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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764720/altered-somatosensory-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-modulation-by-dopaminergic-medications
#1
Aimee J Nelson, Tasnuva Hoque, Carolyn Gunraj, Robert Chen
BACKGROUND: Somatosensory abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of this study was to identify abnormalities in the tactile-evoked activation of the somatosensory and motor cortices in PD, and in a sensorimotor circuit that traverses both of these cortical loci. The second goal was to investigate the impact of dopaminergic medication on these measures. METHODS: Individuals with PD (n = 10, age 61 ± 8 years) and aged-matched controls (n = 11, age 52...
May 7, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753205/constraints-on-somatosensory-map-development-mutants-lead-the-way
#2
REVIEW
Patricia Gaspar, Nicolas Renier
In the rodent somatosensory system, the disproportionally large whisker representation and their specialization into barrel-shaped units in the different sensory relays has offered experimentalists with an ideal tool to identify mechanisms involved in brain map formation. These combine three intertwined constraints: Firstly, fasciculation of the incoming axons; secondly, early neural activity; finally, molecular patterning. Sophisticated genetic manipulations in mice have now allowed dissecting these mechanisms with greater accuracy...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748110/interoceptive-processing-deficit-a-behavioral-marker-for-subtyping-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Gabriella Santangelo, Carmine Vitale, Chiara Baiano, Alfonsina D'Iorio, Katia Longo, Paolo Barone, Marianna Amboni, Massimiliano Conson
BACKGROUND: Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), such as cognitive, emotional, autonomic and somatosensory alterations, are not ubiquitous but vary between the tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) subtypes of the syndrome. Non-motor phenomena (e.g., anxiety, depression and apathy) have been related to representation of autonomic and somatosensory sensations (interoception), and recent findings suggest interoceptive deficits in PD. OBJECTIVES: To test whether interoceptive processing is differently affected in TD and PIGD phenotypes, by assessing both interoceptive accuracy and sensibility in PD patients with TD and PIGD subtypes, and in healthy controls...
May 5, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734039/what-neuromodulation-and-lesion-studies-tell-us-about-the-function-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-and-embodied-cognition
#4
REVIEW
Christian Keysers, Riccardo Paracampo, Valeria Gazzola
We review neuromodulation and lesion studies that address how activations in the mirror neuron system contribute to our perception of observed actions. Past reviews showed disruptions of this parieto-premotor network impair imitation and goal and kinematic processing. Recent studies bring five new themes. First, focal perturbations of a node of that circuit lead to changes across all nodes. Second, primary somatosensory cortex is an integral part of this network suggesting embodied representations are somatosensory-motor...
April 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725759/connectivity-of-neuronal-populations-within-and-between-areas-of-primate-somatosensory-cortex
#5
E Pálfi, L Zalányi, M Ashaber, C Palmer, O Kántor, A W Roe, R M Friedman, L Négyessy
Functions of the cerebral cortex emerge via interactions of horizontally distributed neuronal populations within and across areas. However, the connectional underpinning of these interactions is not well understood. The present study explores the circuitry of column-size cortical domains within the hierarchically organized somatosensory cortical areas 3b and 1 using tract tracing and optical intrinsic signal imaging (OIS). The anatomical findings reveal that feedforward connections exhibit high topographic specificity, while intrinsic and feedback connections have a more widespread distribution...
May 3, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712831/structured-networks-support-sparse-traveling-waves-in-rodent-somatosensory-cortex
#6
Samat Moldakarimov, Maxim Bazhenov, Daniel E Feldman, Terrence J Sejnowski
Neurons responding to different whiskers are spatially intermixed in the superficial layer 2/3 (L2/3) of the rodent barrel cortex, where a single whisker deflection activates a sparse, distributed neuronal population that spans multiple cortical columns. How the superficial layer of the rodent barrel cortex is organized to support such distributed sensory representations is not clear. In a computer model, we tested the hypothesis that sensory representations in L2/3 of the rodent barrel cortex are formed by activity propagation horizontally within L2/3 from a site of initial activation...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700896/task-related-fmri-in-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Katerina Gaberova, Iliyana Pacheva, Ivan Ivanov
RATIONALE: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used widely to study reorganization after early brain injuries. Unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) is an appealing model for studying brain plasticity by fMRI. AIM: To summarize the results of task-related fMRI studies in UCP in order to get better understanding of the mechanism of neuroplasticity of the developing brain and its reorganization potential and better translation of this knowledge to clinical practice...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686047/neural-representations-of-sensorimotor-memory-and-digit-position-based-load-force-adjustments-before-the-onset-of-dexterous-object-manipulation
#8
Michelle Marneweck, Deborah A Barany, Marco Santello, Scott T Grafton
Anticipatory load forces for dexterous object manipulation in humans are modulated based on visual object properties cues, sensorimotor memories of previous experiences with the object, and, when digit positioning varies from trial-to-trial, the integrating of this sensed variability with force modulation. Studies of the neural representations encoding these anticipatory mechanisms have not considered these mechanisms separately from each other or from feedback mechanisms emerging after lift onset. Representational similarity analyses of fMRI data were used to identify neural representations of sensorimotor memories and the sensing and integration of digit position...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684644/a-gyral-coordinate-system-predictive-of-fibre-orientations
#9
Michiel Cottaar, Matteo Bastiani, Charles Chen, Krikor Dikranian, David Van Essen, Timothy E Behrens, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi
When axonal fibres approach or leave the cortex, their trajectories tend to closely follow the cortical convolutions. To quantify this tendency, we propose a three-dimensional coordinate system based on the gyral geometry. For every voxel in the brain, we define a "radial" axis orthogonal to nearby surfaces, a "sulcal" axis along the sulcal depth gradient that preferentially points from deep white matter to the gyral crown, and a "gyral" axis aligned with the long axis of the gyrus...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679734/cortical-networks-for-encoding-near-and-far-space-in-the-non-human-primate
#10
Justine Cléry, Olivier Guipponi, Soline Odouard, Claire Wardak, Suliann Ben Hamed
While extra-personal space is often erroneously considered as a unique entity, early neuropsychological studies report a dissociation between near and far space processing both in humans and in monkeys. Here, we use functional MRI in a naturalistic 3D environment to describe the non-human primate near and far space cortical networks. We describe the co-occurrence of two extended functional networks respectively dedicated to near and far space processing. Specifically, far space processing involves occipital, temporal, parietal, posterior cingulate as well as orbitofrontal regions not activated by near space, possibly subserving the processing of the shape and identity of objects...
April 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662068/incidental-haptic-sensations-influence-judgment-of-crimes
#11
Michael Schaefer, Lillia Cherkasskiy, Claudia Denke, Claudia Spies, Hyunjin Song, Sean Malahy, Andreas Heinz, Andreas Ströhle, John A Bargh
Extralegal factors may influence judicial outcomes. Here we investigated the experience of incidental haptic sensations on the harshness of punishment recommendations. Based on recent theories of embodiment, which claim that cognitive representations are structured by metaphorical mappings from sensory experience, we hypothesized that tactile priming with hard objects would cause subjects to recommend harsher sentences (to be 'hard on crime'). Furthermore, the theory of embodiment predicts that this effect should be based on sensorimotor brain activation during the judging process...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627588/the-multidimensional-representational-space-of-observed-socio-affective-touch-experiences
#12
Haemy Lee Masson, Stien Van De Plas, Nicky Daniels, Hans Op de Beeck
Observed touch interactions provide useful information on how others communicate with the external world. Previous studies revealed shared neural circuits between the direct experience and the passive observation of simple touch, such as being stroked/slapped. Here, we investigate the complexity of the neural representations underlying the understanding of others' socio-affective touch interactions. Importantly, we use a recently developed touch database that contains a larger range of more complex social and non-social touch interactions...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610441/modified-origins-of-cortical-projections-to-the-superior-colliculus-in-the-deaf-dispersion-of-auditory-efferents
#13
Blake E Butler, Julia K Sunstrum, Stephen G Lomber
Following the loss of a sensory modality, such as deafness or blindness, crossmodal plasticity is commonly identified in regions of the cerebrum that normally process the deprived modality. It has been hypothesized that significant changes in the patterns of cortical afferent and efferent projections may underlie these functional crossmodal changes. However, studies of thalamocortical and corticocortical connections have refuted this hypothesis, instead revealing a profound resilience of cortical afferent projections following deafness and blindness...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610299/second-order-spinal-cord-pathway-contributes-to-cortical-responses-after-long-recoveries-from-dorsal-column-injury-in-squirrel-monkeys
#14
Chia-Chi Liao, Jamie L Reed, Hui-Xin Qi, Eva K Sawyer, Jon H Kaas
Months after the occurrence of spinal cord dorsal column lesions (DCLs) at the cervical level, neural responses in the hand representation of somatosensory area 3b hand cortex recover, along with hand use. To examine whether the second-order spinal cord pathway contributes to this functional recovery, we injected cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) into the hand representation in the cuneate nucleus (Cu) to label the spinal cord neurons, and related results to cortical reactivation in four squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri boliviensis ) at least 7 months after DCL...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569808/a-voxel-based-asymmetry-study-of-the-relationship-between-hemispheric-asymmetry-and-language-dominance-in-wada-tested-patients
#15
Simon S Keller, Neil Roberts, Gus Baker, Vanessa Sluming, Enis Cezayirli, Andrew Mayes, Paul Eldridge, Anthony G Marson, Udo C Wieshmann
Determining the anatomical basis of hemispheric language dominance (HLD) remains an important scientific endeavor. The Wada test remains the gold standard test for HLD and provides a unique opportunity to determine the relationship between HLD and hemispheric structural asymmetries on MRI. In this study, we applied a whole-brain voxel-based asymmetry (VBA) approach to determine the relationship between interhemispheric structural asymmetries and HLD in a large consecutive sample of Wada tested patients. Of 135 patients, 114 (84...
March 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551970/crossmodal-connections-of-primary-sensory-cortices-largely-vanish-during-normal-aging
#16
Julia U Henschke, Frank W Ohl, Eike Budinger
During aging, human response times (RTs) to unisensory and crossmodal stimuli decrease. However, the elderly benefit more from crossmodal stimulus representations than younger people. The underlying short-latency multisensory integration process is mediated by direct crossmodal connections at the level of primary sensory cortices. We investigate the age-related changes of these connections using a rodent model (Mongolian gerbil), retrograde tracer injections into the primary auditory (A1), somatosensory (S1), and visual cortex (V1), and immunohistochemistry for markers of apoptosis (Caspase-3), axonal plasticity (Growth associated protein 43, GAP 43), and a calcium-binding protein (Parvalbumin, PV)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544386/does-body-perception-shape-visuospatial-perception
#17
Valéry Legrain, Louise Manfron, Marynn Garcia, Lieve Filbrich
How we perceive our body is shaped by sensory experiences with our surrounding environment, as witnessed by poor performance in tasks during which participants judge with their hands crossed the temporal order between two somatosensory stimuli, one applied on each hand. This suggests that somatosensory stimuli are not only processed according to a somatotopic representation but also a spatiotopic representation of the body. We investigated whether the perception of stimuli occurring in external space, such as visual stimuli, can also be influenced by the body posture and somatosensory stimuli...
January 1, 2018: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540550/functional-mri-responses-to-passive-active-and-observed-touch-in-somatosensory-and-insular-cortices-of-the-macaque-monkey
#18
Saloni Sharma, Prosper A Fiave, Koen Nelissen
Neurophysiological data obtained in primates suggests that merely observing others' actions can modulate activity in the observer's motor cortices. In humans, it has been suggested that these multimodal vicarious responses extend well beyond the motor cortices, including somatosensory and insular brain regions, which seem to yield vicarious responses when witnessing others' actions, sensations, or emotions (Gazzola and Keysers, 2009). Despite the wealth of data with respect to shared action responses in the monkey motor system, whether the somatosensory and insular cortices also yield vicarious responses during observation of touch remains largely unknown...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537813/cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-expression-in-the-barrel-field-region-is-associated-with-mouse-learning
#19
Ewa Siucinska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Tytus Bernas
We found previously that fear conditioning by combined stimulation of a row B facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) leads to expansion of the cortical representation of the "trained" row, labeled with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), in the layer IIIb/IV of the adult mouse the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) 24 h later. We have observed that these learning-dependent plastic changes are manifested by increased expression of somatostatin, cholecystokinin (SST+, CCK+) but not parvalbumin (PV+) immunopositive interneurons We have expanded this research and quantified a numerical value of CB1-expressing and PV-expressing GABAergic axon terminals (CB1+ and PV+ immunopositive puncta) that innervate different segments of postsynaptic cells in the barrel hollows of S1 cortex...
March 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535027/new-waves-rhythmic-electrical-field-stimulation-systematically-alters-spontaneous-slow-dynamics-across-mouse-neocortex
#20
Anastasia Greenberg, Javad Karimi Abadchi, Clayton T Dickson, Majid H Mohajerani
The signature rhythm of slow-wave forebrain activity is the large amplitude, slow oscillation (SO: ∼1 Hz) made up of alternating synchronous periods of activity and silence at the single cell and network levels. On each wave, the SO originates at a unique location and propagates across the neocortex. Attempts to manipulate SO activity using electrical fields have been shown to entrain cortical networks and enhance memory performance. However, neural activity during this manipulation has remained elusive due to methodological issues in typical electrical recordings...
July 1, 2018: NeuroImage
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