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TGF beta AND beta cells

Jihee Kim, Zhenlong Zheng, Heesu Kim, Kyung Ae Nam, Kee Yang Chung
BACKGROUND: Owing to its potentially greater mechanical force on the implanted tissue, barbed thread is frequently used in face-lifting procedures. However, the long-term durability thereof remains controversial. Moreover, reports on underlying histologic and molecular changes resulting from face-lifting procedures are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate histologic and molecular changes induced by absorbable, barbed face-lifting thread in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fragments of monofilament, monodirectionally barbed polydioxanone thread were implanted in dorsal skin from 12 guinea pigs...
September 28, 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Mehmet Erol Can, Hasan Basri Çakmak, Gamze Dereli Can, Hatice Ünverdi, Yasin Toklu, Sema Hücemenoğlu
Purpose. To investigate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane on wound healing. Methods. Twenty-four right eyes of 24 New Zealand rabbits equally divided into 2 groups for the study design. After the creation of 5 × 5 mm conjunctival damage, it was secured with PRF membrane, which was generated from the rabbit's whole blood samples in PRF membrane group, whereas damage was left unsutured in the control group. Three animals were sacrificed in each group on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 28th postoperative days...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Piero Pingitore, Paola Dongiovanni, Benedetta Maria Motta, Marica Meroni, Saverio Massimo Lepore, Rosellina Margherita Mancina, Serena Pelusi, Cristina Russo, Andrea Caddeo, Giorgio Rossi, Tiziana Montalcini, Arturo Pujia, Olov Wiklund, Luca Valenti, Stefano Romeo
Liver fibrosis is a pathological scarring response to chronic hepatocellular injury and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are key players in this process. PNPLA3 I148M is a common variant robustly associated with liver fibrosis but the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown.We aimed to examine a) the effect of fibrogenic and proliferative stimuli on PNPLA3 levels in HSCs and b) the role of wild type and mutant PNPLA3 overexpression on markers of HSC activation and fibrosis.Here we show that PNPLA3 is upregulated by the fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), but not by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and is involved in the TGF-β-induced reduction in lipid droplets in primary human HSCs...
October 13, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Niina K Palin, Johanna Savikko, Arja Pasternack, Jukka M Rintala, Bhanu Kalra, Shivani Mistry, Ajay Kumar, Marie-Paule Roth, Heikki Helin, Olli Ritvos
BACKGROUND: Activins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines. They play critical roles in the onset of acute and chronic inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate how activin inhibition affects acute kidney injury and inflammation after transplantation. METHODS: The study was done in kidney transplantation and renal ischemia-reperfusion models in the rat. Soluble activin type 2 receptor (sActRIIB-Fc) was used to inhibit activin signaling...
October 12, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Aihua Hou, Kai Pong Law, Min Qi Tin, Yoon Pin Lim, Louis Tong
Pterygium is a triangular shaped ocular fibrous surface lesion growing from conjunctiva towards central cornea, causing ocular irritation, astigmatism, and visual disturbance. The condition is characterized by epithelial proliferation, fibrovascular growth, chronic inflammation, and prominent extracellular matrix remodeling. Studies have suggested that aberrant extracellular proteins secreted by fibroblasts lead to abnormal matrix production and tissue invasion contributing to the development of the disease...
October 7, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Chi-Young Yun, Hwajung Choi, Young-Jae You, Jin-Young Yang, Jin-A Baek, Eui-Sic Cho
Dentin is the major part of tooth and formed by odontoblasts. Under the influence of the inner enamel epithelium, odontoblasts differentiate from ectomesenchymal cells of the dental papilla and secrete pre-dentin which then undergo mineralization into dentin. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for dentinogenesis; however, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To understand the role of TGF-β/BMP signaling in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation, we generated mice with conditional ablation of Smad4, a key intracellular mediator of TGF-β/BMP signaling, using Osr2 or OC-Cre mice...
September 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Po-Shuen Lin, Hsiao-Hua Chang, Chien-Yang Yeh, Mei-Chi Chang, Chiu-Po Chan, Han-Yueh Kuo, Hsin-Cheng Liu, Wan-Chuen Liao, Po-Yuan Jeng, Sin-Yuet Yeung, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In order to clarify the role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in pulp repair/regeneration responses, we investigated the differential signaling pathways responsible for the effects of TGF-β1 on collagen turnover, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) production in human dental pulp cells. METHODS: Pulp cells were exposed to TGF-β1 with/without pretreatment and coincubation by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(o-aminophenyl mercapto)butadiene (U0126; a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase [MEK]/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] inhibitor) and 4-(5-benzol[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-4-pyrldin-2-yl-1H- imidazol-2-yl)-benzamide hydrate (SB431542; an activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad signaling inhibitor)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Claudio Corallo, Maurizio Cutolo, Bashar Kahaleh, Gianluca Pecetti, Antonio Montella, Chiara Chirico, Stefano Soldano, Ranuccio Nuti, Nicola Giordano
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by early vascular abnormalities and subsequent fibroblast activation to myofibroblasts, leading to fibrosis. Recently, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), a complex biological process in which endothelial cells lose their specific markers and acquire a mesenchymal or myofibroblastic phenotype, has been reported in SSc. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of endothelin-1 (ET-1) dual receptor antagonists bosentan (BOS) and macitentan (MAC) to antagonize EndoMT in vitro...
October 6, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Chenghua Du, Pan Pan, Yan Jiang, Qiuli Zhang, Jinsuo Bao, Chang Liu
BACKGROUND: Glioma is one of the most common primary malignancies in the brain or spine. The transcription factor (TF) CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB) is important for maintaining the tumor initiating capacity and invasion ability. To investigate the regulation mechanism of CEBPB in glioma, microarray data GSE47352 was analyzed. METHODS: GSE47352 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including three samples of SNB19 human glioma cells transduced with non-target control small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral vectors for 72 h (normal glioma cells) and three samples of SNB19 human glioma cells transduced with CEBPB shRNA lentiviral vectors for 72 h (CEBPB-silenced glioma cells)...
October 6, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Daniele Pereira Jardim, Paula Cristina Eiras Poço, Alexandre Holthausen Campos
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem that affects millions of men and women of all ages and racial groups. Loss of mesangial cells (MC) represents an early common feature in the pathogenesis of CKD. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a key inducer of kidney damage and triggers several pathological changes in renal cells, notably MC apoptosis. However, the mechanism of MC apoptosis induced by TGF-β1 remains elusive. Here we demonstrate for the first time a novel regulatory pathway in which the disheveled-binding antagonist of beta-catenin 1 (Dact1) gene is upregulated by TGF-β1, inducing MC apoptosis...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Fuqiang Wan, Li Peng, ChaoYu Zhu, XinFa Zhang, FangWen Chen, Tao Liu
Latent transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-binding protein 2 (LTBP2) is one of four proteins in the LTBP family of proteins (LTBP-1-4) and was shown to play a vital role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known regarding the functional role of LTBP2 in thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the effect of LTBP2 expression on the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in thyroid carcinoma cells, and to explore the molecular mechanism of LTBP2 in tumor progression. Our results showed that the expression of LTBP2 is upregulated in human thyroid carcinoma and cell lines...
October 5, 2016: Oncology Research
Ao Zhou, Shuo Chen, Bin He, Weikang Zhao, Xiaojun Chen, Dianming Jiang
Bioactive mediators, cytokines, and chemokines have an important role in regulating and optimizing the synergistic action of materials, cells, and cellular microenvironments for tissue engineering. RADA self-assembling peptide hydrogels have been proved to have an excellent ability to promote cell proliferation, wound healing, tissue repair, and drug delivery. Here, we report that D-RADA16 and L-RADA16-RGD self-assembling peptides can form stable second structure and hydrogel scaffolds, affording the slow release of growth factor (transforming growth factor cytokine-beta 1 [TGF-beta 1])...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Chao Zhu, Changchun Cao, Xiaofei Wang, Jie Yuan, Lai Jin, Shengnan Li
Urocortins (UCNs) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have been demonstrated to participate in various cardiovascular diseases, many of which involve vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) release is an important cause of VSMCs proliferation. The work was to investigate the regulation of VSMCs proliferation by UCN/TGF-beta and whether cPLA2 was a link between their signaling pathways. VSMCs proliferation was measured by colorimetric assay and immunofluorescence microscopy...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Lucy Cassar, Craig Nicholls, Alex R Pinto, Ruping Chen, Lihui Wang, He Li, Jun-Ping Liu
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays a central role in telomere lengthening for continuous cell proliferation, but it remains unclear how extracellular cues regulate telomerase lengthening of telomeres. Here we report that the cytokine bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) induces the hTERT gene repression in a BMPRII receptor- and Smad3-dependent manner in human breast cancer cells. Chonic exposure of human breast cancer cells to BMP7 results in short telomeres, cell senescence and apoptosis...
September 30, 2016: Protein & Cell
Ranran Zhang, Heather Hardin, Wei Huang, Jidong Chen, Sofia Asioli, Alberto Righi, Francesca Maletta, Anna Sapino, Ricardo V Lloyd
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important for transcription and for epigenetic or posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and may contribute to carcinogenesis. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), an lncRNA involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, cell proliferation, and cell migration, is known to be deregulated in multiple cancers. Here, we analyzed the expression of MALAT1 on 195 cases of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms by using tissue microarrays for RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and real-time PCR...
September 30, 2016: Endocrine Pathology
G Portocarrero Huang, A Molina, N Tran, G Collins, T Livingston Arinzeh
Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal and currently, no treatment exists that can restore normal hyaline cartilage. Creating tissue engineering scaffolds that more closely mimic the native extracellular matrix may be an attractive approach. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are present in native cartilage tissue, provide signaling and structural cues to cells. This study evaluated the use of a GAG mimetic, derived from cellulose, as a potential scaffold for cartilage repair applications. Fully sulfated, sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS) was initially evaluated in soluble form as an additive to cell culture media...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Donghee Kim, Song Mi Lee, Hee-Sook Jun
Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune-mediated pancreatic beta cell destruction and TGF-β is known to play a preventive role in type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study, we investigated the role of Smad4, a key molecule for Smad-dependent TGF-β signaling, in T cells of NOD mice in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. We generated T cell-specific Smad4 knockout (Smad4 tKO) NOD mice and assessed the pathological and immunological changes. Smad4 tKO showed earlier onset and increased incidence of diabetes than wild-type (WT) NOD mice...
September 30, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Xin Fang, Yang Gao, Qinglei Li
Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare gynecologic tumors in women. Due to the rarity and limited research efforts invested, the etiology of GCTs remains poorly defined. A landmark study has discovered the mutation of forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) as a genetic hallmark of adult GCTs in the human. However, our understanding of the role of cell signaling in GCT development is far from complete. Increasing lines of evidence highlight the importance of TGF-beta (TGFB) superfamily signaling in the pathogenesis of GCTs...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Marcelina Koćwin, Mateusz Jonakowski, Marcelina Przemęcka, Jan Zioło, Michał Panek, Piotr Kuna
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory heterogeneous disease of the lower respiratory tract characterised by the occurrence of bronchial hyper-responsiveness and paroxysmal, changeable bronchial obstruction. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b) is one of the cytokines involved in mediating airway inflammation and remodelling. The level of TGF-b1 gene expression correlates with severity of symptoms. Alterations in the main SMAD signal transmission, overexpression of TGF-b genes and changes in the transcriptome cause excessive secretion of TGF-b and its increased expression in target cells, which clinically induces a moderate-severe or severe course of asthma as well as an earlier and faster disease progression...
2016: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
Kun Li, Meichen Wang, Yaping Hu, Na Xu, Qin Yu, Qinfu Wang
TGF-β activating protein kinase 1 (TAK1) belongs to the MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family. TAK1 is involved in many signaling pathways, especially the innate and adaptive immune responses. TAK1 mediates nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and MAPK signaling pathway in response to interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and toll-like receptor agonists, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The regulatory roles of TAK1 in LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production are dependent on the cell types. In this study, we examined the effects of TAK1 on the LPS induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells...
September 21, 2016: Cellular Immunology
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