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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139557/using-somatosensory-mismatch-responses-as-a-window-into-somatotopic-processing-of-tactile-stimulation
#1
Guannan Shen, Nathan J Smyk, Andrew N Meltzoff, Peter J Marshall
Brain responses to tactile stimulation have often been studied through the examination of ERPs elicited to touch on the body surface. Here, we examined two factors potentially modulating the amplitude of the somatosensory mismatch negativity (sMMN) and P300 responses elicited by touch to pairs of body parts: (a) the distance between the representation of these body parts in somatosensory cortex, and (b) the physical distances between the stimulated points on the body surface. The sMMN and the P300 response were elicited by tactile stimulation in two oddball protocols...
November 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113518/functional-semi-blind-source-separation-identifies-primary-motor-area-without-active-motor-execution
#2
Camillo Porcaro, Carlo Cottone, Andrea Cancelli, Carlo Salustri, Franca Tecchio
High time resolution techniques are crucial for investigating the brain in action. Here, we propose a method to identify a section of the upper-limb motor area representation (FS_M1) by means of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded during a completely passive condition (FS_M1bySS). We delivered a galvanic stimulation to the median nerve and we applied to EEG the semi-Blind Source Separation (s-BSS) algorithm named Functional Source Separation (FSS). In order to prove that FS_M1bySS is part of FS_M1, we also collected EEG in a motor condition, i...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112509/association-between-sensorimotor-impairments-and-functional-brain-changes-in-patients-with-low-back-pain-a-critical-review
#3
Nina Goossens, Sofie Rummens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Simon Brumagne
Low back pain (LBP) coincides with sensorimotor impairments, e.g., reduced lumbosacral tactile and proprioceptive acuity and postural control deficits. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that sensorimotor impairments in LBP may be associated with brain changes. However, no consensus exists regarding the relationship between functional brain changes and sensorimotor behavior in LBP. Therefore, this review critically discusses the available fMRI studies on brain activation related to non-nociceptive somatosensory stimulation and motor performance in individuals with LBP...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106374/the-rate-of-transient-beta-frequency-events-predicts-behavior-across-tasks-and-species
#4
Hyeyoung Shin, Robert Law, Shawn Tsutsui, Christopher I Moore, Stephanie R Jones
Beta oscillations (15-29Hz) are among the most prominent signatures of brain activity. Beta power is predictive of healthy and abnormal behaviors, including perception, attention and motor action. In non-averaged signals, beta can emerge as transient high-power 'events'. As such, functionally relevant differences in averaged power across time and trials can reflect changes in event number, power, duration, and / or frequency span. We show that functionally relevant differences in averaged beta power in primary somatosensory neocortex reflect a difference in the number of high-power beta events per trial, i...
November 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097543/topological-and-modality-specific-representation-of-somatosensory-information-in-the-fly-brain
#5
Asako Tsubouchi, Tomoko Yano, Takeshi K Yokoyama, Chloé Murtin, Hideo Otsuna, Kei Ito
Insects and mammals share similarities of neural organization underlying the perception of odors, taste, vision, sound, and gravity. We observed that insect somatosensation also corresponds to that of mammals. In Drosophila, the projections of all the somatosensory neuron types to the insect's equivalent of the spinal cord segregated into modality-specific layers comparable to those in mammals. Some sensory neurons innervate the ventral brain directly to form modality-specific and topological somatosensory maps...
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094187/area-specific-processing-of-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical-information-in-primates
#6
Abdulraheem Nashef, Hannes Rapp, Martin P Nawrot, Yifat Prut
The cerebellar-thalamo-cortical (CTC) system plays a major role in controlling timing and coordination of voluntary movements. However, the functional impact of this system on motor cortical sites has not been documented in a systematic manner. We addressed this question by implanting a chronic stimulating electrode in the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and recording evoked multiunit activity (MUA) and the local field potential (LFP) in the primary motor cortex ([Formula: see text]), the premotor cortex ([Formula: see text]) and the somatosensory cortex ([Formula: see text])...
November 2, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076307/toward-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-based-monitoring-of-pain-assessment-for-nonverbal-patients
#7
Raul Fernandez Rojas, Xu Huang, Keng-Liang Ou
Pain diagnosis for nonverbal patients represents a challenge in clinical settings. Neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have shown promising results to assess neuronal function in response to nociception and pain. Recent studies suggest that neuroimaging in conjunction with machine learning models can be used to predict different cognitive tasks. The aim of this study is to expand previous studies by exploring the classification of fNIRS signals (oxyhaemoglobin) according to temperature level (cold and hot) and corresponding pain intensity (low and high) using machine learning models...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050540/somatosensory-stimulation-to-improve-hand-and-upper-limb-function-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analyses
#8
Virginia Marie Grant, Alison Gibson, Nora Shields
Background Somatosensory stimulation may have a positive impact on recovery of motor function by maintaining cortical representation of the hand and acting to prime the motor system for movement. Objective Determine the efficacy of somatosensory stimulation on upper limb motor function after stroke. Methods Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PEDro and OT Seeker) were searched from inception to October 2016. Included studies were English-language randomized controlled trials where a sensory intervention was applied below the elbow to improve upper limb motor control of adults after stroke...
October 20, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045579/auditory-frequency-representations-in-human-somatosensory-cortex
#9
Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Kelly Anne Barnes, Lexi E Crommett, Jeffrey M Yau
Recent studies have challenged the traditional notion of modality-dedicated cortical systems by showing that audition and touch evoke responses in the same sensory brain regions. While much of this work has focused on somatosensory responses in auditory regions, fewer studies have investigated sound responses and representations in somatosensory regions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we measured BOLD signal changes in participants performing an auditory frequency discrimination task and characterized activation patterns related to stimulus frequency using both univariate and multivariate analysis approaches...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045569/altered-expression-of-reorganized-inputs-as-they-ascend-from-the-cuneate-nucleus-to-cortical-area-3b-in-monkeys-with-long-term-spinal-cord-injuries
#10
Priyabrata Halder, Niranjan Kambi, Prem Chand, Neeraj Jain
Chronic deafferentations in adult mammals result in reorganization of the brain. Lesions of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord at cervical levels in monkeys result in expansion of the intact chin inputs into the deafferented hand representation in area 3b, second somatosensory (S2) and parietal ventral (PV) areas of the somatosensory cortex, ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus, and cuneate nucleus of the brainstem. Here, we describe the extent and nature of reorganization of the cuneate and gracile nuclei of adult macaque monkeys with chronic unilateral lesions of the dorsal columns, and compare it with the reorganization of area 3b in the same monkeys...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034451/cortical-light-scattering-during-interictal-epileptic-spikes-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-in-children-a-fast-optical-signal-and-electroencephalographic-study
#11
Mana Manoochehri, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Emilie Bourel-Ponchel, Fabrice Wallois
OBJECTIVE: Interictal epileptic spikes (IES) represent a signature of the transient synchronous and excessive discharge of a large ensemble of cortical heterogeneous neurons. Epilepsy cannot be reduced to a hypersynchronous activation of neurons whose functioning is impaired, resulting on electroencephalogram (EEG) in epileptic seizures or IES. The complex pathophysiological mechanisms require a global approach to the interactions between neural synaptic and nonsynaptic, vascular, and metabolic systems...
October 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018928/tactile-localization-biases-are-modulated-by-gaze-direction
#12
Sonia Medina, Luigi Tamè, Matthew R Longo
Identifying the spatial location of touch on the skin surface is a fundamental function of our somatosensory system. Despite the fact that stimulation of even single mechanoreceptive afferent fibres is sufficient to produce clearly localised percepts, tactile localisation can be modulated also by higher level processes such as body posture. This suggests that tactile events are coded using multiple representations using different coordinate systems. Recent reports provide evidence for systematic biases on tactile localisation task, which are thought to result from a supramodal representation of the skin surface...
October 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979196/speed-and-oscillations-medial-septum-integration-of-attention-and-navigation
#13
REVIEW
Marian Tsanov
Several cortical and diencephalic limbic brain regions incorporate neurons that fire in correlation with the speed of whole-body motion, also known as linear velocity. Besides the field mapping and head-directional information, the linear velocity is among the major signals that guide animal's spatial navigation. Large neuronal populations in the same limbic regions oscillate with theta rhythm during spatial navigation or attention episodes; and the frequency of theta also correlates with linear velocity. A functional similarity between these brain areas is that their inactivation impairs the ability to form new spatial memories; whereas an anatomical similarity is that they all receive projections from medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934203/development-of-rat-female-genital-cortex-and-control-of-female-puberty-by-sexual-touch
#14
Constanze Lenschow, Johanna Sigl-Glöckner, Michael Brecht
Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926418/hemispheric-dominance-for-stereognosis-in-a-patient-with-an-infarct-of-the-left-postcentral-sensory-hand-area
#15
Jorge Moll, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza
The concept of left hemispheric dominance for praxis, speech, and language has been one of the pillars of neurology since the mid-19th century. In 1906, Hermann Oppenheim reported a patient with bilateral stereoagnosia (astereognosis) caused by a left parietal lobe tumor and proposed that the left hemisphere was also dominant for stereognosis. Surprisingly, few cases of bilateral stereoagnosia caused by a unilateral cerebral lesion have been documented in the literature since then. Here we report a 75-year-old right-handed man who developed bilateral stereoagnosia after suffering a small infarct in the crown of the left postcentral gyrus...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919043/neocortical-dynamics-during-whisker-based-sensory-discrimination-in-head-restrained-mice
#16
Fritjof Helmchen, Ariel Gilad, Jerry L Chen
A fundamental task frequently encountered by brains is to rapidly and reliably discriminate between sensory stimuli of the same modality, be it distinct auditory sounds, odors, visual patterns, or tactile textures. A key mammalian brain structure involved in discrimination behavior is the neocortex. Sensory processing not only involves the respective primary sensory area, which is crucial for perceptual detection, but additionally relies on cortico-cortical communication among several regions including higher-order sensory areas as well as frontal cortical areas...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904101/methodological-considerations-for-a-chronic-neural-interface-with-the-cuneate-nucleus-of-macaques
#17
Aneesha K Suresh, Jeremy Winberry, Christopher Versteeg, Raeed H Chowdhury, Tucker Tomlinson, Joshua M Rosenow, Lee E Miller, Sliman J Bensmaia
While the response properties of neurons in the somatosensory nerves and anterior parietal cortex have been extensively studied, little is known about the encoding of tactile and proprioceptive information in the cuneate nucleus (CN) or external cuneate nucleus (ECN), the first recipients of upper limb somatosensory afferent signals. The major challenge in characterizing neural coding in CN/ECN has been to record from these tiny, difficult to access brainstem structures. Most previous investigations of CN response properties have been carried out in decerebrate or anesthetized animals, thereby eliminating the well-documented top-down signals from cortex, which likely exert a strong influence on CN responses...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843415/complexity-vs-unity-in-unilateral-spatial-neglect
#18
REVIEW
G Rode, M Fourtassi, C Pagliari, L Pisella, Y Rossetti
Unilateral spatial neglect constitutes a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by two main entangled components: a contralesional bias of spatial attention orientation; and impaired building and/or exploration of mental representations of space. These two components are present in different subtypes of unilateral spatial neglect (visual, auditory, somatosensory, motor, allocentric, egocentric, personal, representational and productive manifestations). Detailed anatomical and clinical analyses of these conditions and their underlying disorders show the complexity of spatial cognitive deficits and the difficulty of proposing just one explanation...
August 23, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841675/neural-encoding-of-saltatory-pneumotactile-velocity-in-human-glabrous-hand
#19
Hyuntaek Oh, Rebecca Custead, Yingying Wang, Steven Barlow
Neurons in the somatosensory cortex are exquisitely sensitive to mechanical stimulation of the skin surface. The location, velocity, direction, and adaptation of tactile stimuli on the skin's surface are discriminable features of somatosensory processing, however the representation and processing of dynamic tactile arrays in the human somatosensory cortex are poorly understood. The principal aim of this study was to map the relation between dynamic saltatory pneumatic stimuli at discrete traverse velocities on the glabrous hand and the resultant pattern of evoked BOLD response in the human brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827090/organization-of-orientation-specific-whisker-deflection-responses-in-layer-2-3-of-mouse-somatosensory-cortex
#20
Sung Eun Kwon, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Reha S Erzurumlu, Daniel H O'Connor
The rodent whisker-barrel system is characterized by its patterned somatotopic mapping between the sensory periphery and multiple regions of the brain. While somatotopy in the whisker system is established, we know far less about how preferences for stimulus orientation or other features are organized. Mouse somatosensation is an increasingly popular model for circuit-based dissection of perceptual decision making and learning, yet our understanding of how stimulus feature representations are organized in the cortex is incomplete...
August 4, 2017: Neuroscience
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