plays a key role in mediating the recovery of lost functions, although the precise mechanism is not fully understood. This study simultaneously characterized the dynamic spatiotemporal features of tactile responses in areas 3b and 1 before and 6-8 weeks after partial dorsal column lesion (DCL), and examined how the reactivation relates to the recovery of simple hand use in squirrel monkeys. A combination of high spatiotemporal resolution functional intrinsic optical imaging, microelectrode mapping, behavioral assessment, and tracer histology methods were used...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695430/action-sounds-modulate-arm-reaching-movements
#18
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Torsten Marquardt, David Swapp, Norimichi Kitagawa, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze
Our mental representations of our body are continuously updated through multisensory bodily feedback as we move and interact with our environment. Although it is often assumed that these internal models of body-representation are used to successfully act upon the environment, only a few studies have actually looked at how body-representation changes influence goal-directed actions, and none have looked at this in relation to body-representation changes induced by sound. The present work examines this question for the first time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676973/sustainable-reduction-in-the-occurrence-of-falls-in-a-parkinson-s-patient-who-followed-an-intensive-and-specific-rehabilitation-program-to-recalibrate-verticality-perception
#19
Laure Mathevon, Nicolas Leroux, Céline Piscicelli, Emmanuelle Clarac, Shenhao Dai, Patrice Davoine, Paul Krack, Dominic Perennou
OBJECTIVE: To take care of postural disorders is a major issue in Parkinson's disease (PD). We present a documented observation suggesting the existence of a biased representation of verticality in PD, resulting in a severe retropulsion and recurrent falls. A rehabilitation program aimed to modulate verticality perception dramatically improved the postural perception of the vertical, trunk posture and balance abilities, and reduced retropulsion as well as lastingly fall frequency. OBSERVATIONS: A 68 year-old patient with Parkinson's disease fall backward 3 times a day...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646840/altered-white-matter-and-sensory-response-to-bodily-sensation-in-female-to-male-transgender-individuals
#20
Laura K Case, David Brang, Rosalynn Landazuri, Pavitra Viswanathan, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
While most people take identification with their body for granted, conditions such as phantom limb pain, alien hand syndrome, and xenomelia suggest that the feeling of bodily congruence is constructed and susceptible to alteration. Individuals with xenomelia typically experience one of their limbs as over-present and aversive, leading to a desire to amputate the limb. Similarly, many transgender individuals describe their untreated sexed body parts as incongruent and aversive, and many experience phantom body parts of the sex they identify with (Ramachandran, 2008)...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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