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somatosensory representation

Saloni Sharma, Prosper A Fiave, Koen Nelissen
Neurophysiological data obtained in primates suggests that merely observing others' actions can modulate activity in the observer's motor cortices. In humans, it has been suggested that these multimodal vicarious responses extend well beyond the motor cortices, including somatosensory and insular brain regions, that seem to yield vicarious responses when witnessing others' actions, sensations or emotions (Gazzola and Keysers, 2009). Despite the wealth of data with respect to shared action responses in the monkey motor system, whether the somatosensory and insular cortices also yield vicarious responses during observation of touch remains largely unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ewa Siucinska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Tytus Bernas
We found previously that fear conditioning by combined stimulation of a row B facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) leads to expansion of the cortical representation of the "trained" row, labeled with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), in the layer IIIb/IV of the adult mouse the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) 24 h later. We have observed that learning - dependent these plastic changes are manifested by increased expression of somatostatin, cholecystokinin (SST+, CCK+) but not parvalbumin (PV+) immunopositive interneurons...
March 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Anastasia Greenberg, Javad Karimi Abadchi, Clayton T Dickson, Majid H Mohajerani
The signature rhythm of slow-wave forebrain activity is the large amplitude, slow oscillation (SO: ∼1 Hz) made up of alternating synchronous periods of activity and silence at the single cell and network levels. On each wave, the SO originates at a unique location and propagates across the neocortex. Attempts to manipulate SO activity using electrical fields have been shown to entrain cortical networks and enhance memory performance. However, neural activity during this manipulation has remained elusive due to methodological issues in typical electrical recordings...
March 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Dongyuan Yao, Barry J Sessle
Trigeminal nerve injury can result in neuropathic pain behavior and alterations in motor function, but it is unclear if such injury produces neuroplastic alterations in face sensorimotor cortex that could contribute to the alterations in motor function. Therefore, this study aimed to determine if trigeminal nerve injury in a rat neuropathic pain model induces neuroplastic changes in jaw and tongue motor representations in face sensorimotor cortex in association with facial nociceptive behavior. Right infraorbital nerve transection was performed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats; sham-operated rats served as controls...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Samuel Harding-Forrester, Daniel E Feldman
Somatosensory areas containing topographic maps of the body surface are a major feature of parietal cortex. In primates, parietal cortex contains four somatosensory areas, each with its own map, with the primary cutaneous map in area 3b. Rodents have at least three parietal somatosensory areas. Maps are not isomorphic to the body surface, but magnify behaviorally important skin regions, which include the hands and face in primates, and the whiskers in rodents. Within each map, intracortical circuits process tactile information, mediate spatial integration, and support active sensation...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Angelo Maravita, Daniele Romano
The ability to craft and use tools is a crucial skill of human beings, distinguishing humans from all other species. Humans show a unique capacity to create novel, technologically advanced devices and represent physical causality using tools. In the present chapter we review the effect of tool use in changing body-space multisensory integration and body representation and the fundamental contribution of the parietal lobe to the neural underpinnings of tool use. In the final section we briefly introduce the effect of parietal brain damage on tool use...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Giovanni Berlucchi, Giuseppe Vallar
The development and change of knowledge on the function of the parietal lobe from the second half of the 19th century to the early 1970s are reviewed. Motor and somatosensory functions were initially localized in a broad frontoparietal region. At the beginning of the 20th century the motor cortex was restricted to the posterior frontal lobe. The separate attribution of somatosensory functions to the parietal lobe was initially based on anatomic considerations, but mostly on localized bodily sensations elicited by electric stimulation in awake patients...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ruey-Song Huang, Martin I Sereno
The parietal lobe plays a major role in sensorimotor integration and action. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed more than 40 retinotopic areas distributed across five visual streams in the human brain, two of which enter the parietal lobe. A series of retinotopic areas occupy the length of the intraparietal sulcus and continue into the postcentral sulcus. On the medial wall, retinotopy extends across the parieto-occipital sulcus into the precuneus and reaches the cingulate sulcus. Full-body tactile stimulation revealed a multisensory homunculus lying along the postcentral sulcus just posterior to primary somatosensory cortical areas and overlapping with the anteriormost retinotopic maps...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Julio Dueñas, James Sulzer, Philipp Stämpfli, Marie-Claude Hepp-Reymond, Spyros Kollias, Erich Seifritz, Roger Gassert
Peripheral encoding of movement kinematics has been well-characterized, but there is little understanding of the relationship between movement kinematics and associated brain activation. We hypothesized that kinematics of passive movement is differentially represented in the sensorimotor network, reflecting the well-studied afferent responses to movement. A robotic forefinger manipulandum was used to induce passive kinematic stimuli and monitor interaction force in 41 healthy participants during whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 28, 2018: NeuroImage
Christina M Cerkevich, Jon H Kaas
Cortical area 1 is a non-primary somatosensory area in the primate anterior parietal cortex that is critical to tactile discrimination. The corticocortical projections to area 1 in squirrel monkeys were determined by placing multiple injections of anatomical tracers into separate body part representations defined by multiunit microelectrode mapping in area 1. The pattern of labeled cells in the cortex indicated that area 1 has strong intrinsic connections within each body part representation, and has inputs from somatotopically matched regions of areas 3b, 3a, 2, and 5...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mansi P Saraf, Pooja Balaram, Fabien Pifferi, Răzvan Gămănuț, Henry Kennedy, Jon H Kaas
Mouse lemurs are the smallest of the living primates, and are members of the understudied radiation of strepsirrhine lemurs of Madagascar. They are thought to closely resemble the ancestral primates that gave rise to present day primates. Here we have used multiple histological and immunochemical methods to identify and characterize sensory areas of neocortex in four brains of adult lemurs obtained from a licensed breeding colony. We describe the laminar features for the primary visual area (V1), the secondary visual area (V2), the middle temporal visual area (MT) and area prostriata, somatosensory areas S1(3b), 3a, and area 1, the primary motor cortex (M1), and the primary auditory cortex (A1)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Christian Pfeiffer, Jean-Paul Noel, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
Human-environment interactions are mediated through the body and occur within the peripersonal space (PPS), the space immediately adjacent to and surrounding the body. The PPS is taken to be a critical interface between the body and the environment, and indeed body-part specific PPS remapping has been shown to depend on body-part utilization, such as upper limb movements in otherwise static observers. How vestibular signals induced by whole-body movement contribute to PPS representation is less well understood...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Powell P W Chu, Ali M Golestani, Jonathan B Kwinta, Yasha B Khatamian, J Jean Chen
The blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal is commonly used to assess functional connectivity across brain regions, particularly in the resting state (rs-fMRI). However, the BOLD fMRI signal is not merely a representation of neural activity, but a combination of neural activity and vascular response. These aspects of the BOLD signal are easily influenced by systemic physiology, potentially biasing BOLD-based functional connectivity measurements. In this work, we focus on the following physiological modulators of the BOLD signal: cerebral blood flow (CBF), venous blood oxygenation, and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
February 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Maxime Delcour, Vicky S Massicotte, Michaël Russier, Hélène Bras, Julie Peyronnet, Marie-Hélène Canu, Florence Cayetanot, Mary F Barbe, Jacques-Olivier Coq
Motor control and body representation in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as musculoskeletal architecture and physiology are shaped during development by sensorimotor experience and feedback, but the emergence of locomotor disorders during maturation and their persistence over time remain a matter of debate in the absence of brain damage. By using transient immobilization of the hind limbs, we investigated the enduring impact of postnatal sensorimotor restriction (SMR) on gait and posture on treadmill, age-related changes in locomotion, musculoskeletal histopathology and Hoffmann reflex in adult rats without brain damage...
February 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
Jonathan Levy, Abraham Goldstein, Maayan Pratt, Ruth Feldman
While empathy to the pain of conspecific is evolutionary-ancient and is observed in rodents and in primates, it also integrates higher-order affective representations. Yet, it is unclear whether human empathy for pain is inborn or matures during development and what neural processes underpin its maturation. Using magnetoencephalography, we monitored the brain response of children, adolescents, and adults (n = 209) to others' pain, testing the shift from childhood to adult functioning. Results indicate that children's vicarious empathy for pain operates via rudimentary sensory predictions involving alpha oscillations in somatosensory cortex, while adults' response recruits advanced mechanisms of updating sensory predictions and activating affective empathy in viceromotor cortex via higher-level representations involving beta- and gamma-band activity...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
William Gaetz, Sudha K Kessler, Tim P L Roberts, Jeffrey I Berman, Todd J Levy, Michelle Hsia, Deborah Humpl, Erin S Schwartz, Sandra Amaral, Ben Chang, Lawrence Scott Levin
In this repeated measures case study, we show that sensory deafferentation after limb amputation leads to changes in cortical somatotopic maps which are reversible after restoration of sensory input. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we observed in a child with bilateral hand transplants large-scale shifts in somatosensory lip cortical representation from anatomic hand area to anatomic face region. After recovery of tactile sensation in the digits, responses to finger stimulation were localized to orthotopic sensory cortex, but with atypical electrophysiologic features (amplitude and frequencies)...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Constanze Lenschow, Michael Brecht
Rat somatosensory genital cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic representation of the penis in males and the clitoris in females. Genital cortex microstimulation-evoked movements of legs, trunk and genitals, which showed sex-specific differences related to mating behaviors and included thrusting in males and lordosis-like movements in females. Erections/tumescence of penis or clitoris could not be evoked, however. Anterograde tracer injections into penis/clitoris cortex revealed eleven corticocortical and 10 subcortical projection targets, which were qualitatively similar in both sexes...
April 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Anne Barz, Anika Noack, Peter Baumgarten, Volker Seifert, Marie-Therese Forster
OBJECTIVE: Evidence for cerebral reorganization after resection of low-grade glioma has mainly been obtained by serial intraoperative cerebral mapping. Non-invasively collected data on cortical plasticity in tumor patients over a surgery-free period are still scarce. The present study therefore aimed at evaluating motor cortex reorganization by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) in patients after perirolandic glioma surgery. METHODS: nTMS was performed pre- and postoperatively in 20 patients, separated by 26...
January 19, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Julien Corbo, Yoh'I Zennou-Azogui, Christian Xerri, Nicolas Catz
Perception is a reconstruction process guided by rules based on knowledge about the world. Little is known about the neural implementation of the rules of object formation in the tactile sensory system. When two close tactile stimuli are delivered simultaneously on the skin, subjects feel a unique sensation, spatially centered between the two stimuli. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) and electrophysiological recordings [local field potentials (LFPs) and single units] were used to extract the cortical representation of two-point tactile stimuli in the primary somatosensory cortex of anesthetized Long-Evans rats...
January 2018: ENeuro
Konstantina Kalogianni, Andreas Daffertshofer, Frans C T van der Helm, Alfred C Schouten, Jan C de Munck
In searching for clinical biomarkers of the somatosensory function, we studied reproducibility of somatosensory potentials (SEP) evoked by finger stimulation in healthy subjects. SEPs induced by electrical stimulation and especially after median nerve stimulation is a method widely used in the literature. It is unclear, however, if the EEG recordings after finger stimulation are reproducible within the same subject. We tested in five healthy subjects the consistency and reproducibility of responses through bootstrapping as well as test-retest recordings...
January 20, 2018: Brain Topography
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