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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531806/standard-body-space-relationships-fingers-hold-spatial-information
#1
Daniele Romano, Francesco Marini, Angelo Maravita
The representation of the body in the brain is constantly updated to allow optimal sensorimotor interactions with the external world. In addition to dynamic features, body representation holds stable features that are still largely unknown. In the present work we explored the hypothesis that body parts have preferential associations with relative spatial locations. Specifically, in three experiments, we found consistent preferential associations between the index finger and the top position, and between the thumb and the bottom position...
May 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472863/sexually-selected-size-differences-and-conserved-sexual-monomorphism-of-genital-cortex
#2
Simon M Lauer, Constanze Lenschow, Michael Brecht
The mammalian somatosensory cortex shows marked species-specific differences. How evolution in general and sexual selection in particular shape the somatosensory cortical body representation has not been delineated, however. Here we address this issue by a comparative analysis of genital cortex. Genitals are unique body parts in that they show sexual dimorphism, major changes in puberty and typically more pronounced species differences than other body parts (Hosken and Stockley, 2004). To study the evolution of genital cortex we flattened cortical hemispheres and assembled 104 complete body maps, revealed by cytochrome oxidase activity in layer 4 of 8 rodent and 1 lagomorph species...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443062/somatosensory-misrepresentation-associated-with-chronic-pain-spatiotemporal-correlates-of-sensory-perception-in-a-patient-following-a-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-spread
#3
Lars Büntjen, Jens-Max Hopf, Christian Merkel, Jürgen Voges, Stefan Knape, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
Chronic pain is suggested to be linked to reorganization processes in the sensorimotor cortex. In the current study, the somatosensory representation of the extremities was investigated in a patient with a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that initially occurred in the right hand and arm and spread later into the left hand and right leg. After the spread, magnetoencephalographic recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation revealed that the clinical symptoms were associated with major changes in the primary somatosensory representation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442997/high-spatiotemporal-resolution-ecog-recording-of-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-with-flexible-micro-electrode-arrays
#4
Taro Kaiju, Keiichi Doi, Masashi Yokota, Kei Watanabe, Masato Inoue, Hiroshi Ando, Kazutaka Takahashi, Fumiaki Yoshida, Masayuki Hirata, Takafumi Suzuki
Electrocorticogram (ECoG) has great potential as a source signal, especially for clinical BMI. Until recently, ECoG electrodes were commonly used for identifying epileptogenic foci in clinical situations, and such electrodes were low-density and large. Increasing the number and density of recording channels could enable the collection of richer motor/sensory information, and may enhance the precision of decoding and increase opportunities for controlling external devices. Several reports have aimed to increase the number and density of channels...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431740/getting-a-grip-on-reality-grasping-movements-directed-to-real-objects-and-images-rely-on-dissociable-neural-representations
#5
Erez Freud, Scott N Macdonald, Juan Chen, Derek J Quinlan, Melvyn A Goodale, Jody C Culham
In the current era of touchscreen technology, humans commonly execute visually guided actions directed to two-dimensional (2D) images of objects. Although real, three-dimensional (3D), objects and images of the same objects share high degree of visual similarity, they differ fundamentally in the actions that can be performed on them. Indeed, previous behavioral studies have suggested that simulated grasping of images relies on different representations than actual grasping of real 3D objects. Yet the neural underpinnings of this phenomena have not been investigated...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419720/illusory-hand-ownership-in-a-patient-with-personal-neglect-for-the-upper-limb-but-no-somatoparaphenia
#6
Roberta Ronchi, Lukas Heydrich, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
The symptoms of patients with left personal neglect are characterized by inattention towards contralesional (left) body parts while at the same time explicitly ascertaining ownership for the neglected hemibody. It is currently unknown if personal neglect is associated with more subtle or implicit disturbances of own body perception and body ownership as measured with the rubber hand illusion. In this study, we report data from a patient with a right hemispheric lesion and personal neglect, without associated somatosensory deficits...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399433/embodied-emotion-impairment-in-huntington-s-disease
#7
Iris Trinkler, Sévérine Devignevielle, Amal Achaibou, Romain V Ligneul, Pierre Brugières, Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Beatrice De Gelder, Rachael Scahill, Sophie Schwartz, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi
Theories of embodied cognition suggest that perceiving an emotion involves somatovisceral and motoric re-experiencing. Here we suggest taking such an embodied stance when looking at emotion processing deficits in patients with Huntington's Disease (HD), a neurodegenerative motor disorder. The literature on these patients' emotion recognition deficit has recently been enriched by some reports of impaired emotion expression. The goal of the study was to find out if expression deficits might be linked to a more motoric level of impairment...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396882/afferent-fiber-remodeling-in-the-somatosensory-thalamus-of-mice-as-a-neural-basis-of-somatotopic-reorganization-in-the-brain-and-ectopic-mechanical-hypersensitivity-after-peripheral-sensory-nerve-injury
#8
Yuichi Takeuchi, Hironobu Osaki, Yuki Yagasaki, Yoko Katayama, Mariko Miyata
Plastic changes in the CNS in response to peripheral sensory nerve injury are a series of complex processes, ranging from local circuit remodeling to somatotopic reorganization. However, the link between circuit remodeling and somatotopic reorganization remains unclear. We have previously reported that transection of the primary whisker sensory nerve causes the abnormal rewiring of lemniscal fibers (sensory afferents) on a neuron in the mouse whisker sensory thalamus (V2 VPM). In the present study, using transgenic mice whose lemniscal fibers originate from the whisker sensory principle trigeminal nucleus (PrV2) are specifically labeled, we identified that the transection induced retraction of PrV2-originating lemniscal fibers and invasion of those not originating from PrV2 in the V2 VPM...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377175/tactile-object-categories-can-be-decoded-from-the-parietal-and-lateral-occipital-cortices
#9
Raúl Hernández-Pérez, Laura V Cuaya, Eduardo Rojas-Hortelano, Azalea Reyes-Aguilar, Luis Concha, Victor de Lafuente
The visual system classifies objects into categories, and distinct populations of neurons within the temporal lobe respond preferentially to objects of a given perceptual category. We can also classify the objects we recognize with the sense of touch, but less is known about the neuronal correlates underlying this cognitive function. To address this question, we performed a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) activity to identify the cortical areas that can be used to decode the category of objects explored with the hand...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358658/supramodal-theta-gamma-and-sustained-fields-predict-modality-specific-modulations-of-alpha-and-beta-oscillations-during-visual-and-tactile-working-memory
#10
Freek van Ede, Ole Jensen, Eric Maris
Flexible control over currently relevant sensory representations is an essential feature of primate cognition. We investigated the neurophysiological bases of such flexible control in humans during an intermodal working memory task in which participants retained visual or tactile sequences. Using magnetoencephalography, we first show that working memory retention engages early visual and somatosensory areas, as reflected in the sustained load-dependent suppression of alpha and beta oscillations. Next, we identify three components that are also load dependent but modality independent: medial prefrontal theta synchronization, frontoparietal gamma synchronization, and sustained parietal event-related fields...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350297/a-mutant-with-bilateral-whisker-to-barrel-inputs-unveils-somatosensory-mapping-rules-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#11
Nicolas Renier, Chloé Dominici, Reha S Erzurumlu, Claudius F Kratochwil, Filippo M Rijli, Patricia Gaspar, Alain Chédotal
In mammals, tactile information is mapped topographically onto the contralateral side of the brain in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). In this study, we describe Robo3 mouse mutants in which a sizeable fraction of the trigemino-thalamic inputs project ipsilaterally rather than contralaterally. The resulting mixture of crossed and uncrossed sensory inputs creates bilateral whisker maps in the thalamus and cortex. Surprisingly, these maps are segregated resulting in duplication of whisker representations and doubling of the number of barrels without changes in the size of S1...
March 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343583/indirect-hand-and-forearm-vasomotion-regional-variations-in-cutaneous-thermosensitivity-during-normothermia-and-mild-hyperthermia
#12
Catriona A Burdon, Kyoko Tagami, Joonhee Park, Joanne N Caldwell, Nigel A S Taylor
In this experiment, hand and forearm vasomotor activity was investigated during localised, but stable heating and cooling of the face, hand and thigh, under open-loop (clamped) conditions. It was hypothesised that facial stimulation would provoke the most potent vascular changes. Nine individuals participated in two normothermic trials (mean body temperature clamp: 36.6°C; water-perfused suit and climate chamber) and two mildly hyperthermic trials (37.9°C). Localised heating (+5°C) and cooling (-5°C) stimuli were applied to equal surface areas of the face, hand and thigh (perfusion patches: 15min), while contralateral forearm or hand blood flows (venous-occlusion plethysmography) were measured (separate trials)...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338943/dysfunction-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#13
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xuebin Chang, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with disorganized communication among large-scale brain networks, as demonstrated by impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Individual rsFC studies, however, vary greatly in their methods and findings. We searched for consistent patterns of network dysfunction in schizophrenia by using a coordinate-based meta-analysis. Fifty-six seed-based voxel-wise rsFC datasets from 52 publications (2115 patients and 2297 healthy controls) were included in this meta-analysis...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323166/neural-foundations-of-overt-and-covert-actions
#14
Panagiotis G Simos, Eleftherios Kavroulakis, Thomas Maris, Efrosini Papadaki, Themistoklis Boursianis, Giorgos Kalaitzakis, Helen E Savaki
We used fMRI to assess the human brain areas activated for execution, observation and 1st person motor imagery of a visually guided tracing task with the index finger. Voxel-level conjunction analysis revealed several cortical areas activated in common across all three motor conditions, namely, the upper limb representation of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, the dorsal and ventral premotor, the superior and inferior parietal cortices as well as the posterior part of the superior and middle temporal gyrus including the temporo-parietal junction (TPj) and the extrastriate body area (EBA)...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322985/visual-object-separation-resolves-competitive-interactions-in-somatosensory-cortex-evoked-signals-during-concurrent-vibrotactile-stimulation-of-the-left-and-right-hand
#15
Cheuk Yee Pang, Matthias M Müller
We investigated the effect of visual separation of left and right hemispaces within peripersonal space to sustained tactile spatial attention processing and showed that visually perceived object separation weakened the competitive interaction for concurrent vibrotactile stimulation to two hands. Participants received concurrent vibrotactile stimulation at different frequencies on two hands (right: 20Hz; left: 24Hz) for 4500ms to elicit steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials (SSSEPs). They attended to one of the stimulated hands and reacted to rare transient events embedded in the attended ongoing stream...
March 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319608/cerebellar-granule-cells-acquire-a-widespread-predictive-feedback-signal-during-motor-learning
#16
Andrea Giovannucci, Aleksandra Badura, Ben Deverett, Farzaneh Najafi, Talmo D Pereira, Zhenyu Gao, Ilker Ozden, Alexander D Kloth, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis, Liam Paninski, Chris I De Zeeuw, Javier F Medina, Samuel S-H Wang
Cerebellar granule cells, which constitute half the brain's neurons, supply Purkinje cells with contextual information necessary for motor learning, but how they encode this information is unknown. Here we show, using two-photon microscopy to track neural activity over multiple days of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice, that granule cell populations acquire a dense representation of the anticipatory eyelid movement. Initially, granule cells responded to neutral visual and somatosensory stimuli as well as periorbital airpuffs used for training...
May 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314184/how-does-the-body-representation-system-develop-in-the-human-brain
#17
Aurelie Fontan, Fabien Cignetti, Bruno Nazarian, Jean-Luc Anton, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
Exploration of the body representation system (BRS) from kinaesthetic illusions in fMRI has revealed a complex network composed of sensorimotor and frontoparietal components. Here, we evaluated the degree of maturity of this network in children aged 7-11 years, and the extent to which structural factors account for network differences with adults. Brain activation following tendon vibration at 100Hz ('illusion') and 30Hz ('no illusion') were analysed using the two-stage random effects model, with or without white and grey matter covariates...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260189/behavioral-pieces-of-neuroethological-puzzles
#18
Kenneth C Catania
In this review, I give a first-person account of surprising insights that have come from the behavioral dimension of neuroethological studies in my laboratory. These studies include the early attempts to understand the function of the nose in star-nosed moles and to explore its representation in the neocortex. This led to the discovery of a somatosensory fovea that parallels the visual fovea of primates in several ways. Subsequent experiments to investigate the assumed superiority of star-nosed moles to their relatives when locating food led to the unexpected discovery of stereo olfaction in common moles...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242742/correction-to-precision-mapping-of-the-vibrissa-representation-within-murine-primary-somatosensory-cortex
#19
Per M Knutsen, Celine Mateo, David Kleinfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222382/corporeal-illusions-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injuries
#20
Michele Scandola, Salvatore Maria Aglioti, Renato Avesani, Gianettore Bertagnoni, Anna Marangoni, Valentina Moro
While several studies have investigated corporeal illusions in patients who have suffered from a stroke or undergone an amputation, only anecdotal or single case reports have explored this phenomenon after spinal cord injury. Here we examine various different types of bodily misperceptions in a comparatively large group of 49 people with spinal cord injury in the post-acute and chronic phases after the traumatic lesion onset. An extensive battery of questionnaires concerning a variety of body related feelings was administered and the results were correlated to the main clinical variables...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
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